Something is rotten in the state of Denmark

02 November 2015 Bugs collected on rooftop for 18 years reveal climate change effects CLIMATE A volunteer registration of insects for 18 consecutive years on the roof of the Natural History Museum of Denmark has revealed local insect community turnover due to climate change. The research suggests a pattern of specialised species being more sensitive […]

02 November 2015

Bugs collected on rooftop for 18 years reveal climate change effects

CLIMATE

A volunteer registration of insects for 18 consecutive years on the roof of the Natural History Museum of Denmark has revealed local insect community turnover due to climate change. The research suggests a pattern of specialised species being more sensitive to climate change.

1543 different species of moths and beetles and more than 250.000 individuals have been registered on a single urban rooftop in Copenhagen over 18 years of monitoring. That corresponds to 42 % of all the species of moths in Denmark and 12 % of the beetles. More interestingly, the insect community has changed significantly during that period. The results are published today in the Journal of Animal Ecology led by researchers from the Center for GeoGenetics and the Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate at the Natural History Museum of Denmark at the University of Copenhagen.

“We are likely to lose some specialist species as they retreat north, but more new specialist species will arrive from the south. This trend is theoretically expected but extremely rare to confirm with observations across this many species. Insects are often over-looked and under prioritised for long term studies” says the other lead authorPeter Søgaard Jørgensen, PhD from the Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate.


open data

Sean Hargrave Friday 20 November 2015 10.03 GMT At the end of the month, world governments will convene at the UN COP21 conference in Paris for the next round of binding emission commitments aimed at restricting global warming to no more than two degrees by the end of the century. When it comes to agreeing potentially […]

At the end of the month, world governments will convene at the UN COP21 conference in Paris for the next round of binding emission commitments aimed at restricting global warming to no more than two degrees by the end of the century.

When it comes to agreeing potentially tougher targets, both policymakers and members of the public will now be armed with the COP21 climate change calculator, developed by the Climate-KIC, the EU’s main climate innovation research centre, in collaboration with Imperial College, London and FT.com.

Using data on the emission reduction pledges made to date and scientific forecasts on future warming, it aims to inform the public and policymakers on the impact a variety of choices by individual countries would have on overall global warming.


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The Garden of Eden (Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן, Gan ʿEdhen) is the biblical “garden of God”, described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 and 3, and also in the Book of Ezekiel.[2] The “garden of God”, not called … Continue reading

The Garden of Eden (Hebrew ???? ?????, Gan ?Edhen) is the biblical “garden of God”, described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 and 3, and also in the Book of Ezekiel.[2] The “garden of God”, not called Eden, is mentioned in Genesis 14, and the “trees of the garden” are mentioned in Ezekiel 31. The Book of Zechariah and the Book of Psalms also refer to trees and water in relation to the temple without explicitly mentioning Eden.[3]

Traditionally, the favoured derivation of the name “Eden” was from the Akkadian edinnu, derived from a Sumerian word meaning “plain” or “steppe”. Eden is now believed to be more closely related to an Aramaic root word meaning “fruitful, well-watered.”[2] The Hebrew term is translated “pleasure” in Sarah’s secret saying in Genesis 18:12.[4]

The story of Eden echoes the Mesopotamian myth of a king, as a primordial man, who is placed in a divine garden to guard the tree of life.[5] In theHebrew Bible, Adam and Eve are depicted as walking around the Garden of Eden naked due to their innocence.[6] Eden and its rivers may signify the real Jerusalem, the Temple of Solomon, or the Promised Land. It may also represent the divine garden on Zion, and the mountain of God, which was also Jerusalem. The imagery of the Garden, with its serpent and cherubs, has been compared to the images of the Solomonic Temple with its copper serpent, the nehushtan, and guardian cherubs.

Persian Gulf

Juris Zarins believes that the Garden of Eden was situated at the head of the Persian Gulf, where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers run into the sea, from his research on this area using information from many different sources, including Landsat images from space. In this theory, the Bible’s Gihon River would correspond with the Karun River in Iran, and the Pishon River would correspond to the Wadi Batin river system that once drained the now dry, but once quite fertile central part of the Arabian Peninsula.[15]

Tabriz

David M. Rohl (British Egyptologist and former director of the Institute for the Study of Interdisciplinary Sciences) posits a location for the legendary Garden of Eden in Iranian Azerbaijan, in the vicinity of Tabriz upon which the Genesis tradition was based. According to Rohl, the Garden of Eden was then located in a long valley to the north of Sahand volcano, near Tabriz. He cites several geographical similarities and toponyms which he believes match the biblical description. These similarities include the nearby headwaters of the four rivers of Eden, the Tigris (Heb. Hiddekel, Akk. Idiqlat), Euphrates (Heb. Perath, Akk. Purattu), Gaihun-Aras (Heb., Gihon), and Uizun (Heb. Pishon)

Gihon is the name of the second river mentioned in the second chapter of the biblical Book of Genesis. The Gihon is mentioned as one of four rivers (along with the Tigris, Euphrates, and Pishon) issuing out of the Garden of Eden that branched from a single river within the garden. The name (Hebrew Gi?ôn ?????) may be interpreted as “bursting forth, gushing”.

The Gihon is described as “encircling the entire land of Cush“, a name associated with Ethiopia elsewhere in the Bible or Kush. This is one of the reasons that Ethiopians have long identified the Gihon (Giyon) with the Abay River (Blue Nile), which encircles the former kingdom of Gojjam. From a current geographic standpoint this would seem impossible, since two of the other rivers said to issue out of Eden, the Tigris and the Euphrates, are in Mesopotamia. However, the scholar Edward Ullendorff has argued in support of this identification.[1] The city in the Mesopotamian area which best fits the description is called Kish (derivative of Kush or Cush) located in a plain area (Sumerian ‘edin’) and resembles an area that is repeatedly flooded by the rivers Euphrates and Tigris.

Nineteenth century, modern, and Arabic scholars have sought to identify the “land of Cush” with Hindu Kush, and Gihon with Amu Darya (Jihon/Jayhon of the Islamic texts). Amu Darya was known in the medieval Islamic writers as Jayhun or Ceyhun in Turkish.[2]This was a derivative of Jihon, or Zhihon as it is still known by the Persians.[3][4]

First-century Jewish historian Josephus associated the Gihon river with the Nile.[5]

Gihon has also been associated with the Araxes (modern Aras) river of Turkey. Another proposed idea is that the Gihon river no longer exists, or has significantly altered its course, since the topography of the area has supposedly been altered by the Noachian Flood.

Juris Zarins identified the Gihon with the Karun River in Iran and Kush with the land of the Kassites.


Projections

Published on Nov 11, 2013 Follow Michael Stevens: http://www.twitter.com/tweetsauce EXTRA INFO & LINKS BELOW! Dr. Julian Bayliss’ rainforest story: http://youtu.be/mni8mSS4KDU Cool video from CGPGrey: “How Many Countries Are There?”http://youtu.be/4AivEQmfPpk upside-down map: http://paulmencke.nl.dualdev.com/wp-c… INTERACTIVE projection site:http://www.jasondavies.com/maps/trans… Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/ Mercator Puzzle: https://gmaps-samples.googlecode.com/… xkcd on maps: http://xkcd.com/977/ Earth “live”: http://aa.usno.navy.mil/imagery/earth… interactive gnomonic: http://bl.ocks.org/mbostock/3795048 West Wing MAPS clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n8zBC2… Earth from Mars: http://astrobob.areavoices.com/2012/0… Earth from Saturn: http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/news/newsr… “look” etymology: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?t… wave […]

Published on Nov 11, 2013

Follow Michael Stevens: http://www.twitter.com/tweetsauce
EXTRA INFO & LINKS BELOW!

Dr. Julian Bayliss’ rainforest story: http://youtu.be/mni8mSS4KDU

Cool video from CGPGrey: “How Many Countries Are There?”http://youtu.be/4AivEQmfPpk

upside-down map: http://paulmencke.nl.dualdev.com/wp-c…

INTERACTIVE projection site:http://www.jasondavies.com/maps/trans…

Chromoscope: http://www.chromoscope.net/

Mercator Puzzle: https://gmaps-samples.googlecode.com/…

xkcd on maps: http://xkcd.com/977/

Earth “live”: http://aa.usno.navy.mil/imagery/earth…

interactive gnomonic: http://bl.ocks.org/mbostock/3795048

West Wing MAPS clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n8zBC2…

Earth from Mars: http://astrobob.areavoices.com/2012/0…

Earth from Saturn: http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/news/newsr…

“look” etymology: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?t…

wave on a string simulation: http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulatio…

Hi-res electromagnetic spectrum: http://www.zulyzami.com/dl16?display

Earth under different light: http://orbitingfrog.com/2008/06/25/ea…

Moon’s shadow on Earth: http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astron…

Bad Astronomer on twitter: https://twitter.com/BadAstronomer

Africa compared to big countries: http://cdn.twentytwowords.com/wp-cont…

Map projection info:

http://usersguidetotheuniverse.com/?p…
http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/map…
http://www.radicalcartography.net/?pr…
http://www.geo.hunter.cuny.edu/~joche…
http://education.nationalgeographic.c…
http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcr…
http://kartoweb.itc.nl/geometrics/map…
http://www.giss.nasa.gov/tools/gproje…

What we used to think Earth looked like from space:http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/smart…

Earth is not a perfect sphere:http://www.scientificamerican.com/art…


with luck, balls are better than brains

Christopher Columbus (c. 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an explorer, colonizer, and navigator, born in the Republic of Genoa, in what is today northwestern Italy.[2][3][4][5] Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four … Continue reading

Christopher Columbus (c. 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an explorer, colonizer, and navigator, born in the Republic of Genoa, in what is today northwestern Italy.[2][3][4][5] Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents in the Western Hemisphere. Those voyages, and his efforts to establish permanent settlements in the island of Hispaniola, initiated the process of Spanish colonization, which foreshadowed the general European colonization of the “New World“.

In the context of emerging western imperialism and economic competition between European kingdoms seeking wealth through the establishment of trade routes and colonies, Columbus’ far-fetched proposal to reach the East Indies by sailing westward received the support of the Spanish crown, which saw in it a promise, however remote, of gaining the upper hand over rival powers in the contest for the lucrative spice trade with Asia. During his first voyage in 1492, instead of reaching Japan as he had intended, Columbus landed in the Bahamas archipelago, at a locale he named San Salvador. Over the course of three more voyages, Columbus visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Colombia, Venezuela and Central America, claiming them for the Spanish Empire.

Never admitting that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies he had set out for, Columbus called the inhabitants of the lands he visited indios (Spanish for “Indians“).[7][8][9] Columbus’ strained relationship with the Spanish crown and its appointed colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and dismissal as governor of the settlements in Hispaniola in 1500, and later to protracted litigation over the benefits which Columbus and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown.

Washington Irving‘s 1828 biography of Columbus popularized the idea that Columbus had difficulty obtaining support for his plan because many Catholic theologians insisted that the Earth was flat.[25] In fact, most educated Westerners had understood that the Earth was spherical at least since the time of Aristotle, who lived in the 4th century BC and whose works were widely studied and revered in Medieval Europe.[26] The sphericity of the Earth is also accounted for in the work of Ptolemy, on which ancient astronomy was largely based. Christian writers whose works clearly reflect the conviction that the Earth is spherical include Saint Bede the Venerable in his Reckoning of Time, written around AD 723. In Columbus’ time, the techniques of celestial navigation, which use the position of the Sun and the Stars in the sky, together with the understanding that the Earth is a sphere, were widely used by mariners.

Where Columbus did differ from the view accepted by scholars in his day was in his estimate of the westward distance from Europe to Asia. Columbus’ ideas in this regard were based on three factors: his low estimate of the size of the Earth, his high estimate of the size of the Eurasian landmass, and his belief that Japan and other inhabited islands lay far to the east of the coast of China. In all three of these issues Columbus was both wrong and at odds with the scholarly consensus of his day.

As far back as the 3rd century BC, Eratosthenes had correctly computed the circumference of the Earth by using simple geometry and studying the shadows cast by objects at two different locations: Alexandria and Syene (modern-day Aswan).[27] Eratosthenes’s results were confirmed by a comparison of stellar observations at Alexandria and Rhodes, carried out by Posidonius in the 1st century BC. These measurements were widely known among scholars, but confusion about the old-fashioned units of distance in which they were expressed had led, in Columbus’s day, to some debate about the exact size of the Earth.


Click to view slideshow.

Sources (Taken from the oatmeal via Anacephalaeosis) :

A People’s History of the United States, by Howard Zinn, and Lies My Teacher Told Me, by James W. Loewen.


the place to be in the event of an economic collapse

Published on Jan 24, 2013 The Dollar Vigilante’s Jeff Berwick is back chatting about a myriad of economic and stock market-related issues with Cambridge House Live’s anchor, Bridgitte Anderson. Taped at Cambridge House International’s Vancouver Resource Investment Conference. Published on … Continue reading

Published on Jan 24, 2013

The Dollar Vigilante’s Jeff Berwick is back chatting about a myriad of economic and stock market-related issues with Cambridge House Live’s anchor, Bridgitte Anderson. Taped at Cambridge House International’s Vancouver Resource Investment Conference.


Published on Jun 14, 2012

Where would be the place in the United States to be in the event of an economic collapse? What if you had to grow some of your own food to feed your family? What if utilities failed provide water, natural gas or electricity? How would you heat your home or cook your meals? What if riots and crime plagued large cities? What would happen if the government stopped handing out Foodstamps and Welfare? This is one analysis of where may be the best place to be in the United States?


Lake Vostok

Russian scientists are reporting success in their quest to drill into Lake Vostok, a huge body of liquid water buried under the Antarctic ice. It is the first time such a breakthrough has been made into one of the more … Continue reading

Russian scientists are reporting success in their quest to drill into Lake Vostok, a huge body of liquid water buried under the Antarctic ice.

It is the first time such a breakthrough has been made into one of the more than 300 sub-glacial lakes known to exist on the White Continent.

Researchers believe Vostok can give them some fresh insights into the frozen history of Antarctica.

They also hope to find microbial lifeforms that are new to science.

“This fills my soul with joy,” said Valery Lukin, from Russia’s Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) in St Petersburg, which has been overseeing the project,

“This will give us the possibility to biologically evaluate the evolution of living organisms… because those organisms spent a long time without contact with the atmosphere, without sunlight,” he was quoted as saying in a translation of national media reports by BBC Monitoring.

The drilling project has taken years to plan and implement. The lake’s location in the heart of East Antarctic Ice Sheet is one of the most inhospitable places on Earth.

It is the place where thermometers recorded the lowest ever temperature on the planet – minus 89C on 21 July 1983.

Vostok Station was first set up in 1956. However, it was only in the 1970s when, with the help of radar, British scientists first started to suspect there might be something underneath all the ice.

Further geophysical survey data then established the true scale of the sub-glacial feature.

With an area of 15,000 square km and with depths reaching more than 800m, Lake Vostok is similar in size to Lake Baikal in Siberia or Lake Ontario in North America.

More than 300 such bodies of water have now been identified across Antarctica. They are kept liquid by geothermal heat and pressure, and are part of a vast and dynamic hydrological network at play under the ice sheet.

Some of the lakes are connected, and will exchange water. But some may be completely cut off, in which case their water may have been resident in one place for thousands if not millions of years. Russian researchers will try to establish just how isolated Lake Vostok has been. If it has been sealed then micro-organisms new to science are very likely to have evolved in the lake.

Nonetheless, there will be concerns about introducing contamination, and there have been criticisms of the methods used by the Vostok drilling team.

Vladimir Chuprov, from Greenpeace Russia, commented: “There is a set of risks which can damage this relic lake and some of them are connected with polluting the lake with the drilling fluids, as well as other stuff that can get into this unique lake.”

The drilling team counters that is has taken the necessary precautions.

Map

The Vostok project is one of a number of similar ventures being undertaken on the White Continent.

The British Antarctic Survey (Bas) is hoping to begin its effort to drill into Lake Ellsworth in West Antarctica later this year. An American crew is targeting Lake Whillans, also in the West.

“It is an important milestone that has been completed and a major achievement for the Russians because they’ve been working on this for years,” Professor Martin Siegert, the principal investigator on the Bas-Ellsworth project said.

“The Russian team share our mission to understand subglacial lake environments and we look forward to developing collaborations with their scientists and also those from the US and other nations, as we all embark on a quest to comprehend these pristine, extreme environments,” he told AP.

The projects are of particular fascination to astrobiologists, who study the origins and likely distribution of life across the Universe.

Conditions in these Antarctic lakes may not be that different from those in the liquid water bodies thought to exist under the surfaces of icy moons in the outer Solar System.

Places like Europa, which orbits Jupiter, and Enceladus, which circles Saturn, may be among the best places beyond Earth to go look for alien organisms.

Jonathan.Amos-INTERNET@bbc.co.uk and follow me on Twitter


Zea

Zea is a genus of grasses in the family Poaceae. Several species are commonly known as teosintes and are found in Mexico, Guatemala, and Nicaragua. There are five recognized species in the genus: Zea diploperennis, Zea perennis, Zea luxurians, Zea … Continue reading

Zea is a genus of grasses in the family Poaceae. Several species are commonly known as teosintes and are found in Mexico, Guatemala, and Nicaragua.

There are five recognized species in the genus: Zea diploperennis, Zea perennis, Zea luxurians, Zea nicaraguensis, and Zea mays. The last species is further divided into four subspecies: huehuetenangensis, mexicana, parviglumis, and mays. The first three subspecies are teosintes; the last is maize, or corn, the only domesticated taxon in the genus Zea. The species are grouped into two sections, sect. Luxuriantes, with the first four species, and sect. Zea with Zea mays. The former section is typified by dark-staining knobs made up of heterochromatin that are terminal on most chromosome arms, while most subspecies of sect. Zea may have 0 to 3 knobs between each chromosome end and the centromere and very few terminal knobs (except Z. m. huehuetenangensis which has many large terminal knobs). The two perennials are thought to be one species by some.

Teosintes are critical components of maize evolution, but opinions vary about which taxa were involved. According to the most widely-held evolutionary model, the crop was derived directly from Z. m. parviglumis by selection of key mutations [3]; up to 12% of its genetic material came from Z. m. mexicana through introgression. Another model proposes that a tiny-eared wild maize was domesticated, and after being spread from east-central Mexico, this cultigen hybridized with Z. luxurians or Z. diploperennis resulting in a great explosion of maize genetic diversity, ear and kernel forms, and capacity to adapt to new habitats, as well as increased yields. A third model suggests that the early maize resulted from a cross between Z. diploperennis and a species of Tripsacum; support for this is minimal. A fourth model posits that teosinte resulted from hybridization between an early wild form of Z. m. mays and Tripsacum.[4]

All but the Nicaraguan species of teosinte may grow in or very near corn fields, providing opportunities for introgression between teosinte and maize. First- and later-generation hybrids are often found in the fields, but the rate of gene exchange is quite low. Some populations of Z. m. mexicana display Vavilovian mimicry within cultivated maize fields, having evolved a maize-like form as a result of the farmers’selective weeding pressure. In some areas of Mexico, teosintes are regarded by maize farmers as a noxious weed, while in a few areas farmers regard it as a beneficial companion plant, and encourage its introgression into their maize.


chichimeca

Chichimeca was the name that the Nahua peoples of Mexico generically applied to a wide range of semi-nomadic peoples who inhabited the north of modern-day Mexico and southwestern United States, and carried the same sense as the European term “barbarian“. … Continue reading

Chichimeca was the name that the Nahua peoples of Mexico generically applied to a wide range of semi-nomadic peoples who inhabited the north of modern-day Mexico and southwestern United States, and carried the same sense as the European term “barbarian“. The name was adopted with a pejorative tone by the Spaniards when referring especially to the semi-nomadic hunter-gatherer peoples of northern Mexico. In modern times only one ethnic group is customarily referred to as Chichimecs, namely the Chichimeca Jonaz, although lately this usage is being changed for simply “Jonáz” or their own name for themselves “Úza“.

The Chichimeca peoples were in fact many different groups with varying ethnic and linguistic affiliations. As the Spaniards worked towards consolidating the rule of New Spain over the Mexican indigenous peoples during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the “Chichimecan tribes” maintained a resistance. A number of ethnic groups of the region allied against the Spanish, and the following military colonization of northern Mexico has become known as the “Chichimeca Wars“.

Many of the peoples called Chichimeca are virtually unknown today; few descriptions mention them and they seem to have been absorbed into mestizo culture or into other indigenous ethnic groups. For example, virtually nothing is known about the peoples referred to as Guachichiles, Caxcanes, Zacatecos, Tecuexes, or Guamares. Others like the Opata or “Eudeve” are well described but extinct as a people.

Other “Chichimec” peoples maintain a separate identity into the present day, for example the Otomies, Chichimeca Jonaz, Coras, Huicholes, Pames, Yaquis, Mayos, O’odham and the Tepehuánes.

The Nahuatl name Ch?ch?m?cah (plural, pronounced [t?i?t?i??me?ka?]; singular Ch?ch?m?catl) means “inhabitants of Chichiman”; the placename Chichiman itself means “Area of Milk”. It is sometimes said to be related to chichi “dog”, but the i’s in chichi are short while those in Ch?ch?m?cah are long, a phonemic distinction in Nahuatl.[1] The word could either have a negative “barbarous” sense, or a positive “noble savage” sense.[2]

The word “Chichimeca” was originally used by the Nahua to describe their own prehistory as a nomadic hunter-gatherer people and used in contrast to their later, more “civilized,” urban lifestyle that they identified with the term Toltecatl.[3] In modern Mexico, the word “Chichimeca” can have pejorative connotations such as “primitive”, “savage”, “uneducated” and “native”.

The first descriptions of “Chichimecs” are from the early conquest period. In 1526, Hernán Cortés writes in one of his letters of the northern Chichimec tribes who were not as civilized as the Aztecs he had conquered, but commented that they might be enslaved and used to work in the mines.

This approach was followed by Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán whose attempts to enslave the indigenous populations of northern Mexico provoked the Mixtón Rebellion where Chichimec tribes resisted the Spanish forces.

In the late sixteenth century, an account of the Chichimecs was written by Gonzalo de las Casas who had received an encomienda near Durango and fought in the wars against the Chichimec peoples — the Pames, the Guachichiles, the Guamari and the Zacatecos who lived in the area which was called “La Gran Chichimeca.” Las Casas’ account was called “Report of the Chichimeca and the justness of the war against them”, and contained ethnographic information about the peoples called Chichimecs. He wrote that they did not use clothes (only to cover their genitalia), painted their bodies and ate only game, roots and berries. He mentions as further proof of their barbarity that Chichimec women having given birth continued travelling on the same day without stopping to recover.[4] While las Casas recognized that the Chichimecan tribes spoke different languages he saw their culture as primarily uniform.

In 1590, the Franciscan priest Alonso Ponce commented that the Chichimeca had no religion because they did not even worship idols such as the other peoples – in his eyes another symptom of their barbarous nature. The only somewhat nuanced description of the Chichimeca is found in Bernardino de Sahagún‘s Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España in which some Chichimec people such as the Otomi were described as knowing agriculture, living in settled communities, and having a religion devoted to the worship of the Moon.

The image of the Chichimecas as described by the early sources was typical of the era; the natives were “savages” – accomplished at war and hunting, but with no established society or morals, fighting even amongst themselves. This description became even more prevalent over the course of the Chichimec wars as justification for the war (the Chichimec area was not entirely under Spanish control until 1721).

The first description of a modern objective ethnography of the peoples inhabiting La Gran Chichimeca was done by Norwegian naturalist and explorer Carl Sofus Lumholtz in 1890 when he traveled on muleback through northwestern Mexico, meeting the indigenous peoples on friendly terms. With his descriptions of the rich and different cultures of the various “uncivilized” tribes, the picture of the uniform Chichimec barbarians was changed – although in Mexican Spanish the word “Chichimeca” remains connected to an image of “savagery”.

The historian Paul Kirchhoff, in his work “The Hunting-Gathering People of North Mexico,” described the Chichimecas as sharing a hunter-gatherer culture, based on the gathering of mesquite, agave, and tunas (the fruit of the nopal). While others also lived off of acorns, roots and seeds. In some areas, the Chichimecas cultivated maize and calabash. From the mesquite, the Chichamecs made white bread and wine. Many Chichimec tribes utilized the juice of the agave as a substitute for water when it was in short supply.

The Chichimecas were involved in the Mixton Rebellion (1540–1541) and the Chichimeca War (1550–1590). After a series of negotiations with the Spaniards, most of the Chichimecas were encouraged to take part in peaceful agricultural pursuits. Within decades, they were assimilated into the Spanish and Indian mestizo culture.[5]

The Otomi people (English pronunciation: /?o?t??mi?/[1] is an indigenous ethnic group inhabiting the central altiplano of Mexico. The two most populous groups are the Highland or Sierra Otomí living in the mountains of La Huasteca and the Mezquital Otomí, living in the Mezquital valley in the eastern part of the state of Hidalgo, and in the state of Querétaro. Sierra Otomí usually self identify as Ñuhu or Ñuhmu depending on the dialect they speak, whereas Mezquital Otomi selfidentify as Hñähñu (pronounced [???????]).[2] Smaller Otomi populations exist in the states of Puebla, Mexico, Tlaxcala, Michoacán and Guanajuato.[3] The Otomi language belonging to the Oto-Pamean branch of the Oto-Manguean language family is spoken in many different varieties some of which are not mutually intelligible.

One of the early complex cultures of Mesoamerica, the Otomi were likely the original inhabitants of the central Mexican altiplano before the arrival of Nahuatl speakers around ca. 1000 AD, but graduately they were replaced and marginalized by Nahua peoples. In the colonial period Otomi speakers helped the Spanish conquistadors as mercenaries and allies, which allowed them to extend into territories that had previously been inhabited by semi-nomadic Chichimecs, for example Querétaro and Guanajuato.

The Otomi traditionally worshipped the moon as their highest deity, and even into modern times many Otomi populations practice Shamanism and hold prehispanic beliefs such as Nagualism. Otomies traditionally subsisted on maize, beans and squash as most Mesoamerican sedentary peoples, but the Maguey (Century Plant) was also an important cultigen used for production of alcohol (pulque) and fiber (henequen).

The name Otomi comes from the Nahuatl otomitl, which is possibly derived from an older word totomitl “shooter of birds”.[4] It is not an Otomi endonym; the Otomi refer to themselves as Hñähñú, Hñähño, Hñotho, Hñähü, Hñätho, Y?h?, Y?hm?, Ñ?h?, Ñ?th? or Ñañh? depending on which dialect of Otomi they speak.[4][5][cn 1] Most of the variant forms are composed of two morphemes meaning “speak” and “well” respectively.[6]

The word Otomi entered the Spanish language through Nahuatl and is used to describe the larger Otomi macroethnic group and the dialect continuum. From Spanish the word Otomi has become entrenched in the linguistic and anthropological literature. Among linguists, the suggestion has been made to change the academic designation from Otomi to Hñähñú, the endonym used by the Otomi of the Mezquital valley; however, no common endonym exists for all dialects of the language.[4][5][7]

The Otomi language is part of the Otopamean language family, which also includes Chichimeca Jonaz, Mazahua, Pame, Ocuilteco, and Matlatzinca, which belong to the Otomangean language group (consisting of the Amuzgoan, Chinantecan, Mixtecan, Otopamean, Popolocan, Tlapanecan, and Zapotecan language families). The Otomi of the Valle de Mezquital speak nHa:nHu while the Otomi south of Querétaro speak nHa:nHo, together amounting to 300,000 people (some 5 to 6 percent is monolingual), most of whom live in the states of Hidalgo (Valle de Mezquital), México, Puebla, Querétaro, Tlaxcala, Michoacán and Veracruz.


Crime of apartheid

The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity ”committed in the context of an institutionalized regime of systematicoppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups … Continue reading

The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity ”committed in the context of an institutionalized regime of systematicoppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups and committed with the intention of maintaining that regime.”

On 30 November 1973, the United Nations General Assembly opened for signature and ratification the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid (ICSPCA)[1] It defined the crime of apartheid as “inhuman acts committed for the purpose of establishing and maintaining domination by one racial group of persons over any other racial group of persons and systematically oppressing them.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crime_of_apartheid

http://stream.aljazeera.com/story/un-considers-new-nation