panteísmo

El panteísmo es una creencia o concepción del mundo y una doctrina filosófica según la cual el Universo, la naturaleza y Dios son equivalentes. La ley natural, la existencia y el universo (la suma de todo lo que fue, es y será) se representa por medio del concepto teológico de «Dios». La palabra está compuesta del término griego πᾶν (pan), que significa todo, y θεός (theos), que significa Dios; así se forma una frase que afirma: todo es Dios y Dios es todo.
El panteísmo es la creencia de que el universo (con todas sus extensiones celestes y criaturas) y Dios son lo mismo, o sea, son uno. Es decir, Dios no es un criatura en particular ni una simple energía; sino que cada criatura es un aspecto o una manifestación de Dios, que es concebido como el actor divino que desempeña a la vez los innumerables papeles de humanos, animales, plantas, estrellas y fuerzas de la naturaleza. Algunos pensadores han considerado panteísta el trasfondo de los politeísmos1 La visión panteísta, si es admitida, aporta un nexo entre diferentes religiones, en especial las no creacionistas.

La naturaleza es sinónimo de Dios en el Panteísmo.

De manera general, el panteísmo puede ser considerado como una ideología filosófica o como una concepción del mundo. En el teísmo se enfrentan dos términos: «dios» y «mundo«. El panteísmo procede a identificarlos. El resultado ha de ser un monismo, que puede adoptar diversas caracterizaciones.
El panteísmo puede mostrar algunas variantes. Por un lado puede considerar a la realidad divina, como la única realidad verdadera y a ella se reduce el mundo; en este caso el mundo es concebido como proceso, emanación, desarrollo o manifestación de Dios; declaradamente una «teofanía«.
En otro sentido, la naturaleza puede ser concebida como la única realidad verdadera. A esa realidad se reduce Dios, que suele ser concebido entonces como la unidad del mundo, como una especie de principio orgánico de la naturaleza, o también, como autoconciencia del universo. Esta forma de panteísmo recibe la denominación de «Panteísmo Ateo» o «Panteísmo Naturalista».
En ambas formas, no hay ninguna realidad trascendente. Todo lo que existe es inmanente y la divinidad es entendida más bien como principio del mundo.
El panteísmo es una creencia o concepción del mundo y una doctrina filosófica según la cual el Universo, la naturaleza y Dios son equivalentes. La ley natural, la existencia y el universo (la suma de todo lo que fue, es y será) se representa por medio del concepto teológico de "Dios". La palabra está compuesta del término griego ??? (pan), que significa todo, y ???? (theos), que significa Dios; así se forma una frase que afirma: todo es Dios y Dios es todo.
El panteísmo es la creencia de que el universo (con todas sus extensiones celestes y criaturas) y Dios son lo mismo, o sea, son uno. Es decir, Dios no es un criatura en particular ni una simple energía; sino que cada criatura es un aspecto o una manifestación de Dios, que es concebido como el actor divino que desempeña a la vez los innumerables papeles de humanos, animales, plantas, estrellas y fuerzas de la naturaleza. Algunos pensadores han considerado panteísta el trasfondo de los politeísmos1 La visión panteísta, si es admitida, aporta un nexo entre diferentes religiones, en especial las no creacionistas.
La naturaleza es sinónimo de Dios en el Panteísmo.
De manera general, el panteísmo puede ser considerado como una ideología filosófica o como una concepción del mundo. En el teísmo se enfrentan dos términos: "dios" y "mundo". El panteísmo procede a identificarlos. El resultado ha de ser un monismo, que puede adoptar diversas caracterizaciones.
El panteísmo puede mostrar algunas variantes. Por un lado puede considerar a la realidad divina, como la única realidad verdadera y a ella se reduce el mundo; en este caso el mundo es concebido como proceso, emanación, desarrollo o manifestación de Dios; declaradamente una "teofanía".
En otro sentido, la naturaleza puede ser concebida como la única realidad verdadera. A esa realidad se reduce Dios, que suele ser concebido entonces como la unidad del mundo, como una especie de principio orgánico de la naturaleza, o también, como autoconciencia del universo. Esta forma de panteísmo recibe la denominación de "Panteísmo Ateo" o "Panteísmo Naturalista".
En ambas formas, no hay ninguna realidad trascendente. Todo lo que existe es inmanente y la divinidad es entendida más bien como principio del mundo.

Glosario japonés-ingles

the link to the original blog is:
http://aikidude.wordpress.com/aikido-glossary/ 

In order to see the Japanese text within this post you will need a Japanese language pack installed for your choice of browser.

Aikidōka – 合気道家 (あいきどうか): Aikidō practitioner. The last kanji 家 (it can be read “ie” also) means family, house and, better, when used as a suffix, like here, it takes the meanings of: house; family; person; expert; -ist (sort of: Aikidō-ist).
And now let’s talk about directions:
– 方 (ほう) [ho]: direction (example: shi-hō-nage = four-direction-throw)
Mae – 前 (まえ): front, before
Ushiro – 後 (うしろ): back, behind
Migi - 右 (みぎ): right
Hidari - 左 (ひだり): left
Omote - 表 (おもて): forward direction, or in the front side of the opponent
Ura – 裏 (うら): backward direction or in the rear side of the opponent
And let’s define the basic stance too:
Hanmi – 半身 (はんみ): half-facing stance. Composed by the two kanji 半 (はん, han) = half; 身 (み, mi) = body.
Or, the stance is also referred as:
Kamae – 構え (かまえ): it comes from 構う [かまう] to mind; to care about; to be concerned about
Migi Hanmi – 右 半身 (みぎ はんみ): right foot forward half-facing stance
Hidari Hanmi – 左 半身 (ひだり はんみ): left foot forward half-facing stance
Gyaku Hanmi - 逆 半身 (ぎゃく はんみ): opposite half-facing stance (one is in left stance and the other in right, for example)
Ai Hanmi - 相 半身 (あい はんみ): same half-facing stance (both are either in left or right stance)

http://aikidude.wordpress.com/2006/10/06/glossary-updating/

Martial Arts Planet


A
ai () meeting, harmony, unity, blending
aihanmi (合半身) basic relation between partners: both have same foot forward (left or right),
aihanmi katatedori 合半身片手取り)wrist grip, right on right or left on left, also called kosadori
aiki合気)Meeting one’s ki or energy with that of the partner
aikibatto合気抜刀)sword drawing exercises, solo or paired
aikibudo合気武道)budo based on the aiki principle, earlier name for aikido
aikido合気道)-The way through the life energy to harmony/unity
aikidoka合気道家) – An aikido practicioner
aikido toho 合気道刀法)Nishio sensei’s iaido school
Aikijinja 合気神社)the aikido temple in Iwama
aikijo 合気杖)aikido jo-staff exercises
aikijujutsu合気柔術)name on the Daito ryu Martial art, also called aikijujutsu
Aikikai合気会)organization and «label» for Ueshiba’s aikido
aikiken合気剣)aikido sword exercises
aikinage合気投げ)aiki-throw, throwing technique
aiki no michi 合気の道)aikido (michi=do)
aikiotoshi合気落とし)aiki-drop, throwing technique
aikitaiso合気体操)aikido warm-up exercises
aite 相手)partner in training
arigato有難う)thanks
arigato gozaimasu有難う御座います)thanks for something going on
arigato gozaimashita有難う御座いました)thanks for something completed
ashi)leg, foot
ate当て)hit, strike
atemi当身)strike to the body
awase 合わせ)harmonizing/blending movement
ayumiashi 歩み足)alternating footwork, like natural walking.

B
batto 抜刀)To draw the sword. Can also be an abbreviation of sword drawing arts or technique.
bo ()A staff. A staff of any length can be referred to technically as a bo, but usually this term refers to the 6′ rokushakubo.
bokken木剣)wooden training sword
bokuto木刀)See bokken
budo武道) Martial ways/the Japanese Martial arts
budoka武道家)A practicioner of budo
bugei武芸)Martial crafts. An older term still used in some circles
bugeisha武芸者) A practicioner or exponent of martial crafts
bujutsu 武術) Martial arts
bukiwaza武器技)weapons techniques

C
choku) direct
chokusen (直線) Direct/Straight line
chokutsuki直突き)direct strike with the jo, like a spear thrust.
chudan中段)middle level, compare jodan and gedan
chudan no kamae中段の構え)guard position with a weapon at belly height. Also known as Chudan gamae
chudan tsuki中段突き)strike at belly/solar plexus, with weapon or empty hand

D
Daito ryu aikijujutsu 大東流合気柔術) The main influence in Ueshiba O’sensei’s formulation of aikido.
dan)level, black belt grade in budo
deshi)student
do)way, also michi
dogi道着)training dress, also keikogi
dojo道場)training hall
dojo cho道場長)head of a training hall
domo arigato gozaimasuどうも有難う御座います)Thank you so much, for something going on
domo arigato gozaimashitaどうも有難う御座いました)thank you so much, for something completed
dori取り) Suffix version of tori. To take, grab or catch.
dosa動作) Exercise
doshu道主)way leader, head of a budo. Lit. Master of a way.
dozo どうぞ)please/proceed/by all means

G
gassho合掌) The meeting of hands in respect to the kamiza and to the anscestors in the art.
gasshuku合宿)Training camp, lodging together
gedan 下段) Low level, compare jodan and chudan
gedan barai下段払い)Low sweeping block
gedan no kamae下段の構え) Low level posture
go)Five
gokyo五教)Fifth teaching, pinning technique
gomen nasaiごめんなさい)Excuse me /Sorry
gyaku)Reverse, opposite
gyaku hanmi逆半身) Left side hanmi and can also refer to two partners in hanmi on different sides.
gyakuhanmi katatedori逆半身片手取り)Wrist grip, right on left or left on right,
gyaku tsuki 逆突き)Thrust punch with opposing arm and leg forward,

H
hachi) eight
hajime始め) The verbal command to begin.
hakama)traditional wide pants, used in aikido and other traditional budo.
hanmi 半身) half body
hanmi gamae半身構え)angled guard position
hanza handachi半座半立)sitting versus standing. A situation commonly found in Daito-ryu aikijujutsu, aikido and koryu bujutsu.
hantai 反対)opposed
happo八方)eight directions,
hara)stomach
harai/barai払い)sweep away, parry
hasso gaeshi八相返)jo-staff technique
hasso no kamae八相の構え)guard with weapon at shoulder level
henka waza変化技) Technique variations.
hidari ) left (right: migi)
hiji )elbow
hijidori肘取り)grip on elbow
hijikime osae 肘極め押さえ)pinning technique, sometimes called rokkyo
hiki 引き) From the verb «hiku», to pull
hineri 捻り)Twist. From the verb «hineru».
hito e mi一重身)making the body small, guard position, more triangular than hanmi
hiza )knee
ho)method
ho)direction, side
hombu本部)head quarters
Hombu dojo本部道場)headquarters dojo

I


iaido (居合道)the art of drawing the Japanese sword
iaijutsu (居合術) older term for iai
iaito (居合刀)training sword, usually not sharpened
ichi (一)one
ichiban (一番)first, best
ikkyo (一教)first teaching, pinning technique
ikkyo undo (一教運動)exercise of the basic ikkyo movement
ipponken (一本拳)strike with one knuckle
irimi (入り身)in to the body, inwards
irimi nage (入り身投げ)entering throw, throwing technique
Iwama (岩間)the town in Ibarai prefecture, where Osensei had a dojo and a home.
Iwama ryu (岩間流)Saito Morihiro sensei’s aikido style. Since Saito sensei’s passing, his son, Saito Hitohiro formed the Shin Shin Aikishurenkai.


J


jiyu-geiko (自由稽古) free training or practice
jiyu waza (自由技)free technqiues
jo (杖)wooden polearm of roughly four feet in length.
jo awase (杖合わせ)jo exercises
jodan (上段)high level, compare chudan and gedan
jodan no kamae (上段の構え) High level posture, usually armed.
jodan tsuki (上段突き)thrust at head
jodori (杖取り)defense against jo-staff
jo-tai-jo (杖対杖)jo vs. jo
jo-tai-ken (杖対剣) jo vs. ken
ju (十)ten
ju (柔)soft, pliable, flexible, gentle
judo (柔道) the flexible way
jujigarami/jujinage (十字絡み・十字投げ)cross throw
jujutsu (柔術)the flexible/pliable art
junbi taiso (準備体操)warm-up exercises, also called aikitaiso
jun tsuki (順突き)strike with the same arm and leg forward, also called oitsuki, compare gyakutsuki
jutsu (術)technique/art

__________________

K

kaeshi/gaeshi (返し)return, turn, reverse
kaeshi tsuki (返し突き)reverse strike with jo-staff
kaeshi waza (返し技)counter techniques
kai (会)club, association
kaiten nage (回転投げ)rotation throw, throwing technique
kaiten osae (回転押さえ)rotation pinning technique
kakae dori (抱え取り)embrace or bear hug
kakari geiko (掛り稽古)attackers in line, one after the other
kakudo (角度)angle
kamae/gamae (構え)guard position/posture
kami (神) divinity/the gods
kamiza (神座)honorary place in a dojo,
kansetsu (関節)joint (on body)
Kashima Shinto-ryu (鹿島新当流)Koryu kenjutsu style that Ueshiba O’sensei and some of his uchideshi in Iwama trained in. Their names are historically recorded on the ryuha’s eimeiroku (register).
kata (形)form, pre-decided movements
kata (肩)shoulder
kata dori (肩取り)shoulder grip
katadori menuchi (肩取り面打ち)shoulder grip followed by shomenuchi
katame waza (固め技)pinning techniques
katana (刀)the Japanese sword, also ken, to and tachi
katate (片手) Single handed
katate dori (片手取り)single handed wrist-grip
katate ryote dori (片手両手取り)grip with both hands, also called morotedori
keiko/geiko (稽古)training
keikogi (稽古着)training dress, also dogi
ken (剣)sword, also katana, to and tachi
kendo (剣道)Japanese modern sport focused fencing
ki (気)spirit, life energy
kiai (気合)gathered ki, usually used for shout in budo
kihon (気合)basics
kihon waza (基本)basic training
kikai tanden (気海丹田)the ocean of ki in the body’s center
kime (決め)focusing
kimusubi (気結び)Tying one’s ki to that of the partner
kinagare/ki no nagare (気の流れ)Ki flow.
kiri/giri (切り・斬り)Cut
kirikaeshi (切り返し)Returning cuts in kumitachi. Is also a training exercise in kendo & kenjutsu
kobudo (古武道)Older budo
kobujutsu (古武術) Older martial arts
kogeki (攻撃)attack
kogekiho (攻撃法)Attacking techniques
kokoro (心)Heart or mind, also pronounced shin
kokyu (呼吸)Breathing
kokyuho (呼吸法)Breathing exercise/breathing method
kokyu nage (呼吸投げ)Breath throw
kokyu ryoku (呼吸力)Breath power
koshi (腰)Hip
koshi nage (腰投げ)Hip throw
kote (小手)Wrist & forearm area
kote gaeshi (小手返し)Reversed wrist, throwing technique
kote hineri (小手捻り)Twisted wrist, sankyo
kote mawashi (小手廻し)Turned wrist, nikyo
ku/kyu (九)Nine
kubi (首)Neck
kubi shime (首絞め・首締め)Neck choke
kumi (組み)Group, set
kumijo (組杖)Jo-staff exercises, jo against jo
kumitachi (組太刀)Sword exercises, sword against sword
kumite (組手)Free sparring, not unlike judo randori.
kumi-uchi (組討)An older term for jujutsu. Some of the techniques in kumi-uchi are very similar to sumo.
kuzushi (崩し) To break balance
kyo (教) teaching
kyu (級)Grade before blackbelt

__________________

M
ma-ai 間合)harmonious, balanced distance between training partners
mae)front, forward, compare ushiro
mae geri 前蹴)straight kick
mae ukemi 前受身)forward fall
makiwara巻藁)target for hitting practice in karatedo
maru)circle
mawashi回し)revolving, turning
mawashi geri 廻蹴り)roundhouse kick
mawate回って)Vocal order to turn
me)eye
men) Head area
Me Tsubushi 目潰) To distract the uke by attacking the eyes.
michi)way, also do
migi )right (left: hidari)
misogi)purification, cleansing
mochi持ち)hold/grip, also called dori
mochigata持ち方) Ways of grabbing
mokuso黙想)meditation,clearing of the mind
morote dori 諸手取り)grip with both hands, also called katate ryotedori
mu)nothing, empty
mushin無心)empty mind
mudansha無段者)trainee without dan grade, compare yudansha
mune)chest
mune dori胸取り)collar grip by the chest
musubi結び)tie together – connection
nagare流れ)flow, streaming. Also nagashi
nage 投げ)throw, also used for the one doing the aikido technique, compare tori

N
nage waza投げ技)throwing techniques
nana)seven, also pronounced shichi
ni two
Nihon/Nippon日本)Japan
nikyo二教)second teaching, pinning technique
ninindori 二人取り)two attackers, also called futaridori , from the tasunindori exercises in Daito-ryu.
noto納刀)resheathing of the sword into the scabbard
nukitsuke抜き付け)drawing the sword, also called batto

O-r

O
obi)belt
omote)front, surface
onegai shimasu お願いします)please, asking for something
osae押さえ)press down, pinning
osensei翁先生)great teacher, in aikido Morihei Ueshiba
otagai ni rei お互いに礼)bow to each others
otoshi落とし)drop
oyo waza 応用)applied techniques, modified for efficiency

R
randori乱捕り
rei)bow
reigi礼儀)etiquette, also called reishiki (礼式) or reiho (礼法)
renshu練習)training
renzoku連続)continuous
renzoku uchikomi連続打ち込み)jo-staff exercise
renzoku waza連続技)consecutive techniques, a series of techniques
renraku waza (連絡技) Combination techniques
ritsurei立礼)standing bow
rokkyo六教)sixth teaching, pinning technique, see hijikime osae
roku )six
ryo)both
ryotedori 両手取り)gripping both wrists
ryu)school, also ryuha (流派)or ryugi (流儀

S

sabaki (捌き) movement/handling
san (三)three
sankaku (三角)triangle
sankakudai (三角体)triangle shape, position of the feet in hanmi
sankyo (三教)third teaching, pinning technique
sannindori/sanningake (三人取り・三人掛け)three attackers
sanpo (三方)three directions
saya (鞘)scabbard
seiki (生気)life energy
seiza (正座)correct sitting, sit on knees
sen no sen (先の先) initiating at the same instant as an attack
sensei (先生)one who has gone before – usually applied to a person leading a class in aikido
sensen no sen (先々の先)initiating before the attack begins.
shi (四)four, also pronounced yon
shiai (試合)competition or match, meaning to literally meet and test. The older meaning was a lot more serious; (死合) to meet with death.
shichi (七)seven, also pronounced nana
shidoin (指導員)instructor, middle title for aikido teacher, 4-5 dan
shihan (師範) Literally means teacher. Japanese practicioners who reach rokudan are automatically titled Shihan.
shiho (四方)four directions
shihonage (四方投げ)four directions throw, throwing technique
shihogiri (四方切り) Cutting in four directions, one of the kihon taught in aikiken.
shikaku (四角)square
shikko (膝行)knee walking
shime (絞め)choke
shin (心)heart, will, mind, also pronounced kokoro
shinken (真剣) A live Japanese sword. Also refers to being serious in modern day Japanese.
shinken shobu (真剣勝負) A life or death match. Teachers in Japan sometimes refer to shinken shobu keiko – Training as if your life depended upon it.
shinzen (神前) front of the gods, facing towards the kamiza.
shisei (姿勢)posture
shizentai (自然体)natural body posture
shodan (初段)first dan grade
shomen (正面)front of the head. Also, the front of the dojo where the kamiza is.
shomen ni rei (正面に礼)bow to head place of the dojo
shomenuchi (正面打ち)cut or blow to head
shoshinsha (初心者)beginner
shuto (手刀) sword hand
sode (袖)sleeve
sodedori (袖取り)sleeve grip
sodeguchidori (袖口取り)grip on the cuff of the sleeve
soto (外)outside, outer, compare uchi
soto deshi (外弟子)student who lives outside the dojo, compare uchideshi
soto kaiten (外回転)outer rotation, compare uchikaiten
soto uke (外受け)block from outside, compare uchiuke
suburi (素振り)basic exercises with sword or staff
suki (隙)opening or a weakness in one’s technique or posture
sumi (隅)corner
sumikiri (隅きり)sharpness of body and mind
sumimasen (すみません) excuse me/sorry
sumo (相撲)traditional Japanese wrestling
sutemi waza (捨て身技) Sacrifice techniques where you give away your position to exploit your opponent’s vulnerability
suwari waza (座り技)seated training, also called suwate. In jujutsu, usually referred to as Idori (居捕)
suwatte waza (座って技)seated training, also called suwariwaza

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tachi (太刀)sword, also nihonto, ken and katana
tachi ai (立ち合い) training where both parties stand
tachidori (太刀取り) defense against sword. lit. «Sword taking»
tachi waza (立ち技)standing techniques
tai (体)body
taijutsu (体術)body techniques, unarmed techniques. Also another term used instead of jujutsu
tai no henko (体の変更)body turn, also called tai no tenkan
tai no tenkan (体の転換)body turn, also called tai no henko
tai sabaki (体捌き)body move, evasive movement in aikido
taiso (体操)exercises
takemusu (武産)improvised Martial art. The unification of mind, body and principle in aiki. «The spontaneous execution of limitless techniques».
takemusu aiki (武産合気)improvised Martial art through the principle of aiki
tameshigiri (試し斬り)cutting test with sword
tanden (丹田)body center, compare seika no itten
tanren (鍛錬)drilling to forge the spirit
tanto (短刀) Japanese style dagger
tantodori (短刀取り)defense against knife
tatami (畳)mat
te (手)hand
tegatana (手刀) sword hand. To use the hand to strike in sword-like movements.
tekubi (手首)wrist
tekubi osae (手首押さえ)pinned wrist, yonkyo
tenchi nage (天地投げ)heaven-earth throw, throwing technique
tenkan (転換)turn
tobikoshi (飛び腰)fall over hip, break fall
tori (取り・捕り)the one who takes, defender in aikido, also called nage and shite (Pronounced «Shtay» for you wiseguys out there!)
torifune (取り船)rowing exercise, also called funakogi undo
tsuba (鍔)sword guard
tsugiashi (次足)sliding step, back foot following and not passing front foot
tsuka (柄)sword hilt
tsuki (突き)to thrust with a weapon or empty hand

__________________

U

uchi (打ち)to strike or hit
uchi (外)inside, within, inner, compare soto
uchi deshi (内弟子)student living in the dojo, compare sotodeshi
uchi kaiten (内回転)inner rotation, compare sotokaiten
uchi gata (打ち方)striking methods
uchikomi (打ち込み)hitting repeatedly
uchi uke (内受け)block from inside, compare sotouke
ude (腕)arm
ude kime nage (腕極め投げ)arm lock throw
ude nobashi (腕延ばし)extended arm, gokyo
ude osae (腕押さえ)pinned arm, ikkyo
uke (受け)the one receiving, attacker in aikido
uke (受け)block, parry
ukemi (受身)falling
undo (運動)exercise
ura (裏)backside, inside, reverse side, compare omote
uraken (裏拳)backfist strike
ushiro (後ろ)behind, backwards, compare mae
ushiro kiriotoshi (後ろ切り落とし)rear cutting drop, throwing technique
ushiro ukemi (後ろ受身)backward fall
ushiro waza (後ろ技)techniques from behind

W

waka sensei (若先生)young teacher, used in aikido for successor of Doshu
wakarimasen (分かりません)I do not understand
waki (脇)side
waki gatame (脇固め) side armlock in jujutsu, similar to hiji shime
wakizashi (脇差)short sword, also called a kodachi (小太刀)
waza (技)technique, skill, training method

Y

yame (止め)verbal order to stop
yari (槍・鑓)spear
yoko (横)side, sideways, horizontal
yokomen (横面)side of the head
yokomenuchi (横面打ち)strike to the side of the head
yoko ukemi (横受身)side fall
yon (四)four, also pronounced shi, however is rarely used, since shi rhymes with the Japanese word for death (死)
yonkajo (四ヶ条)older term for yonkyo
yonkyo (四教)fourth teaching, pinning technique
yudansha (有段者)dan graded, compare mudansha

Z

za (座)seated, sit
zanshin (残心)remaining spirit, continued concentration. Awareness focused on the opponent after the execution of a technique.
zarei (座礼)sitting bow
zazen (座禅)sitting meditation, also called mokuso
zen (禅)a form of buddhism
zengo (前後) forward and back, front and rear
zori (草履)sandals

__________________

the link to the original blog is:
http://aikidude.wordpress.com/aikido-glossary/ 

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Aikid?ka - ?????(??????): Aikid? practitioner. The last kanji ? (it can be read “ie” also) means family, house and, better, when used as a suffix, like here, it takes the meanings of: house; family; person; expert; -ist (sort of: Aikid?-ist).
And now let’s talk about directions:
H? - ?????? [ho]: direction (example: shi-h?-nage = four-direction-throw)
Mae - ? (??): front, before
Ushiro - ? (???): back, behind
Migi -???(??): right
Hidari -???(???): left
Omote -?? (???): forward direction, or in the front side of the opponent
Ura - ? (??): backward direction or in the rear side of the opponent
And let’s define the basic stance too:
Hanmi - ???(???): half-facing stance. Composed by the two kanji ? (??, han) = half; ? (?, mi) = body.
Or, the stance is also referred as:
Kamae - ???(???): it comes from ?? [???] to mind; to care about; to be concerned about
Migi Hanmi - ?????(??????): right foot forward half-facing stance
Hidari Hanmi - ?????(???????): left foot forward half-facing stance
Gyaku Hanmi -??????(???????): opposite half-facing stance (one is in left stance and the other in right, for example)
Ai Hanmi -??????(??????): same half-facing stance (both are either in left or right stance)


http://aikidude.wordpress.com/2006/10/06/glossary-updating/

Martial Arts Planet


A
ai (?)?meeting, harmony, unity, blending
aihanmi?(???? basic relation between partners: both have same foot forward (left or right),
aihanmi katatedori ?????????wrist grip, right on right or left on left, also called kosadori
aiki ????Meeting one's ki or energy with that of the partner
aikibatto ??????sword drawing exercises, solo or paired
aikibudo ??????budo based on the aiki principle, earlier name for aikido
aikido ?????-The way through the life energy to harmony/unity
aikidoka ?????? - An aikido practicioner
aikido toho ???????Nishio sensei's iaido school
Aikijinja ??????the aikido temple in Iwama
aikijo ?????aikido jo-staff exercises
aikijujutsu ??????name on the Daito ryu Martial art, also called aikijujutsu
Aikikai ?????organization and "label" for Ueshiba's aikido
aikiken ?????aikido sword exercises
aikinage ??????aiki-throw, throwing technique
aiki no michi ??????aikido (michi=do)
aikiotoshi ???????aiki-drop, throwing technique
aikitaiso ??????aikido warm-up exercises
aite ????partner in training
arigato ?????thanks
arigato gozaimasu ??????????thanks for something going on
arigato gozaimashita ???????????thanks for something completed
ashi ???leg, foot
ate ????hit, strike
atemi ????strike to the body
awase ?????harmonizing/blending movement
ayumiashi ?????alternating footwork, like natural walking.

B
batto ????To draw the sword. Can also be an abbreviation of sword drawing arts or technique.
bo (??A staff. A staff of any length can be referred to technically as a bo, but usually this term refers to the 6' rokushakubo.
bokken ????wooden training sword
bokuto ????See bokken
budo ???? Martial ways/the Japanese Martial arts
budoka ?????A practicioner of budo
bugei ????Martial crafts. An older term still used in some circles
bugeisha ????? A practicioner or exponent of martial crafts
bujutsu ???? Martial arts
bukiwaza ?????weapons techniques

C
choku ??? direct
chokusen????? Direct/Straight line
chokutsuki ?????direct strike with the jo, like a spear thrust.
chudan ????middle level, compare jodan and gedan
chudan no kamae ???????guard position with a weapon at belly height. Also known as Chudan gamae
chudan tsuki ??????strike at belly/solar plexus, with weapon or empty hand

D
Daito ryu aikijujutsu?????????? The main influence in Ueshiba O'sensei's formulation of aikido.
dan ???level, black belt grade in budo
deshi ???student
do ???way, also michi
dogi ????training dress, also keikogi
dojo ????training hall
dojo cho ?????head of a training hall
domo arigato gozaimasu ?????????????Thank you so much, for something going on
domo arigato gozaimashita ??????????????thank you so much, for something completed
dori ???? Suffix version of tori. To take, grab or catch.
dosa ???? Exercise
doshu ????way leader, head of a budo. Lit. Master of a way.
dozo ?????please/proceed/by all means

G
gassho ???? The meeting of hands in respect to the kamiza and to the anscestors in the art.
gasshuku ????Training camp, lodging together
gedan ???? Low level, compare jodan and chudan
gedan barai ??????Low sweeping block
gedan no kamae ??????? Low level posture
go ???Five
gokyo ????Fifth teaching, pinning technique
gomen nasai ????????Excuse me /Sorry
gyaku ???Reverse, opposite
gyaku hanmi ????? Left side hanmi and can also refer to two partners in hanmi on different sides.
gyakuhanmi katatedori ?????????Wrist grip, right on left or left on right,
gyaku tsuki ?????Thrust punch with opposing arm and leg forward,

H
hachi ????eight
hajime ???? The verbal command to begin.
hakama ???traditional wide pants, used in aikido and other traditional budo.
hanmi ???? half body
hanmi gamae ??????angled guard position
hanza handachi ??????sitting versus standing. A situation commonly found in Daito-ryu aikijujutsu, aikido and koryu bujutsu.
hantai ????opposed
happo ????eight directions,
hara ???stomach
harai/barai ????sweep away, parry
hasso gaeshi ?????jo-staff technique
hasso no kamae ???????guard with weapon at shoulder level
henka waza ????? Technique variations.
hidari ??? left (right: migi)
hiji ???elbow
hijidori ?????grip on elbow
hijikime osae ????????pinning technique, sometimes called rokkyo
hiki ???? From the verb "hiku", to pull
hineri ????Twist. From the verb "hineru".
hito e mi ?????making the body small, guard position, more triangular than hanmi
hiza ???knee
ho ???method
ho ???direction, side
hombu ????head quarters
Hombu dojo ??????headquarters dojo


I


iaido ?????the art of drawing the Japanese sword
iaijutsu ????? older term for iai
iaito ?????training sword, usually not sharpened
ichi ???one
ichiban ????first, best
ikkyo ????first teaching, pinning technique
ikkyo undo ??????exercise of the basic ikkyo movement
ipponken ?????strike with one knuckle
irimi ?????in to the body, inwards
irimi nage ???????entering throw, throwing technique
Iwama ????the town in Ibarai prefecture, where Osensei had a dojo and a home.
Iwama ryu ?????Saito Morihiro sensei's aikido style. Since Saito sensei's passing, his son, Saito Hitohiro formed the Shin Shin Aikishurenkai.


J


jiyu-geiko ?????) free training or practice
jiyu waza ?????free technqiues
jo ???wooden polearm of roughly four feet in length.
jo awase ??????jo exercises
jodan ????high level, compare chudan and gedan
jodan no kamae ??????? High level posture, usually armed.
jodan tsuki ??????thrust at head
jodori ?????defense against jo-staff
jo-tai-jo??????jo vs. jo
jo-tai-ken?????? jo vs. ken
ju ???ten
ju ???soft, pliable, flexible, gentle
judo ???? the flexible way
jujigarami/jujinage ???????????cross throw
jujutsu ????the flexible/pliable art
junbi taiso ??????warm-up exercises, also called aikitaiso
jun tsuki ?????strike with the same arm and leg forward, also called oitsuki, compare gyakutsuki
jutsu ???technique/art
__________________


K


kaeshi/gaeshi ????return, turn, reverse
kaeshi tsuki ??????reverse strike with jo-staff
kaeshi waza ?????counter techniques
kai ???club, association
kaiten nage ??????rotation throw, throwing technique
kaiten osae ???????rotation pinning technique
kakae dori ??????embrace or bear hug
kakari geiko ??????attackers in line, one after the other
kakudo ????angle
kamae/gamae ????guard position/posture
kami???? divinity/the gods
kamiza ????honorary place in a dojo,
kansetsu ????joint (on body)
Kashima Shinto-ryu ???????Koryu kenjutsu style that Ueshiba O'sensei and some of his uchideshi in Iwama trained in. Their names are historically recorded on the ryuha's eimeiroku (register).
kata ???form, pre-decided movements
kata ???shoulder
kata dori ?????shoulder grip
katadori menuchi ????????shoulder grip followed by shomenuchi
katame waza ?????pinning techniques
katana ???the Japanese sword, also ken, to and tachi
katate ???? Single handed
katate dori ??????single handed wrist-grip
katate ryote dori ????????grip with both hands, also called morotedori
keiko/geiko ????training
keikogi ?????training dress, also dogi
ken ???sword, also katana, to and tachi
kendo ????Japanese modern sport focused fencing
ki ???spirit, life energy
kiai ????gathered ki, usually used for shout in budo
kihon ????basics
kihon waza ????basic training
kikai tanden ??????the ocean of ki in the body's center
kime ????focusing
kimusubi ?????Tying one's ki to that of the partner
kinagare/ki no nagare ??????Ki flow.
kiri/giri ???????Cut
kirikaeshi ??????Returning cuts in kumitachi. Is also a training exercise in kendo & kenjutsu
kobudo ?????Older budo
kobujutsu ????? Older martial arts
kogeki ????attack
kogekiho ?????Attacking techniques
kokoro ???Heart or mind, also pronounced shin
kokyu ????Breathing
kokyuho ?????Breathing exercise/breathing method
kokyu nage ??????Breath throw
kokyu ryoku ?????Breath power
koshi ???Hip
koshi nage ?????Hip throw
kote ????Wrist & forearm area
kote gaeshi ??????Reversed wrist, throwing technique
kote hineri ??????Twisted wrist, sankyo
kote mawashi ??????Turned wrist, nikyo
ku/kyu ???Nine
kubi ???Neck
kubi shime ?????????Neck choke
kumi ????Group, set
kumijo ????Jo-staff exercises, jo against jo
kumitachi ?????Sword exercises, sword against sword
kumite ????Free sparring, not unlike judo randori.
kumi-uchi ????An older term for jujutsu. Some of the techniques in kumi-uchi are very similar to sumo.
kuzushi ???? To break balance
kyo ??? teaching
kyu ???Grade before blackbelt
__________________

M
ma-ai ????harmonious, balanced distance between training partners
mae ???front, forward, compare ushiro
mae geri ????straight kick
mae ukemi ?????forward fall
makiwara ????target for hitting practice in karatedo
maru ???circle
mawashi ????revolving, turning
mawashi geri ?????roundhouse kick
mawate ?????Vocal order to turn
me ???eye
men ??? Head area
Me Tsubushi ???? To distract the uke by attacking the eyes.
michi ???way, also do
migi ???right (left: hidari)
misogi ???purification, cleansing
mochi ????hold/grip, also called dori
mochigata ????? Ways of grabbing
mokuso ????meditation,clearing of the mind
morote dori ??????grip with both hands, also called katate ryotedori
mu ???nothing, empty
mushin ????empty mind
mudansha ?????trainee without dan grade, compare yudansha
mune ???chest
mune dori ?????collar grip by the chest
musubi ????tie together - connection
nagare ????flow, streaming. Also nagashi
nage ????throw, also used for the one doing the aikido technique, compare tori

N
nage waza ?????throwing techniques
nana ???seven, also pronounced shichi
ni two
Nihon/Nippon ????Japan
nikyo ????second teaching, pinning technique
ninindori ??????two attackers, also called futaridori , from the tasunindori exercises in Daito-ryu.
noto ????resheathing of the sword into the scabbard
nukitsuke ??????drawing the sword, also called batto

O-r

O
obi ???belt
omote ???front, surface
onegai shimasu ????????please, asking for something
osae ?????press down, pinning
osensei ?????great teacher, in aikido Morihei Ueshiba
otagai ni rei ???????bow to each others
otoshi ?????drop
oyo waza ????applied techniques, modified for efficiency

R
randori ?????
rei ???bow
reigi ????etiquette, also called reishiki ???? or reiho ????
renshu ????training
renzoku ????continuous
renzoku uchikomi ????????jo-staff exercise
renzoku waza ?????consecutive techniques, a series of techniques
renraku waza?????? Combination techniques
ritsurei ????standing bow
rokkyo ????sixth teaching, pinning technique, see hijikime osae
roku ???six
ryo ???both
ryotedori ??????gripping both wrists
ryu ???school, also ryuha ????or ryugi ????

S

sabaki ???? movement/handling
san ???three
sankaku ????triangle
sankakudai ?????triangle shape, position of the feet in hanmi
sankyo ????third teaching, pinning technique
sannindori/sanningake ???????????three attackers
sanpo ????three directions
saya ???scabbard
seiki ????life energy
seiza ????correct sitting, sit on knees
sen no sen ????? initiating at the same instant as an attack
sensei ????one who has gone before - usually applied to a person leading a class in aikido
sensen no sen ??????initiating before the attack begins.
shi ???four, also pronounced yon
shiai ????competition or match, meaning to literally meet and test. The older meaning was a lot more serious; ???? to meet with death.
shichi ???seven, also pronounced nana
shidoin ?????instructor, middle title for aikido teacher, 4-5 dan
shihan ???? Literally means teacher. Japanese practicioners who reach rokudan are automatically titled Shihan.
shiho ????four directions
shihonage ??????four directions throw, throwing technique
shihogiri ?????? Cutting in four directions, one of the kihon taught in aikiken.
shikaku ????square
shikko ????knee walking
shime ????choke
shin ???heart, will, mind, also pronounced kokoro
shinken ???? A live Japanese sword. Also refers to being serious in modern day Japanese.
shinken shobu ?????? A life or death match. Teachers in Japan sometimes refer to shinken shobu keiko - Training as if your life depended upon it.
shinzen ???? front of the gods, facing towards the kamiza.
shisei ????posture
shizentai ?????natural body posture
shodan ????first dan grade
shomen ????front of the head. Also, the front of the dojo where the kamiza is.
shomen ni rei ??????bow to head place of the dojo
shomenuchi ??????cut or blow to head
shoshinsha ?????beginner
shuto ???? sword hand
sode ???sleeve
sodedori ?????sleeve grip
sodeguchidori ??????grip on the cuff of the sleeve
soto ???outside, outer, compare uchi
soto deshi ?????student who lives outside the dojo, compare uchideshi
soto kaiten ?????outer rotation, compare uchikaiten
soto uke ?????block from outside, compare uchiuke
suburi ?????basic exercises with sword or staff
suki ???opening or a weakness in one's technique or posture
sumi ???corner
sumikiri ?????sharpness of body and mind
sumimasen???????? excuse me/sorry
sumo ????traditional Japanese wrestling
sutemi waza ?????? Sacrifice techniques where you give away your position to exploit your opponent's vulnerability
suwari waza ?????seated training, also called suwate. In jujutsu, usually referred to as Idori ????
suwatte waza ??????seated training, also called suwariwaza
__________________

tachi ????sword, also nihonto, ken and katana
tachi ai ?????? training where both parties stand
tachidori (????) defense against sword. lit. "Sword taking"
tachi waza ?????standing techniques
tai (?)body
taijutsu ????body techniques, unarmed techniques. Also another term used instead of jujutsu
tai no henko ??????body turn, also called tai no tenkan
tai no tenkan ??????body turn, also called tai no henko
tai sabaki ?????body move, evasive movement in aikido
taiso ????exercises
takemusu ????improvised Martial art. The unification of mind, body and principle in aiki. "The spontaneous execution of limitless techniques".
takemusu aiki ??????improvised Martial art through the principle of aiki
tameshigiri ??????cutting test with sword
tanden ????body center, compare seika no itten
tanren ????drilling to forge the spirit
tanto ???? Japanese style dagger
tantodori ??????defense against knife
tatami ???mat
te ???hand
tegatana ???? sword hand. To use the hand to strike in sword-like movements.
tekubi ????wrist
tekubi osae ???????pinned wrist, yonkyo
tenchi nage ??????heaven-earth throw, throwing technique
tenkan ????turn
tobikoshi ?????fall over hip, break fall
tori ???????the one who takes, defender in aikido, also called nage and shite (Pronounced "Shtay" for you wiseguys out there!)
torifune ?????rowing exercise, also called funakogi undo
tsuba ???sword guard
tsugiashi ????sliding step, back foot following and not passing front foot
tsuka ???sword hilt
tsuki ????to thrust with a weapon or empty hand
__________________

U

uchi ????to strike or hit
uchi ???inside, within, inner, compare soto
uchi deshi ?????student living in the dojo, compare sotodeshi
uchi kaiten ?????inner rotation, compare sotokaiten
uchi gata ?????striking methods
uchikomi ??????hitting repeatedly
uchi uke ?????block from inside, compare sotouke
ude ???arm
ude kime nage ???????arm lock throw
ude nobashi ??????extended arm, gokyo
ude osae ??????pinned arm, ikkyo
uke ????the one receiving, attacker in aikido
uke ????block, parry
ukemi ????falling
undo ????exercise
ura ???backside, inside, reverse side, compare omote
uraken ????backfist strike
ushiro ????behind, backwards, compare mae
ushiro kiriotoshi ?????????rear cutting drop, throwing technique
ushiro ukemi ??????backward fall
ushiro waza ?????techniques from behind

W

waka sensei ?????young teacher, used in aikido for successor of Doshu
wakarimasen ????????I do not understand
waki ???side
waki gatame?????? side armlock in jujutsu, similar to hiji shime
wakizashi ????short sword, also called a kodachi ?????
waza ???technique, skill, training method

Y

yame ????verbal order to stop
yari ?????spear
yoko ???side, sideways, horizontal
yokomen ????side of the head
yokomenuchi ??????strike to the side of the head
yoko ukemi ?????side fall
yon ???four, also pronounced shi, however is rarely used, since shi rhymes with the Japanese word for death ???
yonkajo ?????older term for yonkyo
yonkyo ????fourth teaching, pinning technique
yudansha ?????dan graded, compare mudansha

Z

za ???seated, sit
zanshin ????remaining spirit, continued concentration. Awareness focused on the opponent after the execution of a technique.
zarei ????sitting bow
zazen ????sitting meditation, also called mokuso
zen ???a form of buddhism
zengo ???? forward and back, front and rear
zori ????sandals
__________________

Referencia basica

Como ponerse la hakama
Conceptos de la asociación italiana de Aikido
Glosario en Microsoft Access
Glosario en Microsoft Word
Glosario en Microsoft Word estilo Iwama
Glosario en Microsoft Word en ingles
Glosario en Microsoft Word de tecnicas



Como ponerse la hakama
Conceptos de la asociación italiana de Aikido
Glosario en Microsoft Access
Glosario en Microsoft Word
Glosario en Microsoft Word estilo Iwama
Glosario en Microsoft Word en ingles
Glosario en Microsoft Word de tecnicas

Proyección vital

Desde tiempos ancestrales la naturaleza ha impresionado al ser humano con comportamientos que parecieran indicar a la existencia de alguna fuerza o presencia superior.

Por ejemplo:

  • La capacidad de la materia para interactuar a distancia, i.e., ondas electromagnéticas y gravedad.
  • La capacidad de los elementos, aire y agua, de pasar de un estado estático y tranquilo a otro de un fuerza y violencia incontenible, como tifones, tornados, tormentas.
  • La esencia indefinible pero evidente de la vida, comparada con las cosas inermes.
  • La capacidad de la actitud mental de alterar o inducir resultados.
  • La capacidad de algunas personas de controlar y dirigir multitudes.
  • El efecto de una situación de estrés en las capacidades físicas y mentales de las personas.


De estas observaciones surge el concepto de ki, 気. Es un concepto difícil de entender en parte porque en diferentes contextos y para distintas personas significa cosas distintas. Etimológicamente, el carácter 気 denota el vapor de arroz cocido. En Japón, el arroz es 米, pero al prepararlo como alimento se convierte en 御飯. Un término de respeto y agradecimiento. Entonces 気 se refiere a la esencia de la vida, la vitalidad fundamental. Se entiende como un fluido que permea todo. En este contexto los seres vivos son como receptores de radio que tienen la capacidad de sintonizar el 気 del universo.

En aikido (合気道)el punto de conexión con el 気 universal es el tanden (丹田). Los conceptos basicos para que fluya el 気 es estar relajado, con la mente tranquila, y el culo apretado, de tal manera que mente y cuerpo coinciden en un punto, el tanden (丹田).

Desde tiempos ancestrales la naturaleza ha impresionado al ser humano con comportamientos que parecieran indicar a la existencia de alguna fuerza o presencia superior.

Por ejemplo:

  • La capacidad de la materia para interactuar a distancia, i.e., ondas electromagnéticas y gravedad.
  • La capacidad de los elementos, aire y agua, de pasar de un estado estático y tranquilo a otro de un fuerza y violencia incontenible, como tifones, tornados, tormentas.
  • La esencia indefinible pero evidente de la vida, comparada con las cosas inermes.
  • La capacidad de la actitud mental de alterar o inducir resultados.
  • La capacidad de algunas personas de controlar y dirigir multitudes.
  • El efecto de una situación de estrés en las capacidades físicas y mentales de las personas.

De estas observaciones surge el concepto de ki, ?. Es un concepto difícil de entender en parte porque en diferentes contextos y para distintas personas significa cosas distintas. Etimológicamente, el carácter ? denota el vapor de arroz cocido. En Japón, el arroz es ?, pero al prepararlo como alimento se convierte en???. Un término de respeto y agradecimiento. Entonces ? se refiere a la esencia de la vida, la vitalidad fundamental. Se entiende como un fluido que permea todo. En este contexto los seres vivos son como receptores de radio que tienen la capacidad de sintonizar el ? del universo.

En aikido ?????el punto de conexión con el ? universal es el tanden ???). Los conceptos basicos para que fluya el ? es estar relajado, con la mente tranquila, y el culo apretado, de tal manera que mente y cuerpo coinciden en un punto, el tanden ???).


?

 (radical 84 +6, 10 strokescangjie input 人弓火木 (ONFD), four-corner 80917)

  1. airgassteamvapor
  2. breathspirit


In traditional Chinese culture (also chi or ch’i) is an active principle forming part of any living thing.[1][2][3] Qi is frequently translated as «life energy», «life force», or «energy flow». Qi is the central underlying principle in traditional Chinese medicine and martial arts. The literal translation of «qi» is «breath», «air», or «gas».

Concepts similar to qi can be found in many cultures, for example, prana in Vedantic philosophy, mana in Hawaiian culture, lüng in Tibetan Buddhism, and Vital energy in Western philosophy. Some elements of qi can be understood in the term energy when used by writers and practitioners of various esoteric forms of spirituality and alternative medicine. Elements of the qi concept can also be found in Western popular culture, for example «The Force» in Star Wars.[4] Notions in the West of energeiaélan vital, or «vitalism» are purported to be similar.

The etymological explanation for the form of the qi logogram (or chi) in the traditional form  is «steam () rising from rice () as it cooks». The earliest way of writing qi consisted of 3 wavy lines, used to represent one’s breath seen on a cold day. A later version, 气, identical to the present-day simplified character, is a stylized version of those same 3 lines. For some reason, early writers of Chinese found it desirable to substitute for 气 a cognate character that originally meant to feed other people in a social context such as providing food for guests.[citation needed] Appropriately, that character combined the 3-line qi character with the character for rice. So 气 plus 米 formed 氣, and that is the Traditional Chinese character still used today (the oracle bone character, the seal script character and the modern «school standard» or Kǎi shū characters in the box at the right show 3 stages of the evolution of this character).

References to concepts analogous to the qi taken to be the life-process or flow of energy that sustains living beings are found in many belief systems, especially in Asia. Philosophical conceptions of qi from the earliest records of Chinese philosophy (5th century BCE) correspond to Western notions of humours and the ancient Hindu yogic concept of prana («life force» in Sanskrit). The earliest description of «force» in the current sense of vital energy is found in the Vedas of ancient India (circa 1500–1000 BCE),[7] and from the writings of the Chinese philosopher Mencius (4th century BCE). Historically, the Huangdi NeijingThe Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Medicine» (circa 2nd century BCE) is credited with first establishing the pathways through which qi circulates in the human body.[8][9]

Within the framework of Chinese thought, no notion may attain such a degree of abstraction from empirical data as to correspond perfectly to one of our modern universal concepts. Nevertheless, the term qi comes as close as possible to constituting a generic designation equivalent to our word «energy». When Chinese thinkers are unwilling or unable to fix the quality of an energetic phenomenon, the character qi (氣) inevitably flows from their brushes.
—Manfred Porkert[10]

Traditional Chinesecharacter , also used in Korean hanja. In Japanese kanji, this character was used until 1946, when it was changed to .

The ancient Chinese described it as «life force». They believed qi permeated everything and linked their surroundings together. They likened it to the flow of energy around and through the body, forming a cohesive and functioning unit.[citation needed] By understanding its rhythm and flow they believed they could guide exercises and treatments to provide stability and longevity.[citation needed]
Although the concept of qi has been important within many Chinese philosophies, over the centuries the descriptions of qi have varied and have sometimes been in conflict.[citation needed] Until China came into contact with Western scientific and philosophical ideas, they had not categorized all things in terms of matter and energy.[citation needed] Qi and li (理: «pattern») were ‘fundamental’ categories similar to matter and energy.[citation needed]
Fairly early on, some Chinese thinkers began to believe that there were different fractions of qi and that the coarsest and heaviest fractions of qi formed solids, lighter fractions formed liquids, and the most ethereal fractions were the «lifebreath» that animates living beings.[11]
Yuán qì is a notion of innate or pre-natal qi to distinguish it from acquired qi that a person may develop over the course of their lifetime.
The earliest texts that speak of qi give some indications of how the concept developed. The philosopher Mo Di used the word qi to refer to noxious vapors that would in due time arise from a corpse were it not buried at a sufficient depth.[12] He reported that early civilized humans learned how to live in houses to protect their qi from the moisture that had troubled them when they lived in caves.[13] He also associated maintaining one’s qi with providing oneself adequate nutrition.[14] In regard to another kind of qi, he recorded how some people performed a kind of prognostication by observing the qi(clouds) in the sky.[15]
In the Analects of Confucius, compiled from the notes of his students sometime after his death in 479 B.C., qi could mean «breath»,[16] and combining it with the Chinese word for blood (making 血氣, xueqi, blood and breath), the concept could be used to account for motivational characteristics.
The [morally] noble man guards himself against 3 things. When he is young, his xueqi has not yet stabilized, so he guards himself against sexual passion. When he reaches his prime, his xueqi is not easily subdued, so he guards himself against combativeness. When he reaches old age, his xueqi is already depleted, so he guards himself against acquisitiveness.
—Confucius, Analects, 16:7
Mencius described a kind of qi that might be characterized as an individual’s vital energies. This qi was necessary to activity, and it could be controlled by a well-integrated willpower.[17] When properly nurtured, this qi was said to be capable of extending beyond the human body to reach throughout theuniverse.[17] It could also be augmented by means of careful exercise of one’s moral capacities.[17] On the other hand, the qi of an individual could be degraded by adverse external forces that succeed in operating on that individual.[18]
Not only human beings and animals were believed to have qiZhuangzi indicated that wind is the qi of the Earth.[19] Moreover, cosmic yin and yang «are the greatest of qi[20] He described qi as «issuing forth» and creating profound effects.[21] He said «Human beings are born [because of] the accumulation of qi. When it accumulates there is life. When it dissipates there is death… There is one qi that connects and pervades everything in the world.»[22]
Another passage traces life to intercourse between Heaven and Earth: «The highest Yin is the most restrained. The highest Yang is the most exuberant. The restrained comes forth from Heaven. The exuberant issues forth from Earth. The two intertwine and penetrate forming a harmony, and [as a result] things are born.»[23]
«The Guanzi essay Neiye 內業 (Inward training) is the oldest received writing on the subject of the cultivation of vapor [qi] and meditation techniques. The essay was probably composed at the Jixia Academy in Qi in the late fourth century B.C.»[24]
Xun Zi, another Confucian scholar of the Jixia Academy, followed in later years. At 9:69/127, Xun Zi says, «Fire and water have qi but do not have life. Grasses and trees have life but do not have perceptivity. Fowl and beasts have perceptivity but do not have yi (sense of right and wrong, duty, justice). Men have qi, life, perceptivity, and yi.» Chinese people at such an early time had no concept of radiant energy, but they were aware that one can be heated by a campfire from a distance away from the fire. They accounted for this phenomenon by claiming «qi» radiated from fire. At 18:62/122, he also uses «qi» to refer to the vital forces of the body that decline with advanced age.
Among the animals, the gibbon and the crane were considered experts at inhaling the qi. The Confucian scholar Dong Zhongshu (ca. 150 BC) wrote in Luxuriant Dew of the Spring and Autumn Annals:[25] «The gibbon resembles a macaque, but he is larger, and his color is black. His forearms being long, he lives eight hundred years, because he is expert in controlling his breathing.» («猿似猴。大而黑。長前臂。所以壽八百。好引氣也。»)
Later, the syncretic text assembled under the direction of Liu An, the Huai Nan Zi, or «Masters of Huainan», has a passage that presages most of what is given greater detail by the Neo-Confucians:
Heaven (seen here as the ultimate source of all being) falls (duo 墮, i.e., descends into proto-immanence) as the formless. Fleeting, fluttering, penetrating, amorphous it is, and so it is called the Supreme Luminary. The dao begins in the Void Brightening. The Void Brightening produces the universe (yuzhou). The universe produces qiQi has bounds. The clear, yang [qi] was ethereal and so formed heaven. The heavy, turbid [qi] was congealed and impeded and so formed earth. The conjunction of the clear, yang [qi] was fluid and easy. The conjunction of the heavy, turbid [qi] was strained and difficult. So heaven was formed first and earth was made fast later. The pervading essence (xijing) of heaven and earth becomes yin and yang. The concentrated (zhuan) essences of yin and yang become the four seasons. The dispersed (san) essences of the four seasons become the myriad creatures. The hot qi of yang in accumulating produces fire. The essence (jing) of the fire-qi becomes the sun. The cold qi of yin in accumulating produces water. The essence of the water-qibecomes the moon. The essences produced by coitus (yin) of the sun and moon become the stars and celestial markpoints (chen, planets).
—Huai-nan-zi, 3:1a/19

There have been a number of studies of qi, especially in the sense used by traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. These studies have often been problematic and hard to compare to each other due to lack of common nomenclature.[33] Some studies claim to have been able to measure qi, or the effects of manipulating qi (such as through acupuncture),[citation needed] but the proposed existence of qi has also been questioned within the scientific community.[citation needed]

United States National Institutes of Health consensus statement on acupuncture in 1997 noted that concepts such as qi «are difficult to reconcile with contemporary biomedical information.»[34]In 2007 «Network», a newsletter published by the MD Anderson Cancer Center at the University of Texas to discuss «topics of interest to cancer patients», published an article covering the concepts where qi is believed to be effective and research into possible benefits for cancer patients.[35] A review of clinical trials investigating the use of internal qigong for pain management found no convincing evidence that it was effective.

Qìgōng (气功 or 氣功) is a practice involving coordinated breathing, movement, and awareness, traditionally viewed as a practice to cultivate and balance qi. With roots in traditional Chinesemedicinephilosophy, and martial artsqigong is now practiced worldwide for exercise, healing, meditation, and training for martial arts. Typically a qigong practice involves rhythmic breathing coordinated with slow stylized movement, a calm mindful state, and visualization of guiding qi

Qi is a didactic concept in many ChineseKorean and Japanese martial arts. Martial qigong is a feature of both internal and external training systems in China[41] and other East Asiancultures.[42] The most notable of the qi-focused «internal» force (jin) martial arts are BaguazhangXing Yi QuanT’ai Chi Ch’uanSnake Kung FuSouthern Dragon Kung FuAikidoAikijujutsu,KyūdōHapkidojian and katana swordplay, Luohan QuanShaolin Kung FuLiu He Ba FaBuddhist Style, and some forms of KarateTae Kwon Do and Silat.

Demonstrations of qi or ki are popular in some martial arts and may include the immovable body, the unraisable body, the unbendable arm and other feats of power. All, or some, of these feats can alternatively be explained using biomechanics and physics.



? (radical 84 ?+6, 10 strokescangjie input ???? (ONFD), four-corner 80917)
  1. airgassteamvapor
  2. breathspirit




In traditional Chinese culture (also chi or ch'i) is an active principle forming part of any living thing.[1][2][3] Qi is frequently translated as "life energy", "life force", or "energy flow". Qi is the central underlying principle in traditional Chinese medicine and martial arts. The literal translation of "qi" is "breath", "air", or "gas".

Concepts similar to qi can be found in many cultures, for example, prana in Vedantic philosophy, mana in Hawaiian culture, lüng in Tibetan Buddhism, and Vital energy in Western philosophy. Some elements of qi can be understood in the term energy when used by writers and practitioners of various esoteric forms of spirituality and alternative medicine. Elements of the qi concept can also be found in Western popular culture, for example "The Force" in Star Wars.[4] Notions in the West of energeiaélan vital, or "vitalism" are purported to be similar.


The etymological explanation for the form of the qi logogram (or chi) in the traditional form ? is "steam (?) rising from rice (?) as it cooks". The earliest way of writing qi consisted of 3 wavy lines, used to represent one's breath seen on a cold day. A later version, ?, identical to the present-day simplified character, is a stylized version of those same 3 lines. For some reason, early writers of Chinese found it desirable to substitute for ? a cognate character that originally meant to feed other people in a social context such as providing food for guests.[citation needed] Appropriately, that character combined the 3-line qi character with the character for rice. So ? plus ? formed ?, and that is the Traditional Chinese character still used today (the oracle bone character, the seal script character and the modern "school standard" or K?i sh? characters in the box at the right show 3 stages of the evolution of this character).

References to concepts analogous to the qi taken to be the life-process or flow of energy that sustains living beings are found in many belief systems, especially in Asia. Philosophical conceptions of qi from the earliest records of Chinese philosophy (5th century BCE) correspond to Western notions of humours and the ancient Hindu yogic concept of prana ("life force" in Sanskrit). The earliest description of "force" in the current sense of vital energy is found in the Vedas of ancient India (circa 1500–1000 BCE),[7] and from the writings of the Chinese philosopher Mencius (4th century BCE). Historically, the Huangdi Neijing/"The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Medicine" (circa 2nd century BCE) is credited with first establishing the pathways through which qi circulates in the human body.[8][9]
Within the framework of Chinese thought, no notion may attain such a degree of abstraction from empirical data as to correspond perfectly to one of our modern universal concepts. Nevertheless, the term qi comes as close as possible to constituting a generic designation equivalent to our word "energy". When Chinese thinkers are unwilling or unable to fix the quality of an energetic phenomenon, the character qi (?) inevitably flows from their brushes.
—Manfred Porkert[10]

Traditional Chinesecharacter , also used in Korean hanja. In Japanese kanji, this character was used until 1946, when it was changed to ?.
The ancient Chinese described it as "life force". They believed qi permeated everything and linked their surroundings together. They likened it to the flow of energy around and through the body, forming a cohesive and functioning unit.[citation needed] By understanding its rhythm and flow they believed they could guide exercises and treatments to provide stability and longevity.[citation needed]
Although the concept of qi has been important within many Chinese philosophies, over the centuries the descriptions of qi have varied and have sometimes been in conflict.[citation needed] Until China came into contact with Western scientific and philosophical ideas, they had not categorized all things in terms of matter and energy.[citation needed] Qi and li (?: "pattern") were 'fundamental' categories similar to matter and energy.[citation needed]
Fairly early on, some Chinese thinkers began to believe that there were different fractions of qi and that the coarsest and heaviest fractions of qi formed solids, lighter fractions formed liquids, and the most ethereal fractions were the "lifebreath" that animates living beings.[11]
Yuán qì is a notion of innate or pre-natal qi to distinguish it from acquired qi that a person may develop over the course of their lifetime.

The earliest texts that speak of qi give some indications of how the concept developed. The philosopher Mo Di used the word qi to refer to noxious vapors that would in due time arise from a corpse were it not buried at a sufficient depth.[12] He reported that early civilized humans learned how to live in houses to protect their qi from the moisture that had troubled them when they lived in caves.[13] He also associated maintaining one's qi with providing oneself adequate nutrition.[14] In regard to another kind of qi, he recorded how some people performed a kind of prognostication by observing the qi(clouds) in the sky.[15]
In the Analects of Confucius, compiled from the notes of his students sometime after his death in 479 B.C., qi could mean "breath",[16] and combining it with the Chinese word for blood (making ??, xue-qi, blood and breath), the concept could be used to account for motivational characteristics.
The [morally] noble man guards himself against 3 things. When he is young, his xue-qi has not yet stabilized, so he guards himself against sexual passion. When he reaches his prime, his xue-qi is not easily subdued, so he guards himself against combativeness. When he reaches old age, his xue-qi is already depleted, so he guards himself against acquisitiveness.
—Confucius, Analects, 16:7
Mencius described a kind of qi that might be characterized as an individual's vital energies. This qi was necessary to activity, and it could be controlled by a well-integrated willpower.[17] When properly nurtured, this qi was said to be capable of extending beyond the human body to reach throughout theuniverse.[17] It could also be augmented by means of careful exercise of one's moral capacities.[17] On the other hand, the qi of an individual could be degraded by adverse external forces that succeed in operating on that individual.[18]
Not only human beings and animals were believed to have qiZhuangzi indicated that wind is the qi of the Earth.[19] Moreover, cosmic yin and yang "are the greatest of qi."[20] He described qi as "issuing forth" and creating profound effects.[21] He said "Human beings are born [because of] the accumulation of qi. When it accumulates there is life. When it dissipates there is death... There is one qi that connects and pervades everything in the world."[22]
Another passage traces life to intercourse between Heaven and Earth: "The highest Yin is the most restrained. The highest Yang is the most exuberant. The restrained comes forth from Heaven. The exuberant issues forth from Earth. The two intertwine and penetrate forming a harmony, and [as a result] things are born."[23]
"The Guanzi essay Neiye ?? (Inward training) is the oldest received writing on the subject of the cultivation of vapor [qi] and meditation techniques. The essay was probably composed at the Jixia Academy in Qi in the late fourth century B.C."[24]
Xun Zi, another Confucian scholar of the Jixia Academy, followed in later years. At 9:69/127, Xun Zi says, "Fire and water have qi but do not have life. Grasses and trees have life but do not have perceptivity. Fowl and beasts have perceptivity but do not have yi (sense of right and wrong, duty, justice). Men have qi, life, perceptivity, and yi." Chinese people at such an early time had no concept of radiant energy, but they were aware that one can be heated by a campfire from a distance away from the fire. They accounted for this phenomenon by claiming "qi" radiated from fire. At 18:62/122, he also uses "qi" to refer to the vital forces of the body that decline with advanced age.
Among the animals, the gibbon and the crane were considered experts at inhaling the qi. The Confucian scholar Dong Zhongshu (ca. 150 BC) wrote in Luxuriant Dew of the Spring and Autumn Annals:[25] "The gibbon resembles a macaque, but he is larger, and his color is black. His forearms being long, he lives eight hundred years, because he is expert in controlling his breathing." ("???????????????????????")
Later, the syncretic text assembled under the direction of Liu An, the Huai Nan Zi, or "Masters of Huainan", has a passage that presages most of what is given greater detail by the Neo-Confucians:
Heaven (seen here as the ultimate source of all being) falls (duo ?, i.e., descends into proto-immanence) as the formless. Fleeting, fluttering, penetrating, amorphous it is, and so it is called the Supreme Luminary. The dao begins in the Void Brightening. The Void Brightening produces the universe (yu-zhou). The universe produces qiQi has bounds. The clear, yang [qi] was ethereal and so formed heaven. The heavy, turbid [qi] was congealed and impeded and so formed earth. The conjunction of the clear, yang [qi] was fluid and easy. The conjunction of the heavy, turbid [qi] was strained and difficult. So heaven was formed first and earth was made fast later. The pervading essence (xi-jing) of heaven and earth becomes yin and yang. The concentrated (zhuan) essences of yin and yang become the four seasons. The dispersed (san) essences of the four seasons become the myriad creatures. The hot qi of yang in accumulating produces fire. The essence (jing) of the fire-qi becomes the sun. The cold qi of yin in accumulating produces water. The essence of the water-qibecomes the moon. The essences produced by coitus (yin) of the sun and moon become the stars and celestial markpoints (chen, planets).
—Huai-nan-zi, 3:1a/19

There have been a number of studies of qi, especially in the sense used by traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. These studies have often been problematic and hard to compare to each other due to lack of common nomenclature.[33] Some studies claim to have been able to measure qi, or the effects of manipulating qi (such as through acupuncture),[citation needed] but the proposed existence of qi has also been questioned within the scientific community.[citation needed]
United States National Institutes of Health consensus statement on acupuncture in 1997 noted that concepts such as qi "are difficult to reconcile with contemporary biomedical information."[34]In 2007 "Network", a newsletter published by the MD Anderson Cancer Center at the University of Texas to discuss "topics of interest to cancer patients", published an article covering the concepts where qi is believed to be effective and research into possible benefits for cancer patients.[35] A review of clinical trials investigating the use of internal qigong for pain management found no convincing evidence that it was effective.

Qìg?ng (?? or ??) is a practice involving coordinated breathing, movement, and awareness, traditionally viewed as a practice to cultivate and balance qi. With roots in traditional Chinesemedicinephilosophy, and martial artsqigong is now practiced worldwide for exercise, healing, meditation, and training for martial arts. Typically a qigong practice involves rhythmic breathing coordinated with slow stylized movement, a calm mindful state, and visualization of guiding qi

Qi is a didactic concept in many ChineseKorean and Japanese martial arts. Martial qigong is a feature of both internal and external training systems in China[41] and other East Asiancultures.[42] The most notable of the qi-focused "internal" force (jin) martial arts are BaguazhangXing Yi QuanT'ai Chi Ch'uanSnake Kung FuSouthern Dragon Kung FuAikidoAikijujutsu,Ky?d?Hapkidojian and katana swordplay, Luohan QuanShaolin Kung FuLiu He Ba FaBuddhist Style, and some forms of KarateTae Kwon Do and Silat.
Demonstrations of qi or ki are popular in some martial arts and may include the immovable body, the unraisable body, the unbendable arm and other feats of power. All, or some, of these feats can alternatively be explained using biomechanics and physics.


?

Etymology

Ideogrammic compound ( 會意 ): + 𩠐

Simplified to

道 道 道 道
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

道 (radical 162 +9, 12 strokescangjie input 卜廿竹山 (YTHU), four-corner 38306composition )

  1. pathroadstreet
  2. methodway
  3. say

道 (hiragana みちromaji michi)

  1. way; a street; a road; an alley; a pass for local traffic
  2. way of doing something

道 (hiragana  どう romaji )

  1. The Way: taoTaoism
  2. (chiefly historical) A region of Japan consisting of multiple provinces or prefectures. Feudal Japan was divided into several ; the only remaining  is Hokkaidō.

Dao is written with the Chinese character  in both Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese. It typifies the most common Chinese character classification of «radical-phonetic» or «phono-semantic» graphs, which compound a «radical» or «signific» (roughly providing semantic information) with a «phonetic» (suggesting ancient pronunciation).

Dao 道 graphically combines the chuo  (or ) «go» radical and shou  «head» phonetic. Furthermore, dao 道 is the phonetic element in dao «guide; lead» (with the cun  «thumb; hand» radical) and dao  «a tree name» (with the mu  «tree; wood» radical).

The traditional interpretation of the 道 character, dating back to the (121 CE) Shuowen Jiezi dictionary, was a rare huiyi 會意 «compound ideogram» or «ideogrammic compound«. The combination of chuo 辶 «go» and shou 首 «head» (numbers 162 and 185 in the Kangxi radicals) signified a «head going» or «to lead the way».

Dao is graphically distinguished between its earliest nominal meaning of dao 道 «way; road; path;» and the later verbal sense of «say». It should also be contrasted with dao 導 «lead the way; guide; conduct; direct; «. The Simplified character  for dao 導 has si  «6th of the 12 Earthly Branches» in place of dao 道.

The earliest written forms of dao are bronzeware script and seal script characters from Zhou Dynasty (1045–256 BCE) bronzes and writings. These ancient dao characters more clearly depict the shou 首 «head» element as hair above a face. Some variants interchange the chuo 辵 «go; advance» radical with the xing 行 «go; road» radical, with the original bronze «crossroads» depiction written in the seal character with two 彳 and 亍 «footprints».

Bronze scripts for dao 道 occasionally include an element of shou 手 «hand» or cun 寸 «thumb; hand», which occurs in dao 導 «lead». The linguist Peter A. Boodberg explained,

This «dao with the hand element» is usually identified with the modern character導 dao < d’ôg, «to lead,» «guide,» «conduct,» and considered to be a derivative or verbal cognate of the noun dao, «way,» «path.» The evidence just summarized would indicate rather that «dao with the hand» is but a variant of the basic dao and that the word itself combined both nominal and verbal aspects of the etymon. This is supported by textual examples of the use of the primary dao in the verbal sense «to lead» (e. g., Analects 1.5; 2.8) and seriously undermines the unspoken assumption implied in the common translation of Dao as «way» that the concept is essentially a nominal one. Dao would seem, then, to be etymologically a more dynamic concept than we have made it translation-wise. It would be more appropriately rendered by «lead way» and «lode» («way,» «course,» «journey,» «leading,» «guidance»; cf. «lodestone» and «lodestar»), the somewhat obsolescent deverbal noun from «to lead.»[26]

These Confucian Analects citations of dao verbally meaning «to guide; to lead» are: «The Master said, ‘In guiding a state of a thousand chariots, approach your duties with reverence and be trustworthy in what you say» and «The Master said, ‘Guide them by edicts, keep them in line with punishments, and the common people will stay out of trouble but will have no sense of shame.»

Tao or Dao ( / t / / d / Chinese: pinyin About this sound Dào ( help · Info)) is a Chinese word meaning ‘way’, ‘path’, ‘route’, or sometimes more loosely, ‘doctrine’ or ‘principle’, or as a verb, speak. Within the context of traditional Chinese philosophy and religion, Tao is a metaphysical concept originating withLaozi that gave rise to a religion (Wade–GilesTao ChiaoPinyinDaojiao) and philosophy (Wade–Giles, Tao chia; Pinyin, Daojia) referred to in English with the single term Taoism. The concept of Tao was later adopted in ConfucianismChán and Zen Buddhism and more broadly throughout East Asian philosophy and religion in general. Within these contexts Tao signifies the primordial essence or fundamental nature of the universe. In the foundational text of Taoism, the Tao Te ChingLaozi explains that Tao is not a ‘name’ for a ‘thing’ but the underlying natural order of the universe whose ultimate essence is difficult to circumscribe. Tao is thus «eternally nameless” (Dao De Jing-32. Laozi) and to be distinguished from the countless ‘named’ things which are considered to be its manifestations.

In Taoism, Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism, the object of spiritual practice is to ‘become one with the tao’ (Tao Te Ching) or to harmonise one’s will with Nature (cf. Stoicism) in order to achieve ‘effortless action’ (Wu wei). This involves meditative and moral practices. Important in this respect is the Taoist concept of De (德; virtue).

In all its uses, Tao is considered to have ineffable qualities that prevent it from being defined or expressed in words. It can, however, be known orexperienced, and its principles (which can be discerned by observing Nature) can be followed or practiced. Much of East Asian philosophical writing focuses on the value of adhering to the principles of Tao and the various consequences of failing to do so. In Confucianism and religious forms of Taoism these are often explicitly moral/ethical arguments about proper behavior, while Buddhism and more philosophical forms of Taoism usually refer to the natural and mercurial outcomes of action (comparable to karma). Tao is intrinsically related to the concepts yin and yang (pinyinyīnyáng), where every action creates counter-actions as unavoidable movements within manifestations of the Tao, and proper practice variously involves accepting, conforming to, or working with these natural developments.

The concept of Tao differs from conventional (western) ontology : it is an active and holistic conception of Nature, rather than a static, atomistic one. It is worth comparing to the original Logos of Heraclitus, c. 500 BC< The word «Dao» (道) has a variety of meanings in both ancient and modern Chinese language. Aside from its purely prosaic use to mean road, channel, path, doctrine, or similar,[1] the word has acquired a variety of differing and often confusing metaphorical, philosophical and religious uses. In most belief systems, Dao is used symbolically in its sense of ‘way’ as the ‘right’ or ‘proper’ way of existence, or in the context of ongoing practices of attainment or of the full coming into being, or the state of enlightenment or spiritual perfection that is the outcome of such practices.[2] Some scholars make sharp distinctions between moral or ethical usage of the word Dao that is prominent in Confucianism and religious Daoism and the more metaphysical usage of the term used in philosophical Daoism and most forms of Mahayana Buddhism;[3] others maintain that these are not separate usages or meanings, seeing them as mutually inclusive and compatible approaches to defining the concept.[4] The original use of the term was as a form of praxis rather than theory – a term used as a convention to refer to something that otherwise cannot be discussed in words – and early writings such as the Dao De Jing and the I Ching make pains to distinguish between conceptions of Dao (sometimes referred to as «named Dao») and the Dao itself (the «unnamed Dao»), which cannot be expressed or understood in language.[notes 1][notes 2][5] Liu Da asserts that Dao is properly understood as an experiential and evolving concept, and that there are not only cultural and religious differences in the interpretation of Dao, but personal differences that reflect the character of individual practitioners.[6]

Dao can be roughly thought of as the flow of the universe, or as some essence or pattern behind the natural world that keeps the universe balanced and ordered.[7] It is related to the idea of qi, the essential energy of action and existence. Dao is a non-dual concept – it is the greater whole from which all the individual elements of the universe derive. Keller considers it similar to the negative theology of Western scholars,[8] but Dao is rarely an object of direct worship, being treated more like the Hindu concepts of karma or dharma than as a divine object.[9] Dao is more commonly expressed in the relationship between wu (void or emptiness, in the sense of wuji) and yinyang (the natural dynamic balance between opposites), leading to its central principle of wu wei (non-action, or action without force).

Dao is usually described in terms of elements of nature, and in particular as similar to water. Like water it is undifferentiated, endlessly self-replenishing, soft and quiet but immensely powerful, and impassively generous.[10] Much of Daoist philosophy centers on the cyclical continuity of the natural world, and its contrast to the linear, goal-oriented actions of human beings.

The forms and variations of religious Daoism are incredibly diverse. They integrate a broad spectrum of academic, ritualistic, supernatural, devotional, literary, and folk practices with a multitude of results. Buddhism and Confucianism particularly affected the way many sects of Daoism framed, approached, and perceived the Dao. The multitudinous branches of religious Daoism accordingly regard the Dao, and interpret writings about it, in innumerable ways. Thus, outside of a few broad similarities, it is difficult to provide an accurate yet clear summary of their interpretation of Dao.[16]

A central tenet within most varieties of religious Daoism is that the Dao is ever-present, but must be manifested, cultivated, and/or perfected in order to be realized. It is the source of the universe and the seed of its primordial purity resides in all things. The manifestation of Dao is De, which rectifies and invigorates the world with the Dao’s radiance.[14]

Alternatively, philosophical Daoism regards the Dao as a non-religious concept; it is not a deity to be worshiped, nor is it a mystical Absolute in the religious sense of the Hindu Brahman. Joseph Wu remarked of this conception of Dao, «Dao is not religiously available; nor is it even religiously relevant.» The writings of Lao Tzu and Chang Tzu are tinged with esoteric tones and approach humanism and naturalism as paradoxes.[17] In contrast to the esotericism typically found in religious systems, the Dao is not transcendent to the self nor is mystical attainment an escape from the world in philosophical Daoism. The self steeped in Dao is the self grounded in its place within the natural universe. A person dwelling within the Dao excels in themselves and their activities.[18]

However, this distinction is complicated by hermeneutic (interpretive) difficulties in the categorization of Daoist schools, sects and movements.[19] Some scholars believe that there is no distinction between Daojia and Daojiao.[20] According to Kirkland, «most scholars who have seriously studied Daoism, both in Asia and the West, have finally abandoned the simplistic dichotomy of Dàojiā and Dàojiào, ‘philosophical Daoism’ and ‘religious Daoism.'»

Buddhism first started to spread in China during the first century AD and was experiencing a golden age of growth and maturation by the fourth century AD. Hundreds of collections of Pali andSanskrit texts were translated into Chinese by Buddhist monks within a short period of time. Dhyana was translated as ch’an (and later as zen), giving Zen Buddhism its name. The use of Chinese concepts, such as Dao, that were close to Buddhist ideas and terms helped spread the religion and make it more amenable to the Chinese people. However, the differences between the Sanskrit and Chinese terminology lead to some initial misunderstandings and the eventual development of East Asian Buddhism as a distinct entity. As part of this process, many Chinese words introduced their rich semantic and philosophical associations into Buddhism, including the use of ‘Dao’ for central concepts and tenets of Buddhism.[23]

Pai-chang Huai-hai told a student who was grappling with difficult portions of suttas, «Take up words in order to manifest meaning and you’ll obtain ‘meaning’. Cut off words and meaning is emptiness. Emptiness is the Dao. The Dao is cutting off words and speech.» Ch’an (Zen) Buddhists regard the Dao as synonymous with both the Buddhist Path (marga) and the results of it; theEightfold Path and Buddhist enlightenment (satori). Pai-chang’s statement plays upon this usage in the context of the fluid and varied Chinese usage of ‘Dao’. Words and meaning are used to refer to rituals and practice. The ‘emptiness’ refers to the Buddhist concept of sunyata. Finding the Dao and Buddha-nature is not simply a matter of formulations, but an active response to the Four Noble Truths that cannot be fully expressed or conveyed in words and concrete associations. The use of ‘Dao’ in this context refers to the literal ‘way’ of Buddhism, the return to the universal source, dharma, proper meditation, and nirvana, among other associations. ‘Dao’ is commonly used in this fashion by Chinese Buddhists, heavy with associations and nuanced meanings.

Noted Christian author C.S. Lewis used the word Tao to describe «the doctrine of objective value, the belief that certain attitudes are really true, and others really false, the kind of thing the universe is and the kind of things we are.»[25] He asserted that every religion and philosophy contains foundations of universal ethics as an attempt to line up with the Tao—the way mankind was designed to be. In Lewis’ thinking, God created the Tao and fully displayed it through the person of Jesus Christ. Christianity, then, would be the path that lines human beings up with the Tao most effectively.

Also the Greek word used in N.T. for the Way is ὁδός (hodos). Here the Way refers to the path of righteousness and salvation as revealed through Christ.

In Chinese translations of the New Testament, λόγος (logos) is translated with the Chinese word dao (道) (eg John 1:1), indicating that the translators considered the concept of Tao to be somewhat equivalent to logos in Greek philosophy.





Etymology


Ideogrammic compound ( ?? ): ? + ????

Simplified to ? ?
????
Oracle bone scriptBronze inscriptionsLarge seal scriptSmall seal script



? (radical 162 ?+9, 12 strokescangjie input ???? (YTHU), four-corner 38306composition ??)
  1. pathroadstreet
  2. methodway
  3. say




? (hiragana ??romaji michi)
  1. way; a street; a road; an alley; a pass for local traffic
  2. way of doing something

? (hiragana  ?? romaji d?)
  1. The Way: taoTaoism
  2. (chiefly historical) A region of Japan consisting of multiple provinces or prefectures. Feudal Japan was divided into several d?; the only remaining d? is Hokkaid?.



Dao is written with the Chinese character ? in both Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese. It typifies the most common Chinese character classification of "radical-phonetic" or "phono-semantic" graphs, which compound a "radical" or "signific" (roughly providing semantic information) with a "phonetic" (suggesting ancient pronunciation).

Dao ? graphically combines the chuo ? (or ?) "go" radical and shou ? "head" phonetic. Furthermore, dao ? is the phonetic element in dao ?"guide; lead" (with the cun ? "thumb; hand" radical) and dao ? "a tree name" (with the mu ? "tree; wood" radical).

The traditional interpretation of the ? character, dating back to the (121 CE) Shuowen Jiezi dictionary, was a rare huiyi ?? "compound ideogram" or "ideogrammic compound". The combination of chuo ? "go" and shou ? "head" (numbers 162 and 185 in the Kangxi radicals) signified a "head going" or "to lead the way".

Dao is graphically distinguished between its earliest nominal meaning of dao ? "way; road; path;" and the later verbal sense of "say". It should also be contrasted with dao ? "lead the way; guide; conduct; direct; ". The Simplified character ? for dao ? has si ? "6th of the 12 Earthly Branches" in place of dao ?.

The earliest written forms of dao are bronzeware script and seal script characters from Zhou Dynasty (1045–256 BCE) bronzes and writings. These ancient dao characters more clearly depict the shou ? "head" element as hair above a face. Some variants interchange the chuo ? "go; advance" radical with the xing ? "go; road" radical, with the original bronze "crossroads" depiction written in the seal character with two ? and ? "footprints".

Bronze scripts for dao ? occasionally include an element of shou ? "hand" or cun ? "thumb; hand", which occurs in dao ? "lead". The linguist Peter A. Boodberg explained,

This "dao with the hand element" is usually identified with the modern character? dao < d'ôg, "to lead," "guide," "conduct," and considered to be a derivative or verbal cognate of the noun dao, "way," "path." The evidence just summarized would indicate rather that "dao with the hand" is but a variant of the basic dao and that the word itself combined both nominal and verbal aspects of the etymon. This is supported by textual examples of the use of the primary dao in the verbal sense "to lead" (e. g., Analects 1.5; 2.8) and seriously undermines the unspoken assumption implied in the common translation of Dao as "way" that the concept is essentially a nominal one. Dao would seem, then, to be etymologically a more dynamic concept than we have made it translation-wise. It would be more appropriately rendered by "lead way" and "lode" ("way," "course," "journey," "leading," "guidance"; cf. "lodestone" and "lodestar"), the somewhat obsolescent deverbal noun from "to lead."[26]

These Confucian Analects citations of dao verbally meaning "to guide; to lead" are: "The Master said, 'In guiding a state of a thousand chariots, approach your duties with reverence and be trustworthy in what you say" and "The Master said, 'Guide them by edicts, keep them in line with punishments, and the common people will stay out of trouble but will have no sense of shame."


Tao or Dao ( / t a? / / d a? / Chinese: ? pinyin About this sound Dào) is a Chinese word meaning 'way', 'path', 'route', or sometimes more loosely, 'doctrine' or 'principle', or as a verb, speak. Within the context of traditional Chinese philosophy and religion, Tao is a metaphysical concept originating withLaozi that gave rise to a religion (Wade–GilesTao ChiaoPinyinDaojiao) and philosophy (Wade–Giles, Tao chia; Pinyin, Daojia) referred to in English with the single term Taoism. The concept of Tao was later adopted in ConfucianismChán and Zen Buddhism and more broadly throughout East Asian philosophy and religion in general. Within these contexts Tao signifies the primordial essence or fundamental nature of the universe. In the foundational text of Taoism, the Tao Te ChingLaozi explains that Tao is not a 'name' for a 'thing' but the underlying natural order of the universe whose ultimate essence is difficult to circumscribe. Tao is thus "eternally nameless” (Dao De Jing-32. Laozi) and to be distinguished from the countless 'named' things which are considered to be its manifestations.

In Taoism, Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism, the object of spiritual practice is to 'become one with the tao' (Tao Te Ching) or to harmonise one's will with Nature (cf. Stoicism) in order to achieve 'effortless action' (Wu wei). This involves meditative and moral practices. Important in this respect is the Taoist concept of De (?; virtue).

In all its uses, Tao is considered to have ineffable qualities that prevent it from being defined or expressed in words. It can, however, be known orexperienced, and its principles (which can be discerned by observing Nature) can be followed or practiced. Much of East Asian philosophical writing focuses on the value of adhering to the principles of Tao and the various consequences of failing to do so. In Confucianism and religious forms of Taoism these are often explicitly moral/ethical arguments about proper behavior, while Buddhism and more philosophical forms of Taoism usually refer to the natural and mercurial outcomes of action (comparable to karma). Tao is intrinsically related to the concepts yin and yang (pinyiny?nyáng), where every action creates counter-actions as unavoidable movements within manifestations of the Tao, and proper practice variously involves accepting, conforming to, or working with these natural developments.

The concept of Tao differs from conventional (western) ontology : it is an active and holistic conception of Nature, rather than a static, atomistic one. It is worth comparing to the original Logos of Heraclitus, c. 500 BC< The word "Dao" (?) has a variety of meanings in both ancient and modern Chinese language. Aside from its purely prosaic use to mean road, channel, path, doctrine, or similar,[1] the word has acquired a variety of differing and often confusing metaphorical, philosophical and religious uses. In most belief systems, Dao is used symbolically in its sense of 'way' as the 'right' or 'proper' way of existence, or in the context of ongoing practices of attainment or of the full coming into being, or the state of enlightenment or spiritual perfection that is the outcome of such practices.[2] Some scholars make sharp distinctions between moral or ethical usage of the word Dao that is prominent in Confucianism and religious Daoism and the more metaphysical usage of the term used in philosophical Daoism and most forms of Mahayana Buddhism;[3] others maintain that these are not separate usages or meanings, seeing them as mutually inclusive and compatible approaches to defining the concept.[4] The original use of the term was as a form of praxis rather than theory – a term used as a convention to refer to something that otherwise cannot be discussed in words – and early writings such as the Dao De Jing and the I Ching make pains to distinguish between conceptions of Dao (sometimes referred to as "named Dao") and the Dao itself (the "unnamed Dao"), which cannot be expressed or understood in language.[notes 1][notes 2][5] Liu Da asserts that Dao is properly understood as an experiential and evolving concept, and that there are not only cultural and religious differences in the interpretation of Dao, but personal differences that reflect the character of individual practitioners.[6]

Dao can be roughly thought of as the flow of the universe, or as some essence or pattern behind the natural world that keeps the universe balanced and ordered.[7] It is related to the idea of qi, the essential energy of action and existence. Dao is a non-dual concept – it is the greater whole from which all the individual elements of the universe derive. Keller considers it similar to the negative theology of Western scholars,[8] but Dao is rarely an object of direct worship, being treated more like the Hindu concepts of karma or dharma than as a divine object.[9] Dao is more commonly expressed in the relationship between wu (void or emptiness, in the sense of wuji) and yinyang (the natural dynamic balance between opposites), leading to its central principle of wu wei (non-action, or action without force).

Dao is usually described in terms of elements of nature, and in particular as similar to water. Like water it is undifferentiated, endlessly self-replenishing, soft and quiet but immensely powerful, and impassively generous.[10] Much of Daoist philosophy centers on the cyclical continuity of the natural world, and its contrast to the linear, goal-oriented actions of human beings.


The forms and variations of religious Daoism are incredibly diverse. They integrate a broad spectrum of academic, ritualistic, supernatural, devotional, literary, and folk practices with a multitude of results. Buddhism and Confucianism particularly affected the way many sects of Daoism framed, approached, and perceived the Dao. The multitudinous branches of religious Daoism accordingly regard the Dao, and interpret writings about it, in innumerable ways. Thus, outside of a few broad similarities, it is difficult to provide an accurate yet clear summary of their interpretation of Dao.[16]

A central tenet within most varieties of religious Daoism is that the Dao is ever-present, but must be manifested, cultivated, and/or perfected in order to be realized. It is the source of the universe and the seed of its primordial purity resides in all things. The manifestation of Dao is De, which rectifies and invigorates the world with the Dao's radiance.[14]

Alternatively, philosophical Daoism regards the Dao as a non-religious concept; it is not a deity to be worshiped, nor is it a mystical Absolute in the religious sense of the Hindu Brahman. Joseph Wu remarked of this conception of Dao, "Dao is not religiously available; nor is it even religiously relevant." The writings of Lao Tzu and Chang Tzu are tinged with esoteric tones and approach humanism and naturalism as paradoxes.[17] In contrast to the esotericism typically found in religious systems, the Dao is not transcendent to the self nor is mystical attainment an escape from the world in philosophical Daoism. The self steeped in Dao is the self grounded in its place within the natural universe. A person dwelling within the Dao excels in themselves and their activities.[18]

However, this distinction is complicated by hermeneutic (interpretive) difficulties in the categorization of Daoist schools, sects and movements.[19] Some scholars believe that there is no distinction between Daojia and Daojiao.[20] According to Kirkland, "most scholars who have seriously studied Daoism, both in Asia and the West, have finally abandoned the simplistic dichotomy of Dàoji? and Dàojiào, 'philosophical Daoism' and 'religious Daoism.'"

Buddhism first started to spread in China during the first century AD and was experiencing a golden age of growth and maturation by the fourth century AD. Hundreds of collections of Pali andSanskrit texts were translated into Chinese by Buddhist monks within a short period of time. Dhyana was translated as ch'an (and later as zen), giving Zen Buddhism its name. The use of Chinese concepts, such as Dao, that were close to Buddhist ideas and terms helped spread the religion and make it more amenable to the Chinese people. However, the differences between the Sanskrit and Chinese terminology lead to some initial misunderstandings and the eventual development of East Asian Buddhism as a distinct entity. As part of this process, many Chinese words introduced their rich semantic and philosophical associations into Buddhism, including the use of 'Dao' for central concepts and tenets of Buddhism.[23]

Pai-chang Huai-hai told a student who was grappling with difficult portions of suttas, "Take up words in order to manifest meaning and you'll obtain 'meaning'. Cut off words and meaning is emptiness. Emptiness is the Dao. The Dao is cutting off words and speech." Ch'an (Zen) Buddhists regard the Dao as synonymous with both the Buddhist Path (marga) and the results of it; theEightfold Path and Buddhist enlightenment (satori). Pai-chang's statement plays upon this usage in the context of the fluid and varied Chinese usage of 'Dao'. Words and meaning are used to refer to rituals and practice. The 'emptiness' refers to the Buddhist concept of sunyata. Finding the Dao and Buddha-nature is not simply a matter of formulations, but an active response to the Four Noble Truths that cannot be fully expressed or conveyed in words and concrete associations. The use of 'Dao' in this context refers to the literal 'way' of Buddhism, the return to the universal source, dharma, proper meditation, and nirvana, among other associations. 'Dao' is commonly used in this fashion by Chinese Buddhists, heavy with associations and nuanced meanings.


Noted Christian author C.S. Lewis used the word Tao to describe "the doctrine of objective value, the belief that certain attitudes are really true, and others really false, the kind of thing the universe is and the kind of things we are."[25] He asserted that every religion and philosophy contains foundations of universal ethics as an attempt to line up with the Tao—the way mankind was designed to be. In Lewis' thinking, God created the Tao and fully displayed it through the person of Jesus Christ. Christianity, then, would be the path that lines human beings up with the Tao most effectively.

Also the Greek word used in N.T. for the Way is ???? (hodos). Here the Way refers to the path of righteousness and salvation as revealed through Christ.

In Chinese translations of the New Testament, ????? (logos) is translated with the Chinese word dao (?) (eg John 1:1), indicating that the translators considered the concept of Tao to be somewhat equivalent to logos in Greek philosophy.


?

 (radical 60 +12, 15 strokescangjie input 竹人十田心 (HOJWP), four-corner 24236)<

  1. Noun:ethicsmoralitypower[1]virtue

«Virtue«, translated from Chinese de (), is also an important concept in Chinese philosophy, particularly DaoismDe (ChinesepinyinWade–Gileste) originally meant normative «virtue» in the sense of «personal character; inner strength; integrity», but semantically changed to moral «virtue; kindness; morality». Note the semantic parallel for English virtue, with an archaic meaning of «inner potency; divine power» (as in «by virtue of») and a modern one of «moral excellence; goodness».

Confucian moral manifestations of «virtue» include ren («humanity«), xiao («filial piety«), and li («proper behavior, performance of rituals«). In Confucianism, the notion of ren – according to Simon Leys – means «humanity» and «goodness». Ren originally had the archaic meaning in the Confucian Book of Poems of «virility», but progressively took on shades of ethical meaning. (On the origins and transformations of this concept see Lin Yu-sheng: «The evolution of the pre-Confucian meaning of jen and the Confucian concept of moral autonomy,» Monumenta Serica, vol.31, 1974-75.)

The Daoist concept of De, however, is more subtle, pertaining to the «virtue» or ability that an individual realizes by following the Dao («the Way»). One important normative value in much of Chinese thinking is that one’s social status should result from the amount of virtue that one demonstrates, rather than from one’s birth. In the AnalectsConfucius explains de as follows: «He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it.»[



? (radical 60 ?+12, 15 strokescangjie input ????? (HOJWP), four-corner 24236)<
  1. Noun:ethicsmoralitypower[1]virtue

"Virtue", translated from Chinese de (?), is also an important concept in Chinese philosophy, particularly DaoismDe (Chinese?pinyinWade–Gileste) originally meant normative "virtue" in the sense of "personal character; inner strength; integrity", but semantically changed to moral "virtue; kindness; morality". Note the semantic parallel for English virtue, with an archaic meaning of "inner potency; divine power" (as in "by virtue of") and a modern one of "moral excellence; goodness".

Confucian moral manifestations of "virtue" include ren ("humanity"), xiao ("filial piety"), and li ("proper behavior, performance of rituals"). In Confucianism, the notion of ren - according to Simon Leys - means "humanity" and "goodness". Ren originally had the archaic meaning in the Confucian Book of Poems of "virility", but progressively took on shades of ethical meaning. (On the origins and transformations of this concept see Lin Yu-sheng: "The evolution of the pre-Confucian meaning of jen and the Confucian concept of moral autonomy," Monumenta Serica, vol.31, 1974-75.)

The Daoist concept of De, however, is more subtle, pertaining to the "virtue" or ability that an individual realizes by following the Dao ("the Way"). One important normative value in much of Chinese thinking is that one's social status should result from the amount of virtue that one demonstrates, rather than from one's birth. In the AnalectsConfucius explains de as follows: "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."[

Vocabulario básico de Aikido

Vocabulario * AGATSU Victoria sobre uno mismo. De acuerdo con el fundador, victoria verdadera. (MASAKATSU) es AGATSU, entonces MASAKATSU AGATSU * AIKIDO Ai armonía, Ki vitalidad, Do camino * AIKIDOKA Persona que practica AIKIDO, tiene la conn…

Vocabulario



* AGATSU Victoria sobre uno mismo. De acuerdo con el fundador, victoria verdadera. (MASAKATSU) es AGATSU, entonces MASAKATSU AGATSU
* AIKIDO Ai armonía, Ki vitalidad, Do camino
* AIKIDOKA Persona que practica AIKIDO, tiene la connotación de experto y por lo tanto no se debe usar para referirse a uno mismo.
* AIKIKAI Asociación de Aikido creada por Morihei Ueshiba
* AI HANMI Guardias iguales para UKE y NAGE
* AI NUKE Escape mutuo. Nadie sale lastimado
* AI UCHI Muerte mutua, los dos AITEs mueren. Tradicionalmente en las artes marciales se consideraba el estado ideal. Espíritu de IKKYO OMOTE por ejemplo.
* ASHI SABAKI Desplazamientos de pies
* ATEMI Golpe con el propósito de distraer
* BOKKEN o BOKUTO Espada de madera
* BUDO El camino de las artes marciales
* CHOKUSEN Directo, eg. CHOKUSEN NO IRIMI
* CHUDAN Nivel medio
* CHUSHIN Centro
* DAN Grado de cinta negra
* DO camino
* DOJO El lugar de practica
* DOJO CHO Director técnico
* DOMO ARIGATO GOZAIMASHITA Muchas gracias por lo que hiciste.
* DOSHU Máxima autoridad del IAF, Kisshomaru Ueshiba.
* FUDO SHIN Mente inmovible
* FUKUSHIDOIN Instructor asistente
* FURI KABURI Movimiento de levantar la espada, IKKYO
* GEDAN posición baja GEDAN NO KAMAE
* GI, DOGI, KEIKOGI Ropa para practica
* GYAKU HANMI Posturas opuestas
* HAKAMA faldón usualmente para grados DAN
* HANMI Postura triangular
* HANMI HANDACHI NAGE sentado, UKE de pie
* HAPPO 8, ejemplo:. HAPPOUNDO, HAPPOGIRI
* HARA Centro donde se concentra la energía y masa en el cuerpo, fuente de Ki
* HASSONOKAMAE Postura del 8
* HENKA WAZA Variaciones de técnicas y combinaciones
* HOMBU DOJO DOJO central
* HIDARI Izquierda
* Hiji Codo
* IRIMI Entrar al cuerpo
* JINJA Templo AIKI JINJA templo en IWAMA
* JIYU WAZA Forma libre
* JO Palo
* JODAN Posición alta, ejemplo: JODANNOKAMAE
* KACHIHAYABI Victoria a la velocidad de la luz. Cuando se a logrado estado de control total sobre uno mismo y perfecta armonía con el universo AGATSU se es uno con el universo y la mera intención de alguien de romper el estado de armonía es suficiente para vencer, instantáneamente. La vida humana es una vida de amor AI y el amor no tiene enemigos
* KAESHI WAZA Contra técnica. Forma avanzada de entrenamiento
* KAISO Fundador
* KAMAE guardia
* KAMI Dios o fuerza divina
* KAMIZA Altar
* KANSETSU WAZA Técnica de control sobre coyunturas
* KATA hombro o forma predeterminada
* KATAME WAZA técnicas de control
* KATSU JIN KEN Espada salvadora. Técnicas desarrolladas con la intención de no lastimar al AITE
* KEIKO Practica
* KEN espada
* KENSHO Iluminación
* KI Vitalidad
* KIAI Concentración de energía con voz
* KIHON básico
* KI MUSUBI KI NO MUSUBI Liga de KI con el AITE
* KOHAI Estudiante con menos experiencia
* KOKORO Corazón o espíritu
* KOKYU Respiración, ejemplo: KOKYU HO, KOKYU RYOKU
* KOTODAMA Practica religiosa usando sonidos
* KU vacío
* KUMIJO Practica de parejas con JO
* KUMITACHI Practica de parejas con BOKKEN
* KUZUSHI Romper el balance del AITE
* KYU Rango de principiante
* MA AI Distancia correcta
* MAE frente
* MASAKATSU Victoria verdadera
* MIGI Derecha
* MISOGI Ritual de purificación
* MOCHI Agarre
* MOKUSO Meditación
* MUDANSHA Estudiante no cinta negra
* Mune, muna Pecho, solapa
* MUSHIN Mente limpia o en blanco; sin mente
* NAGARE fluido
* OBI cinta
* OMOTE Frente
* OMOTOKYO Grupo religioso al que perteneció Morihei Ueshiba
* ONEGAI SHIMASU Por favor
* OSAE WAZA Técnica de control
* OSENSEI Gran maestro Morihei Ueshiba
* RANDORI Estilo libre. Ataques múltiples
* REIGI Etiqueta
* SATORI Iluminación
* SENSEI Maestro
* SEIZA Posición sentado
* SEMPAI Estudiante mas avanzado
* SETSU NIN TO Espada que mata
* SHIHAN Maestro de maestros
* SHIKAKU Angulo muerto, punto ciego
* SHIKKO Caminar de rodillas
* SHINKENSHOBU Duelo con espadas afiladas
* SHINTO Religión japonesa
* SHODAN Cinta negra
* SHOMEN frente de la cabeza, frente del DOJO
* Sode Manga
* SOTO Fuera
* SUBURI Practica individual con JO o BOKKEN
* SUKASHIWAZA Técnicas de anticipación
* SUKI Abertura o falta de concentración.
* SUTEMI Abandono del cuerpo para realizar una técnica
* SUWARI WAZA Técnica sentado
* TACHI Espada o posición de parado
* TACHIWAZA Técnica parado
* TAIJITSU Practica sin armas
* TAINOHENKO TAI NO TENKAN Vuelta 180 grados con AITE
* TAI SABAKI Desplazamiento
* TAKEMUSU AIKI AIKIDO
* TANINSUGAKE Practica contra ataques múltiples
* TANTO cuchillo
* TE Mano
* TEGATANA Mano de espada
* TENKAN vuelta
* TENSHIN salida a 45 grados
* TSUKI Golpe recto
* UCHI Dentro
* UCHIDESHI Estudiante que vivió con Ueshiba
* UESHIBA KISSHOMARU DOSHU Hijo del fundador
* UESHIBA MORIHEI KAISO
* UESHIBA MORITERU DOJOCHO Nieto del fundador
* UKE Persona que recibe la técnica
* UKEMI Técnica de recibir sin lastimarse y manteniendo contacto con NAGE
* URA atrás
* USHIRO Hacia atrás, ejemplo: USHIRO UKEMI
* WAZA Técnica
* TORI o DORI agarre
* YOKO Lado
* YOKOMEN Lado de la cabeza
* YUDANSHA Cinta negra
* ZANSHIN Concentración; continuar la técnica mentalmente
* ZEN Budismo
* ZORI sandalias