Data science

A Complete Tutorial to Learn Data Science with Python from Scratch
MACHINE LEARNING PANDAS PYTHON

KUNAL JAIN , JANUARY 14, 2016

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A Complete Tutorial to Learn Data Science with Python from Scratch

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Anki

Anki is a program which makes remembering things easy. Because it’s a lot more efficient than traditional study methods, you can either greatly decrease your time spent studying, or greatly increase the amount you learn. Anyone who needs to remember things in their daily life can benefit from Anki. Since it is content-agnostic and supports … Continue reading Anki

Anki is a program which makes remembering things easy. Because it’s a lot more efficient than traditional study methods, you can either greatly decrease your time spent studying, or greatly increase the amount you learn.

Anyone who needs to remember things in their daily life can benefit from Anki. Since it is content-agnostic and supports images, audio, videos and scientific markup (via LaTeX), the possibilities are endless.
For example:

  • Learning a language
  • Studying for medical and law exams
  • Memorizing people’s names and faces
  • Brushing up on geography
  • Mastering long poems
  • Even practicing guitar chords!

Free Podcasting Software

A vast array of software is available to support your podcasting requirements; some programs offer one stop integrated solutions to all your podcasting needs, while others fill more specific niches. However, every piece of software that you need in order to record and produce a professional, quality podcast is readily available free of charge. www.richardfarrar.com … Continue reading Free Podcasting Software

A vast array of software is available to support your podcasting requirements; some programs offer one stop integrated solutions to all your podcasting needs, while others fill more specific niches. However, every piece of software that you need in order to record and produce a professional, quality podcast is readily available free of charge.

www.richardfarrar.com

Acquiring the Audio

No matter what software you choose to help create and produce your podcasts, you will first have to get your audio into the computer. How you choose to do this is entirely up to you, but is likely to depend on what level of audio quality you want and your budget. At the most basic level you could use your computer’s in-built microphone, but for a reasonable degree of quality you will want a semi-decent external microphone.

1. Audacity – Audio Recorder and Editor

2. WinLAME – Audio Encoder

winlameOnce your audio has been recorded and edited (preferably in WAV format) you will need to convert it into a suitable podcast format. The universally accepted audio file format for podcasts is MP3. WinLAME is an excellent piece of free podcasting software designed to convert WAV files into the podcast friendly MP3 format.

3. Mp3Tag – ID3 Tag Editor

sshot1qcNow that you have your podcast MP3 audio file and some suitable artwork for its cover, you will need to embed the artwork into the MP3 file and add some additional tags that can be displayed by the listener’s playback device.

ggplot2

ggplot2 is a data visualization package for the statistical programming language R. Created by Hadley Wickham in 2005, ggplot2 is an implementation of Leland Wilkinson‘s Grammar of Graphics—a general scheme for data visualization which breaks up graphs into semantic components such as scales and layers. ggplot2 can serve as a replacement for the base graphics in … Continue reading ggplot2

ggplot2 is a data visualization package for the statistical programming language R. Created by Hadley Wickham in 2005, ggplot2 is an implementation of Leland Wilkinson‘s Grammar of Graphics—a general scheme for data visualization which breaks up graphs into semantic components such as scales and layers. ggplot2 can serve as a replacement for the base graphics in R and contains a number of defaults for web and print display of common scales. Since 2005, ggplot2 has grown in use to become one of the most popular R packages.[1][2] It is licensed under GNU GPL v2.[3]

On 2 March 2012, ggplot2 version 0.9.0 was released with numerous changes to internal organization, scale construction and layers.[4] An update dealing primarily with bug fixes was released on 9 May 2012, incrementing the version to 0.9.1.[5]

On 25 February 2014, Hadley Wickham formally announced that “ggplot2 is shifting to maintenance mode. This means that we are no longer adding new features, but we will continue to fix major bugs, and consider new features submitted as pull requests. In recognition this significant milestone, the next version of ggplot2 will be 1.0.0″.[6]

Solved game

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A solved game is a game whose outcome (win, lose, or draw) can be correctly predicted from any position, given that both players play perfectly. Games which have not been solved are said to be “unsolved”. Games for which only some positions have been solved are said to be “partially … Continue reading Solved game

A solved game is a game whose outcome (win, lose, or draw) can be correctly predicted from any position, given that both players play perfectly. Games which have not been solved are said to be “unsolved”. Games for which only some positions have been solved are said to be “partially solved”. This article focuses on two-player games that have been solved.

A two-player game can be “solved” on several levels:[1][2]

Ultra-weak

Prove whether the first player will win, lose, or draw from the initial position, given perfect play on both sides. This can be a non-constructive proof (possibly involving astrategy-stealing argument) that need not actually determine any moves of the perfect play.

Weak

Provide an algorithm that secures a win for one player, or a draw for either, against any possible moves by the opponent, from the beginning of the game. That is, produce at least one complete ideal game (all moves start to end) with proof that each move is optimal for the player making it. It does not necessarily mean a computer program using the solution will play optimally against an imperfect opponent. For example, the checkers program Chinook will never turn a drawn position into a losing position (since the weak solution of checkers proves that it is a draw), but it might possibly turn a winning position into a drawn position because Chinook does not expect the opponent to play a move that will not win but could possibly lose, and so it does not analyze such moves completely.

Strong

Provide an algorithm that can produce perfect play (moves) from any position, even if mistakes have already been made on one or both sides.

Despite the name, many game theorists believe that “ultra-weak” are the deepest, most interesting and valuable proofs. “Ultra-weak” proofs require a scholar to reason about the abstract properties of the game, and show how these properties lead to certain outcomes if perfect play is realized.[citation needed]

By contrast, “strong” proofs often proceed by brute force — using a computer to exhaustively search a game tree to figure out what would happen if perfect play were realized. The resulting proof gives an optimal strategy for every possible position on the board. However, these proofs aren’t as helpful in understanding deeper reasons why some games are solvable as a draw, and other, seemingly very similar games are solvable as a win.

Given the rules of any two-person game with a finite number of positions, one can always trivially construct a minimax algorithm that would exhaustively traverse the game tree. However, since for many non-trivial games such an algorithm would require an infeasible amount of time to generate a move in a given position, a game is not considered to be solved weakly or strongly unless the algorithm can be run by existing hardware in a reasonable time. Many algorithms rely on a huge pre-generated database, and are effectively nothing more.

As an example of a strong solution, the game of tic-tac-toe is solvable as a draw for both players with perfect play (a result even manually determinable by schoolchildren). Games like nim also admit a rigorous analysis using combinatorial game theory.

Whether a game is solved is not necessarily the same as whether it remains interesting for humans to play. Even a strongly solved game can still be interesting if its solution is too complex to be memorized; conversely, a weakly solved game may lose its attraction if the winning strategy is simple enough to remember (e.g. Maharajah and the Sepoys). An ultra-weak solution (e.g. Chomp or Hex on a sufficiently large board) generally does not affect playability.

In non-perfect information games, one also has the notion of essentially weakly solved[3]. A game is said to be essentially weakly solved if a human lifetime of play is not sufficient to establish with statistical significance that the strategy is not an exact solution. As an example, the poker variation heads-up limit Texas hold ‘em have been essentially weakly solved by the poker bot Cepheus[3][4][5].

Perfect play

In game theory, perfect play is the behavior or strategy of a player that leads to the best possible outcome for that player regardless of the response by the opponent. Based on the rules of a game, every possible final position can be evaluated (as a win, loss or draw). By backward reasoning, one can recursively evaluate a non-final position as identical to that of the position that is one move away and best valued for the player whose move it is. Thus a transition between positions can never result in a better evaluation for the moving player, and a perfect move in a position would be a transition between positions that are equally evaluated. As an example, a perfect player in a drawn position would always get a draw or win, never a loss. If there are multiple options with the same outcome, perfect play is sometimes considered the fastest method leading to a good result, or the slowest method leading to a bad result.

Perfect play can be generalized to non-perfect information games, as the strategy that would guarantee the highest minimal expected outcome regardless of the strategy of the opponent. As an example, the perfect strategy for Rock, Paper, Scissors would be to randomly choose each of the options with equal (1/3) probability. The disadvantage in this example is that this strategy will never exploit non-optimal strategies of the opponent, so the expected outcome of this strategy versus any strategy will always be equal to the minimal expected outcome.

Although the optimal strategy of a game may not (yet) be known, a game-playing computer might still benefit from solutions of the game from certain endgame positions (in the form of endgame tablebases), which will allow it to play perfectly after some point in the game. Computer chess programs are well known for doing this.

Solved games

Awari (a game of the Mancala family)
The variant of Oware allowing game ending “grand slams” was strongly solved by Henri Bal and John Romein at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, Netherlands (2002). Either player can force the game into a draw.
Checkers
See “Draughts, English”
Chopsticks
The second player can always force a win.[6]
Connect Four
Solved first by James D. Allen (Oct 1, 1988), and independently by Victor Allis (Oct 16, 1988).[7] First player can force a win. Strongly solved by John Tromp’s 8-ply database[8](Feb 4, 1995). Weakly solved for all boardsizes where width+height is at most 15[7] (Feb 18, 2006).
Draughts, English (Checkers)
This 8×8 variant of draughts was weakly solved on April 29, 2007 by the team of Jonathan Schaeffer, known for Chinook, the “World Man-Machine Checkers Champion“. From the standard starting position, both players can guarantee a draw with perfect play.[9] Checkers is the largest game that has been solved to date, with a search space of 5×1020.[10] The number of calculations involved was 1014, which were done over a period of 18 years. The process involved from 200 desktop computers at its peak down to around 50.[11]

The game of checkers has roughly 500 billion billion possible positions (5 × 1020). The task of solving the game, determining the final result in a game with no mistakes made by either player, is daunting. Since 1989, almost continuously, dozens of computers have been working on solving checkers, applying state-of-the-art artificial intelligence techniques to the proving process. This paper announces that checkers is now solved: Perfect play by both sides leads to a draw. This is the most challenging popular game to be solved to date, roughly one million times as complex as Connect Four. Artificial intelligence technology has been used to generate strong heuristic-based game-playing programs, such as Deep Blue for chess. Solving a game takes this to the next level by replacing the heuristics with perfection.

learning expectations

Some time ago, when I started as a Professor I was teaching a remedial class on mathematics for IT on a Master’s class at a prestigious university, at the end of one the sessions on of the students approached me … Continue reading

Some time ago, when I started as a Professor I was teaching a remedial class on mathematics for IT on a Master’s class at a prestigious university, at the end of one the sessions on of the students approached me and told me that the material was new to him and the rest of the class. I thought that he was giving me a compliment and told him I was happy that I was teaching them something new. But he said I did not understand that it was supposed to be a remedial class and I shouldn’t be teaching beyond the minimum denominator of the students knowledge.

I have to admit that it was a disaster. My idea was to use mathematical induction as the core concept and relate that to the correct design of programs in the spirit of Dijkstra. I was therefore giving more emphasis to the techniques of formal proof than specific results. I wanted to model for them the actual process of finding the proofs and purposely I did not rehearse in advance the proofs but I performed cold turkey in front of the class. The class completely misunderstood what I was doing and interpreted it as incompetence on my part. On hindsight I should have made it very explicit and clear what was my aim and method. After many years of teaching I have come to grips with the idea that the student is the customer and his needs and expectations are a primary concern. Yet, students are peculiar customers, an aphorism is that students are happiest when no service is render. One of the main problems is that expectations are very low. Students enrolled in Masters aimed at working adults do not expect or even want to learn anything new. Their real motivation is to enhance their curriculum to qualify for a promotion or a higher level job elsewhere. Typically, they are middle level managers that are overworked and always traveling.

Technology offers an opportunity to provide a more personalized and effective learning model but so far this opportunity is been wasted. Most on-line programs are unnecessarily the same as traditional ones. With fix start and finish dates and the material itself is no different in format or content to traditional course-ware. Instead of fix term course, on-line programs could be based on small task-oriented modules, that will give the students greater flexibility on choosing content and setting a working pace.


learning expectations

Some time ago, when I started as a Professor I was teaching a remedial class on mathematics for IT on a Master’s class at a prestigious university, at the end of one the sessions on of the students approached me … Continue reading

Some time ago, when I started as a Professor I was teaching a remedial class on mathematics for IT on a Master’s class at a prestigious university, at the end of one the sessions on of the students approached me and told me that the material was new to him and the rest of the class. I thought that he was giving me a compliment and told him I was happy that I was teaching them something new. But he said I did not understand that it was supposed to be a remedial class and I shouldn’t be teaching beyond the minimum denominator of the students knowledge.

I have to admit that it was a disaster. My idea was to use mathematical induction as the core concept and relate that to the correct design of programs in the spirit of Dijkstra. I was therefore giving more emphasis to the techniques of formal proof than specific results. I wanted to model for them the actual process of finding the proofs and purposely I did not rehearse in advance the proofs but I performed cold turkey in front of the class. The class completely misunderstood what I was doing and interpreted it as incompetence on my part. On hindsight I should have made it very explicit and clear what was my aim and method. After many years of teaching I have come to grips with the idea that the student is the customer and his needs and expectations are a primary concern. Yet, students are peculiar customers, an aphorism is that students are happiest when no service is render. One of the main problems is that expectations are very low. Students enrolled in Masters aimed at working adults do not expect or even want to learn anything new. Their real motivation is to enhance their curriculum to qualify for a promotion or a higher level job elsewhere. Typically, they are middle level managers that are overworked and always traveling.

Technology offers an opportunity to provide a more personalized and effective learning model but so far this opportunity is been wasted. Most on-line programs are unnecessarily the same as traditional ones. With fix start and finish dates and the material itself is no different in format or content to traditional course-ware. Instead of fix term course, on-line programs could be based on small task-oriented modules, that will give the students greater flexibility on choosing content and setting a working pace.