Fit not Fat

Obesity and the Economics of Prevention
Fit not Fat
DOI:10.1787/9789264084865-en
This book examines the scale and characteristics of the obesity epidemic, the respective roles and influence of market forces and governments, and the impact of interventi…

Obesity and the Economics of Prevention

Fit not Fat

DOI:10.1787/9789264084865-en

This book examines the scale and characteristics of the obesity epidemic, the respective roles and influence of market forces and governments, and the impact of interventions.

Frankfurter Schule

The Frankfurt School (German: Frankfurter Schule) is a school of social theory and philosophy associated in part with the Institute for Social Research at the Goethe University Frankfurt. Founded during the interwar period, the School consisted of dissidents who were … Continue reading

The Frankfurt School (German: Frankfurter Schule) is a school of social theory and philosophy associated in part with the Institute for Social Research at the Goethe University Frankfurt. Founded during the interwar period, the School consisted of dissidents who were at home neither in the existent capitalist, fascist, nor communist systems that had formed at the time. Many of these theorists believed that traditional theory could not adequately explain the turbulent and unexpected development of capitalist societies in the twentieth century. Critical of both capitalism and Soviet socialism, their writings pointed to the possibility of an alternative path to social development.[1]

Although sometimes only loosely affiliated, Frankfurt School theorists spoke with a common paradigm in mind; they shared the same assumptions and were preoccupied with similar questions.[2] To fill in the perceived omissions of classical Marxism, they sought to draw answers from other schools of thought, hence using the insights of antipositivist sociology, psychoanalysis, existential philosophy, and other disciplines.[3] The school’s main figures sought to learn from and synthesize the works of such varied thinkers as Kant, Hegel, Marx, Freud, Weber, and Lukács.[4]

Following Marx, they were concerned with the conditions that allow for social change and the establishment of rational institutions.[5]Their emphasis on the “critical” component of theory was derived significantly from their attempt to overcome the limits of positivism,materialism, and determinism by returning to Kant’s critical philosophy and its successors in German idealism, principally Hegel’s philosophy, with its emphasis on dialectic and contradiction as inherent properties of human reality.

Since the 1960s, Frankfurt School critical theory has increasingly been guided by Jürgen Habermas‘s work on communicative reason, linguistic intersubjectivity and what Habermas calls “the philosophical discourse of modernity“.[6] Critical theorists such as Raymond Geuss and Nikolas Kompridis have voiced opposition to Habermas, claiming that he has undermined the aspirations for social change that originally gave purpose to critical theory’s various projects—for example the problem of what reason should mean, the analysis and enlargement of “conditions of possibility” for social emancipation, and the critique of modern capitalism

money supply

Published on Apr 23, 2013 Thanks to Grey for his help on this video:http://www.youtube.com/user/CGPGrey Thanks to Jack for helping with the intro:http://www.youtube.com/user/jackvslife LINKS AND SOURCES TO LEARN MORE BELOW. music by http://www.youtube.com/JakeChudnow GlobalRichList.com: http://www.globalrichlist.com/ Type currency symbols: http://currencies.typeit.org/ money changing hands [PDF]: http://www.swiftinstitute.org/sites/d… murder … Continue reading

Published on Apr 23, 2013

Thanks to Grey for his help on this video:http://www.youtube.com/user/CGPGrey
Thanks to Jack for helping with the intro:http://www.youtube.com/user/jackvslife
LINKS AND SOURCES TO LEARN MORE BELOW.

music by http://www.youtube.com/JakeChudnow

GlobalRichList.com: http://www.globalrichlist.com/

Type currency symbols: http://currencies.typeit.org/

money changing hands [PDF]: http://www.swiftinstitute.org/sites/d…

murder states in the US: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/…

Bank robbery average [PDF]: http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/ric/p…

currency left laying around:

http://www.moneyweb.co.za/moneyweb-ec…
http://highstreetmoney.co.uk/2012/11/…
http://www.nhscleveland.org/blog/post…

cost of Arrested Development on Netflix (one season):http://www.wired.com/underwire/2013/0…

Money supply articles:

http://dollardaze.org/blog/
http://www.straightdope.com/columns/r…

Money Supply on wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Money_su…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fraction…

amazing fake US money (SUPER DOLLARS):https://blog.hypovereinsbank.de/schoe…

is burning money illegal? http://www.nbcnews.com/id/7148966/ns/…

KLF burns a million quid [videos]:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p5mNzO…
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i6q4n5…

KLF burns a million quid [articles]:

http://blog.fxcc.com/the-klf-were-lig…
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K_Found…

money burning on wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Money_bu…

burn money the Steve Spangler way:http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/e…

Tyga eats money : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7eaaTQ…

Dirty Money:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contamin…
http://www.scientificamerican.com/art…

court case about drugs on money: http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-9th-cir…

termite eat money: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/artic…

“money” on wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Money

fiat money:

http://www.forbes.com/sites/pascalemm…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiat_money

“fiat” etymology: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?s…

monopoly money color comparrison to US currency:http://25.media.tumblr.com/927603e8c4…

tinkerbell effect:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tinkerbe…
http://www.reddit.com/r/RedditDayOf/c…
http://www.robbieparks.com/2011/08/26…

RELATED “Thomas Theorem”:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_t…

REVERSE tinkerbell effect:

http://www.volokh.com/2003_01_26_volo…
http://www.volokh.com/2009/03/11/tink…

 

Continuar leyendo “money supply”

René Girard

René Girard (/ʒiˈrɑrd/; French: [ʒiʁaʁ]; born December 25, 1923) is a French-born, American historian, literary critic, and philosopher of social science whose work belongs to the tradition of anthropological philosophy. Girard is the author of nearly thirty books (seebelow), with his writings spanning many academic domains. Although the reception of his work is different in each of these areas, there is a growing […]

René Girard (/?i?r?rd/French: [?i?a?]; born December 25, 1923) is a French-born, American historianliterary critic, and philosopher of social science whose work belongs to the tradition of anthropological philosophy. Girard is the author of nearly thirty books (seebelow), with his writings spanning many academic domains. Although the reception of his work is different in each of these areas, there is a growing body of secondary literature on his work and his influence on disciplines such as literary criticismcritical theory,anthropologytheologypsychologymythologysociologyeconomicscultural studies, and philosophy.

Girard’s fundamental ideas, which he has developed throughout his career and provide the foundation for his thinking, are that desire is mimetic (all of our desires are borrowed from other people), that all conflict originates in mimetic desire (mimetic rivalry), that thescapegoat mechanism is the origin of sacrifice and the foundation of human culture, and religion was necessary in human evolution to control the violence that can come from mimetic rivalry, and that the Bible reveals these ideas and denounces the scapegoat mechanism.

Bounded rationality

Models of Man: Social and Rational by Herbert A. Simon Citation: Herbert A. Simon. Models of Man: Social and Rational. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1957, 279 pp. This book summary written by: Conflict Research Consortium Staff. Models of Man: Social and Rational is, according to the author, a collection of mathematical essays […]

Models of Man: Social and Rational

by
Herbert A. Simon

Citation:

Herbert A. Simon. Models of Man: Social and Rational. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1957, 279 pp.

This book summary written by: Conflict Research Consortium Staff.
Models of Man: Social and Rational is, according to the author, a collection of mathematical essays on rational human behaviour in a social setting. The work employs mathematical formulae in support of the authors assertions regarding human behaviour.

Models of Man: Social and Rational will be of interest to those who desire an understanding of the human component of environmental problems and solutions. Simon divides his essays into four sections, each dealing with an overarching topic. The first part is concerned with causation and influence relationships. The author offers a philosophical discussion of the causal relation and examines; causal ordering and identifiability, and spurious correlations. He concludes the first section with notes on the observation and measurement of political power and the bandwagon and under-dog effects of election predictions.

The second section of the book addresses social processes. It begins with the presentation of a formal theory of interaction in social groups. This section considers the mechanisms involved in pressures both; toward uniformity and upon deviate members. The section is concluded with an examination of skew distribution functions. The brief third section is devoted to motivation which is comprised of two essays. The first of these is a comparison of organisation theories. The second essay is a formal theory of the employment relation.

The final section of the book concerns rationality and administrative decision-making. The first three essays offer an economic perspective while the last two offer a psychological perspective. In the former category is the first essay which examines productivity and the urban/rural population balance. The author discusses the application of servomechanism theor to production control. The final essay from an economic perspective is a behaviour model of rational choice. The last essay save one examines rational choice and the structure of the environment. The final essay is a comparison of game theory and learning theory.

Models of Man: Social and Rational combines multiple perspectives, primarily philosophical, economic and psychological, to create a model for rational human behaviour in a social setting.


Administrative Behavior: a Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organization is a book written by Herbert A. Simon (1916–2001). It asserts that “decision-making is the heart of administration, and that the vocabulary of administrative theory must be derived from the logic and psychology of human choice”, and it attempts to describe administrative organizations “in a way that will provide the basis for scientific analysis”.[1]:xiii-xiv[2]:xlv-xlvi[3]:xlvii-xlviii[4]:xi The first edition was published in 1947; the second, in 1957; the third, in 1976; and the fourth, in 1997. As summarized in a 2001 obituary of Simon, the book “reject[ed] the notion of an omniscient ‘economic man’ capable of making decisions that bring the greatest benefit possible and substitut[ed] instead the idea of ‘administrative man’ who ‘satisfices—looks for a course of action that is satisfactory’”.[5] Administrative Behavior laid the foundation for the economic movement known as the Carnegie School.

The book crosses social science disciplines such as political science and economics.[6] Simon returned to some of the ideas in the book in his later works, such as The Sciences of the Artificial (1969).[6][7] The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences cited the book as “epoch-making” in awarding the 1978 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences to Simon.[8][9] A 1990 article in Public Administration Review named it the “public administration book of the half century” (1940-1990).[10] It was voted the fifth most influential management book of the 20th century in a poll of the Fellows of the Academy of Management


Bounded rationality is the idea that in decision-making, rationality of individuals is limited by the information they have, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the finite amount of time they have to make a decision. It was proposed by Herbert A. Simon as an alternative basis for the mathematical modeling of decision making, as used in economics and related disciplines; it complements rationality as optimization, which views decision-making as a fully rational process of finding an optimal choice given the information available.[1] Another way to look at bounded rationality is that, because decision-makers lack the ability and resources to arrive at the optimal solution, they instead apply their rationality only after having greatly simplified the choices available. Thus the decision-maker is a satisficer, one seeking a satisfactory solution rather than the optimal one.[2] Simon used the analogy of a pair of scissors, where one blade is the “cognitive limitations” of actual humans and the other the “structures of the environment”; minds with limited cognitive resources can thus be successful by exploiting pre-existing structure and regularity in the environment.[1]

Some models of human behavior in the social sciences assume that humans can be reasonably approximated or described as “rational” entities (see for example rational choice theory). Many economics models assume that people are on average rational, and can in large enough quantities be approximated to act according to their preferences. The concept of bounded rationality revises this assumption to account for the fact that perfectly rational decisions are often not feasible in practice because of the finite computational resources available for making them.

Origins

The term is thought to have been coined by Herbert A. Simon. In Models of Man, Simon points out that most people are only partly rational, and are irrational in the remaining part of their actions. In another work, he states “boundedly rational agents experience limits in formulating and solving complex problems and in processing (receiving, storing, retrieving, transmitting) information“.[3] Simon describes a number of dimensions along which “classical” models of rationality can be made somewhat more realistic, while sticking within the vein of fairly rigorous formalization. These include:

  • Limiting the types of utility functions
  • Recognizing the costs of gathering and processing information
  • Possibility of having a “vector” or “multi-valued” utility function

Simon suggests that economic agents use heuristics to make decisions rather than a strict rigid rule of optimization. They do this because of the complexity of the situation, and their inability to process and compute the expected utility of every alternative action. Deliberation costs might be high and there are often other concurrent economic activities also requiring decisions.

Model Extensions

As decision makers have to make decisions about how and when to decide, Ariel Rubinstein proposed to model-bounded rationality by explicitly specifying decision-making procedures. This puts the study of decision procedures on the research agenda.

Gerd Gigerenzer opines that decision theorists have not really adhered to Simon’s original ideas. Rather, they have considered how decisions may be crippled by limitations to rationality, or have modeled how people might cope with their inability to optimize. Gigerenzer proposes and shows that simple heuristics often lead to better decisions than theoretically optimal procedures.

Huw Dixon later argues that it may not be necessary to analyze in detail the process of reasoning underlying bounded rationality.[4] If we believe that agents will choose an action that gets them “close” to the optimum, then we can use the notion of epsilon-optimization, that means you choose your actions so that the payoff is within epsilon of the optimum. If we define the optimum (best possible) payoff as  U^* , then the set of epsilon-optimizing options S(?) can be defined as all those options s such that:

 U(s) \geq U^*-\epsilon.

The notion of strict rationality is then a special case (?=0). The advantage of this approach is that it avoids having to specify in detail the process of reasoning, but rather simply assumes that whatever the process is, it is good enough to get near to the optimum.

From a computational point of view, decision procedures can be encoded in algorithms and heuristics. Edward Tsang argues that the effective rationality of an agent is determined by its computational intelligence. Everything else being equal, an agent that has better algorithms and heuristics could make “more rational” (more optimal) decisions than one that has poorer heuristics and algorithms.

Maps of Bounded Rationality: Psychology for Behavioral Economics by Daniel Kahneman

Daniel Kahneman – Prize Lecture: Maps of Bounded Rationality

The Wealth of Nations

An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith. First published in 1776, the book offers one … Continue reading

An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith. First published in 1776, the book offers one of the world’s first collected descriptions of what builds nations’ wealth and is today a fundamental work in classical economics. Through reflection over the economics at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution the book touches upon such broad topics as thedivision of labour, productivity and free markets.

the prospect of future wealth

In 2000, economist Steven Levitt and sociologist Sudhir Venkatesh published an article in the Quarterly Journal of Economics about the internal wage structure of a Chicago drug gang. This piece would later serve as a basis for a chapter in … Continue reading

In 2000, economist Steven Levitt and sociologist Sudhir Venkatesh published an article in the Quarterly Journal of Economics about the internal wage structure of a Chicago drug gang. This piece would later serve as a basis for a chapter in Levitt’s (and Dubner’s) best seller Freakonomics. [1] The title of the chapter, “Why drug dealers still live with their moms”, was based on the finding that the income distribution within gangs was extremely skewed in favor  of those at the top, while the rank-and-file street sellers earned even less than employees in legitimate low-skilled activities, let’s say at McDonald’s. They calculated 3.30 dollars as the hourly rate, that is, well below a living wage (that’s why they still live with their moms). [2]

Full text here