Sanskrit

Sanskrit (/ˈsænskrɪt/; संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam [səmskr̩t̪əm], originally संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, “refined speech”) is a standardized dialect of Old-Indo-Aryan, the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, philosophical language in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and a scholarly literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in the Indian cultural zone. Originating as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and ultimately to Proto-Indo-European, today it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India[3] and is an official language of the state ofUttarakhand.[4] Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies.

The corpus of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and dharma texts. Sanskrit continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the forms of hymns and mantras. Spoken Sanskrit has been revived in some villages with traditional institutions, and there are attempts at further popularisation.


Sanskrit grammar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The grammar of the Sanskrit language has a complex verbal system, rich nominal declension, and extensive use of compound nouns. It was studied and codified by Sanskrit grammariansfrom the later Vedic period (roughly 8th century BC), culminating in the Pāṇinian grammar of the 4th century BC.


Sanskrit (/ˈsænskrɪt/; संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam [səmskr̩t̪əm], originally संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, “refined speech”) is a standardized dialect of Old-Indo-Aryan, the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, philosophical language in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and a scholarly literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in the Indian cultural zone. Originating as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and ultimately to Proto-Indo-European, today it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India[3] and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand.[4] Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies.
The corpus of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and dharma texts. Sanskrit continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the forms of hymns and mantras. Spoken Sanskrit has been revived in some villages with traditional institutions, and there are attempts at further popularisation.


Sanskrit is the classical language of Indian and the liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. It is also one of the 22 official languages of India. The name Sanskrit means “refined”, “consecrated” and “sanctified”. It has always been regarded as the ‘high’ language and used mainly for religious and scientific discourse.
Vedic Sanskrit, the pre-Classical form of the language and the liturgical language of the Vedic religion, is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family. The oldest known text in Sanskrit, the Rigveda, a collection of over a thousand Hindu hymns, composed during the 2nd millenium BC.
Today Sanskrit is used mainly in Hindu religious rituals as a ceremonial language for hymns and mantras. Efforts are also being made to revive Sanskrit as an everyday spoken language in the village of Mattur near Shimoga in Karnataka. A modern form of Sanskrit is one of the 17 official home languages in India.
Since the late 19th century, Sanskrit has been written mostly with the Devanāgarī alphabet. However it has also been written with all the other alphabets of India, except Gurmukhi and Tamil, and with other alphabets such as Thai and Tibetan. The Grantha, Sharda and Siddham alphabets are used only for Sanskrit.
Since the late 18th century, Sanskrit has also been written with the Latin alphabet. The most commonly used system is the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST), which was been the standard for academic work since 1912.

Devanāgarī alphabet for Sanskrit

Vowels and vowel diacritics (घोष / ghoṣa)

Sanskrit vowels and vowel diacritics

Consonants (व्यञ्जन / vyajjana)

Sanskrit consonants

Conjunct consonants (संयोग / saṅyoga)

There are about a thousand conjunct consonants, most of which combine two or three consonants. There are also some with four-consonant conjuncts and at least one well-known conjunct with five consonants. Here’s a selection of commonly-used conjuncts:
A selection of Sanskrit conjunct consonants
You can find a full list of conjunct consonants used for Sanskrit at:
http://sanskrit.gde.to/learning_tutorial_wikner/P058.html

Numerals (संख्या / saṇkhyā)

Sanskrit numerals and numbers from 0-10

Sample text in Sanskrit

सर्वे मानवाः स्वतन्त्राः समुत्पन्नाः वर्तन्ते अपि च, गौरवदृशा अधिकारदृशा च समानाः एव वर्तन्ते। एते सर्वे चेतना-तर्क-शक्तिभ्यां सुसम्पन्नाः सन्ति। अपि च, सर्वेऽपि बन्धुत्व-भावनया परस्परं व्यवहरन्तु।
Translated into Sanskrit by Arvind Iyengar
Transliteration
Sarvē mānavāḥ svatantrāḥ samutpannāḥ vartantē api ca, gauravadr̥śā adhikāradr̥śā ca samānāḥ ēva vartantē. Ētē sarvē cētanā-tarka-śaktibhyāṁ susampannāḥ santi. Api ca, sarvē’pi bandhutva-bhāvanayā parasparaṁ vyavaharantu.
A recording of this text by Muralikrishnan Ramasamy

Another version of this text

सर्वे मानवाः जन्मना स्वतन्त्राः वैयक्तिकगौरवेण अधिकारेण च तुल्याः एव । सर्वेषां विवेकः आत्मसाक्षी च वर्तते । सर्वे परस्परं भ्रातृभावेन व्यवहरेयुः ॥
Transliteration (by Stefán Steinsson)
Sarvē mānavāḥ janmanā svatantrāḥ vaiyaktikagauravēṇa adhikārēṇa ca tulyāḥ ēva, sarvēṣāṃ vivēkaḥ ātmasākṣī ca vartatē, sarvē parasparaṃ bhrātṛbhāvēna vyavaharēyuḥ.
A recording of this text
Translation and recording by Shriramana Sharma

Translation

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Links

Information about the Sanskrit language
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrit
http://www.sanskrit-sanscrito.com.ar
http://sanskritroots.com
http://omkarananda-ashram.org/Sanskrit/Itranslt.html
http://www.samskrtam.org/
http://www.americansanskrit.com
http://www.sanskritstudies.org
Online Sanskrit lessons
http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/DBLM/olcourse/sanskrit.htm
http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/vedol-0-X.html
http://www.elportaldelaindia.com/El_Portal_de_la_India_Antigua/Sánscrito.html
Sanskrit phrases
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Sanskrit/Everyday_Phrases
http://or.girgit.chitthajagat.in/samskrit.wordpress.com/
Sanskrit dictionaries
http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/indologie/tamil/cap_search.html
http://aa2411s.aa.tufs.ac.jp/~tjun/sktdic
http://pauillac.inria.fr/~huet/SKT/DICO/index.html
http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/DBLM/olcourse/sanskrit.htm
http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/vedol-0-X.html
http://www.elportaldelaindia.com/El_Portal_de_la_India_Antigua/Sánscrito.html
http://sourceforge.net/projects/dhatu-patha/
Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon
http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/tamil/
Devanagari fonts and keyboards
http://www.wazu.jp/gallery/Fonts_Devanagari.html
http://www.kiranfont.com
http://www.devanagarifonts.net
http://www.sanskritweb.net/cakram/
Sanskrit Library – contains digitized Sanskrit texts and various tools to analyse them
http://sanskritlibrary.org/
Samskrita Bharati – an organisation established as an experiment in 1981 in Bangalore to bring Sanskrit back into daily life: http://www.samskrita-bharati.org/
Sanskrit Voice – a community of Sanskrit lovers
http://sanskritvoice.com
An archive of Sanskrit dictionaries, readers & grammars in German, English & Russian. (circa 4000 Mb Book Scans, devanagari fonts): http://groups.google.com/group/Nagari
Free Diwali Cards
http://www.diwali-cards.com
http://www.123diwali.com/


Some free resources on the web for learning Sanskrit:

1.)A Practical Sanskrit Introductory – Charles Wikner

http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tutorial_wikner/

2.)The website of “Acharya”, SDL, IIT-Madras:

http://acharya.iitm.ac.in/sanskrit/tutor.php

3.)An Analytical Cross Referenced Sanskrit Grammar – Lennart Warnemyr:

http://www.warnemyr.com/skrgram/

4.)A Taiwanese website from the “Museum of Buddhist Studies” to teach yourself Sanskrit:

http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/DBLM/olcourse/sanskrit.htm

5.)Learning resources from the Sanskrit Religions Institute, U.S.A (the site also has links to other sites offering free learning resources) :

http://www.sanskrit.org/www/Sanskrit/sanskrit.htm

6.)Learning resources from Shirali Chitrapur Math’s website in PDF format (Chitrapur is a coastal town located near Honnavar, Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka):

http://www.chitrapurmath.net/sanskrit/step-by-step.htm

7.)U.K.-India’s online lessons:

http://www.ukindia.com/zip/zsan01.htm

8.)E-books from Sri Satya Sai Veda Pratistan, Puttaparthi:

http://www.vedamu.org/Sankrit/sankritmain.asp

9.)From the website of Dr. Satyavati Sriperumbuduru Kandala:

http://www.kandala.org/ClassMaterial.html

10.)Learning resources from Kalidasa Samskrita Kendram, Kanchipuram (resources include lessons as well as a free dictionary):

http://www.geocities.com/vcgrajan/kendram.html

11.)Shri Aurobindo Ashram’s Sanskrit learning resources:

http://sanskrit.sriaurobindoashram.org.in/

12.)A “teach yourself Sanskrit” freeware by the venerable Prof.Sudhir Kaicker:

http://www.sanskrit-lamp.org/

13.)An enthusiastic effort to teach Sanskrit online by Vasudeva Bhat, C.F.T.R.I., Mysore, Karnataka:

http://www.ourkarnataka.com/learnsan…skrit_main.htm

14.)Sringeri Mutt’s free learning resources:

http://www.svbf.org/sringeri/journal…/sanskrit.html

15.)”Master Sanskrit Easily” by by Dr. Narayan Kansara, Ahmedabad:

http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools

16.) A learning resource put up online by two gentlemen who go by the names, Gabriel ‘Pradīpaka’ & Andrés ‘Muni’.

http://www.sanskrit-sanscrito.com.ar…entingles.html

17.)The following website gives several resources for learning Sanskrit. Go to the bottom of the page, where you will find several downloadable lessons in PDF format by Sanskrit Bharati of Bangalore, an organization that has widespread following and which aims to promote spoken Sanskrit.

http://sanskritdocuments.org/learnin…ing_tools.html

18.) Vaman Shivaram Apte’s Sanskrit Dictionary online:

http://aa2411s.aa.tufs.ac.jp/%7Etjun/sktdic/

19.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon, which also contains a Tamil-English Dictionary (Sanskrit-English dictionary part has been adapted from the famous Monier-Williams’ ‘Sanskrit-English Dictionary’):

http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/tamil/

20.)The mother of all Sanskrit resources:

http://www.sanskritdocuments.org/

21.)Geral Huet’s Sanskrit Dictionary & other resources:

http://sanskrit.inria.fr/sanskrit.html

It is amazing how people spend their time & money, and battle out to keep this language alive!

Last edited by kspv; 24-04-2007 at 12:45 PM.

Sanskrit (/?sænskr?t/; ????????? sa?sk?tam [s?mskr?t??m], originally ???????? ???? sa?sk?t? v?k, “refined speech”) is a standardized dialect of Old-Indo-Aryan, the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, philosophical language in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and a scholarly literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in the Indian cultural zone. Originating as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and ultimately to Proto-Indo-European, today it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India[3] and is an official language of the state ofUttarakhand.[4] Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies.

The corpus of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and dharma texts. Sanskrit continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the forms of hymns and mantras. Spoken Sanskrit has been revived in some villages with traditional institutions, and there are attempts at further popularisation.


Sanskrit grammar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The grammar of the Sanskrit language has a complex verbal system, rich nominal declension, and extensive use of compound nouns. It was studied and codified by Sanskrit grammariansfrom the later Vedic period (roughly 8th century BC), culminating in the P??inian grammar of the 4th century BC.


Sanskrit (/?sænskr?t/; ????????? sa?sk?tam [s?mskr?t??m], originally ???????? ???? sa?sk?t? v?k, “refined speech”) is a standardized dialect of Old-Indo-Aryan, the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, philosophical language in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and a scholarly literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in the Indian cultural zone. Originating as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and ultimately to Proto-Indo-European, today it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India[3] and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand.[4] Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies.
The corpus of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and dharma texts. Sanskrit continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the forms of hymns and mantras. Spoken Sanskrit has been revived in some villages with traditional institutions, and there are attempts at further popularisation.


Sanskrit is the classical language of Indian and the liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. It is also one of the 22 official languages of India. The name Sanskrit means “refined”, “consecrated” and “sanctified”. It has always been regarded as the ‘high’ language and used mainly for religious and scientific discourse.
Vedic Sanskrit, the pre-Classical form of the language and the liturgical language of the Vedic religion, is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family. The oldest known text in Sanskrit, the Rigveda, a collection of over a thousand Hindu hymns, composed during the 2nd millenium BC.
Today Sanskrit is used mainly in Hindu religious rituals as a ceremonial language for hymns and mantras. Efforts are also being made to revive Sanskrit as an everyday spoken language in the village of Mattur near Shimoga in Karnataka. A modern form of Sanskrit is one of the 17 official home languages in India.
Since the late 19th century, Sanskrit has been written mostly with the Devan?gar? alphabet. However it has also been written with all the other alphabets of India, except Gurmukhi and Tamil, and with other alphabets such as Thai and Tibetan. The Grantha, Sharda and Siddham alphabets are used only for Sanskrit.
Since the late 18th century, Sanskrit has also been written with the Latin alphabet. The most commonly used system is the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST), which was been the standard for academic work since 1912.

Devan?gar? alphabet for Sanskrit

Vowels and vowel diacritics (??? / gho?a)

Sanskrit vowels and vowel diacritics

Consonants (??????? / vyajjana)

Sanskrit consonants

Conjunct consonants (????? / sa?yoga)

There are about a thousand conjunct consonants, most of which combine two or three consonants. There are also some with four-consonant conjuncts and at least one well-known conjunct with five consonants. Here’s a selection of commonly-used conjuncts:
A selection of Sanskrit conjunct consonants
You can find a full list of conjunct consonants used for Sanskrit at:
http://sanskrit.gde.to/learning_tutorial_wikner/P058.html

Numerals (?????? / sa?khy?)

Sanskrit numerals and numbers from 0-10

Sample text in Sanskrit

????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?, ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ?????-????-?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?, ???????? ????????-?????? ??????? ???????????
Translated into Sanskrit by Arvind Iyengar
Transliteration
Sarv? m?nav?? svatantr?? samutpann?? vartant? api ca, gauravadr??? adhik?radr??? ca sam?n?? ?va vartant?. ?t? sarv? c?tan?-tarka-?aktibhy?? susampann?? santi. Api ca, sarv?’pi bandhutva-bh?vanay? paraspara? vyavaharantu.
A recording of this text by Muralikrishnan Ramasamy

Another version of this text

????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?? ? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?
Transliteration (by Stefán Steinsson)
Sarv? m?nav?? janman? svatantr?? vaiyaktikagaurav??a adhik?r??a ca tuly?? ?va, sarv???? viv?ka? ?tmas?k?? ca vartat?, sarv? paraspara? bhr?t?bh?v?na vyavahar?yu?.
A recording of this text
Translation and recording by Shriramana Sharma

Translation

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Links

Information about the Sanskrit language
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrit
http://www.sanskrit-sanscrito.com.ar
http://sanskritroots.com
http://omkarananda-ashram.org/Sanskrit/Itranslt.html
http://www.samskrtam.org/
http://www.americansanskrit.com
http://www.sanskritstudies.org
Online Sanskrit lessons
http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/DBLM/olcourse/sanskrit.htm
http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/vedol-0-X.html
http://www.elportaldelaindia.com/El_Portal_de_la_India_Antigua/Sánscrito.html
Sanskrit phrases
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Sanskrit/Everyday_Phrases
http://or.girgit.chitthajagat.in/samskrit.wordpress.com/
Sanskrit dictionaries
http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/indologie/tamil/cap_search.html
http://aa2411s.aa.tufs.ac.jp/~tjun/sktdic
http://pauillac.inria.fr/~huet/SKT/DICO/index.html
http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/DBLM/olcourse/sanskrit.htm
http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/vedol-0-X.html
http://www.elportaldelaindia.com/El_Portal_de_la_India_Antigua/Sánscrito.html
http://sourceforge.net/projects/dhatu-patha/
Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon
http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/tamil/
Devanagari fonts and keyboards
http://www.wazu.jp/gallery/Fonts_Devanagari.html
http://www.kiranfont.com
http://www.devanagarifonts.net
http://www.sanskritweb.net/cakram/
Sanskrit Library – contains digitized Sanskrit texts and various tools to analyse them
http://sanskritlibrary.org/
Samskrita Bharati – an organisation established as an experiment in 1981 in Bangalore to bring Sanskrit back into daily life: http://www.samskrita-bharati.org/
Sanskrit Voice – a community of Sanskrit lovers
http://sanskritvoice.com
An archive of Sanskrit dictionaries, readers & grammars in German, English & Russian. (circa 4000 Mb Book Scans, devanagari fonts): http://groups.google.com/group/Nagari
Free Diwali Cards
http://www.diwali-cards.com
http://www.123diwali.com/


Some free resources on the web for learning Sanskrit:

1.)A Practical Sanskrit Introductory – Charles Wikner

http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tutorial_wikner/

2.)The website of “Acharya”, SDL, IIT-Madras:

http://acharya.iitm.ac.in/sanskrit/tutor.php

3.)An Analytical Cross Referenced Sanskrit Grammar – Lennart Warnemyr:

http://www.warnemyr.com/skrgram/

4.)A Taiwanese website from the “Museum of Buddhist Studies” to teach yourself Sanskrit:

http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/DBLM/olcourse/sanskrit.htm

5.)Learning resources from the Sanskrit Religions Institute, U.S.A (the site also has links to other sites offering free learning resources) :

http://www.sanskrit.org/www/Sanskrit/sanskrit.htm

6.)Learning resources from Shirali Chitrapur Math’s website in PDF format (Chitrapur is a coastal town located near Honnavar, Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka):

http://www.chitrapurmath.net/sanskrit/step-by-step.htm

7.)U.K.-India’s online lessons:

http://www.ukindia.com/zip/zsan01.htm

8.)E-books from Sri Satya Sai Veda Pratistan, Puttaparthi:

http://www.vedamu.org/Sankrit/sankritmain.asp

9.)From the website of Dr. Satyavati Sriperumbuduru Kandala:

http://www.kandala.org/ClassMaterial.html

10.)Learning resources from Kalidasa Samskrita Kendram, Kanchipuram (resources include lessons as well as a free dictionary):

http://www.geocities.com/vcgrajan/kendram.html

11.)Shri Aurobindo Ashram’s Sanskrit learning resources:

http://sanskrit.sriaurobindoashram.org.in/

12.)A “teach yourself Sanskrit” freeware by the venerable Prof.Sudhir Kaicker:

http://www.sanskrit-lamp.org/

13.)An enthusiastic effort to teach Sanskrit online by Vasudeva Bhat, C.F.T.R.I., Mysore, Karnataka:

http://www.ourkarnataka.com/learnsan…skrit_main.htm

14.)Sringeri Mutt’s free learning resources:

http://www.svbf.org/sringeri/journal…/sanskrit.html

15.)”Master Sanskrit Easily” by by Dr. Narayan Kansara, Ahmedabad:

http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools

16.) A learning resource put up online by two gentlemen who go by the names, Gabriel ‘Prad?paka’ & Andrés ‘Muni’.

http://www.sanskrit-sanscrito.com.ar…entingles.html

17.)The following website gives several resources for learning Sanskrit. Go to the bottom of the page, where you will find several downloadable lessons in PDF format by Sanskrit Bharati of Bangalore, an organization that has widespread following and which aims to promote spoken Sanskrit.

http://sanskritdocuments.org/learnin…ing_tools.html

18.) Vaman Shivaram Apte’s Sanskrit Dictionary online:

http://aa2411s.aa.tufs.ac.jp/%7Etjun/sktdic/

19.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon, which also contains a Tamil-English Dictionary (Sanskrit-English dictionary part has been adapted from the famous Monier-Williams’ ‘Sanskrit-English Dictionary’):

http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/tamil/

20.)The mother of all Sanskrit resources:

http://www.sanskritdocuments.org/

21.)Geral Huet’s Sanskrit Dictionary & other resources:

http://sanskrit.inria.fr/sanskrit.html

It is amazing how people spend their time & money, and battle out to keep this language alive!

Last edited by kspv; 24-04-2007 at 12:45 PM.

Dhammapada

The Dhammapada (Pāli; Prakrit: धम्मपद Dhammapada;[1] Sanskrit: धर्मपद Dharmapada) is a collection of sayings of the Buddha in verse form and one of the most widely read and best known Buddhist scriptures.[2] The original version of the Dhammapada is in the Khuddaka Nikaya, a division of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism.
The Buddhist scholar and commentator Buddhaghosa explains that each saying recorded in the collection was made on a different occasion in response to a unique situation that had arisen in the life of the Buddha and his monastic community. His commentary, the Dhammapada Atthakatha, presents the details of these events and is a rich source of legend for the life and times of the Buddha.[3]
According to tradition, the Dhammapada’s verses were spoken by the Buddha on various occasions.[8] “By distilling the complex models, theories, rhetorical style and sheer volume of the Buddha’s teachings into concise, crystalline verses, the Dhammapada makes the Buddhist way of life available to anyone…In fact, it is possible that the very source of the Dhammapada in the third century B.C.E. is traceable to the need of the early Buddhist communities in India to laicize the ascetic impetus of the Buddha’s original words.”[9] The text is part of the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka, although over half of the verses exist in other parts of the Pali Canon.[10] A 4th or 5th century CE commentary attributed to Buddhaghosa includes 305 stories which give context to the verses.

 

Although the Pāli edition is the best-known, a number of other versions are known:[11]
Comparing the Pali Dhammapada, the Gandhari Dharmapada and the Udanavarga, Brough (2001) identifies that the texts have in common 330 to 340 verses, 16 chapter headings and an underlying structure. He suggests that the three texts have a “common ancestor” but underlines that there is no evidence that any one of these three texts might have been the “primitive Dharmapada” from which the other two evolved.[20]
The Dhammapada is considered one of the most popular pieces of Theravada literature.[2] A critical edition of the Dhammapada was produced by Danish scholar Viggo Fausbøll in 1855, becoming the first Pali text to receive this kind of examination by the European academic community.[21]

Readings in Pali

3. Readings in Pali Texts
VandanaGatha 1 – namaskara (namaskaara) Gatha 2 – tisarana (tisara.na) Gatha 3 – buddhaguna (buddhagu.na) Gatha 4 – dhammaguna (dhammagu.na) Gatha 5 – sanghaguna (sa^nghagu.na) Gatha 6 – blessing
Dhammapada 

Chapter 1:
The Pairs

  • Dhammapada 1
  • Dhammapada 2
  • Dhammapada 3
  • Dhammapada 4
  • Dhammapada 5
  • Dhammapada 6
  • Dhammapada 7
  • Dhammapada 8
  • Dhammapada 9
  • Dhammapada 10
  • Dhammapada 11
  • Dhammapada 12
  • Dhammapada 13
  • Dhammapada 14
  • Dhammapada 15
  • Dhammapada 16
  • Dhammapada 17
  • Dhammapada 18
  • Dhammapada 19
  • Dhammapada 20
  • Chapter 2:
    Conscientiousness

  • Dhammapada 21
  • Dhammapada 22
  • Dhammapada 23
  • Dhammapada 24
  • Dhammapada 25
  • Dhammapada 26
  • Dhammapada 27
  • Dhammapada 28
  • Dhammapada 29
  • Dhammapada 30
  • Dhammapada 31
  • Dhammapada 32
  • Chapter 3:
    The Mind

  • Dhammapada 33
  • Dhammapada 34
  • Dhammapada 35
  • Dhammapada 36
  • Dhammapada 37
  • Dhammapada 38
  • Dhammapada 39
  • Dhammapada 40
  • Dhammapada 41
  • Dhammapada 42
  • Dhammapada 43
  • Chapter 4:
    The Flower

  • Dhammapada 44
  • Dhammapada 45
  • Dhammapada 46
  • Dhammapada 47
  • Dhammapada 48
  • Dhammapada 49
  • Dhammapada 50
  • Dhammapada 51
  • Dhammapada 52
  • Dhammapada 53
  • Dhammapada 54
  • Dhammapada 55
  • Dhammapada 56
  • Dhammapada 57
  • Dhammapada 58
  • Dhammapada 59
  • Chapter 5: 
    The Fool

  • Dhammapada 60
  • Dhammapada 61
  • Dhammapada 62
  • Dhammapada 63
  • Dhammapada 64
  • Dhammapada 65
  • Dhammapada 66
  • Dhammapada 67
  • Dhammapada 68
  • Dhammapada 69
  • Dhammapada 70
  • Dhammapada 71
  • Dhammapada 72
  • Dhammapada 73
  • Dhammapada 74
  • Dhammapada 75
  • Chapter 6: 
    The Wise

  • Dhammapada 76
  • Dhammapada 77
  • Dhammapada 78
  • Dhammapada 79
  • Dhammapada 80
  • Dhammapada 81
  • Dhammapada 82
  • Dhammapada 83
  • Dhammapada 84
  • Dhammapada 85
  • Dhammapada 86
  • Dhammapada 87
  • Dhammapada 88
  • Dhammapada 89
  • Chapter 7: 
    The Arahant

  • Dhammapada 90
  • Dhammapada 91
  • Dhammapada 92
  • Dhammapada 93
  • Dhammapada 94
  • Dhammapada 95
  • Dhammapada 96
  • Dhammapada 97
  • Dhammapada 98
  • Dhammapada 99
  • Chapter 8: 
    The Thousand

  • Dhammapada 100
  • Dhammapada 101
  • Dhammapada 102
  • Dhammapada 103
  • Dhammapada 104
  • Dhammapada 105
  • Dhammapada 106
  • Dhammapada 107
  • Dhammapada 108
  • Dhammapada 109
  • Dhammapada 110
  • Dhammapada 111
  • Dhammapada 112
  • Dhammapada 113
  • Dhammapada 114
  • Dhammapada 115
  • Chapter 9:
    The Evil

  • Dhammapada 116
  • Dhammapada 117
  • Dhammapada 118
  • Dhammapada 119
  • Dhammapada 120
  • Dhammapada 121
  • Dhammapada 122
  • Dhammapada 123
  • Dhammapada 124
  • Dhammapada 125
  • Dhammapada 126
  • Dhammapada 127
  • Dhammapada 128
  • Chapter 11: 
    The Old Age

  • Dhammapada 146
  • Dhammapada 147
  • Dhammapada 148
  • Dhammapada 149
  • Dhammapada 150
  • Dhammapada 151
  • Dhammapada 152
  • Dhammapada 153
  • Dhammapada 154
  • Dhammapada 155
  • Dhammapada 156
  • Chapter 12: 
    The Self

  • Dhammapada 157
  • Dhammapada 158
  • Dhammapada 159
  • Dhammapada 160
  • Dhammapada 161
  • Dhammapada 162
  • Dhammapada 163
  • Dhammapada 164
  • Dhammapada 165
  • Dhammapada 166
  • Chapter 13: 
    The World

  • Dhammapada 167
  • Dhammapada 168
  • Dhammapada 169
  • Dhammapada 170
  • Dhammapada 171
  • Dhammapada 172
  • Dhammapada 173
  • Dhammapada 174
  • Dhammapada 175
  • Dhammapada 176
  • Dhammapada 177
  • Dhammapada 178
  • Chapter 14: 
    The Buddha

  • Dhammapada 179
  • Dhammapada 180
  • Dhammapada 181
  • Dhammapada 182
  • Dhammapada 183
  • Dhammapada 184
  • Dhammapada 185
  • Dhammapada 186
  • Dhammapada 187
  • Dhammapada 188
  • Dhammapada 189
  • Dhammapada 190
  • Dhammapada 191
  • Dhammapada 192
  • Dhammapada 193
  • Dhammapada 194
  • Dhammapada 195
  • Dhammapada 196
  • Chapter 15: 
    The Happiness

  • Dhammapada 197
  • Dhammapada 198
  • Dhammapada 199
  • Dhammapada 200
  • Dhammapada 201
  • Dhammapada 202
  • Dhammapada 203
  • Dhammapada 204
  • Dhammapada 205
  • Dhammapada 206
  • Dhammapada 207
  • Dhammapada 208
  • Chapter 16: 
    Affection

  • Dhammapada 209
  • Dhammapada 210
  • Dhammapada 211
  • Dhammapada 212
  • Dhammapada 213
  • Dhammapada 214
  • Dhammapada 215
  • Dhammapada 216
  • Dhammapada 217
  • Dhammapada 218
  • Dhammapada 219
  • Dhammapada 220
  • Dhammapada 221
  • Chapter 17: 
    Anger

  • Dhammapada 222
  • Dhammapada 223
  • Dhammapada 224
  • Dhammapada 225
  • Dhammapada 226
  • Dhammapada 227
  • Dhammapada 228
  • Dhammapada 229
  • Dhammapada 230
  • Dhammapada 231
  • Dhammapada 232
  • Dhammapada 233
  • Dhammapada 234
  • Chapter 18: 
    Taint

  • Dhammapada 235
  • Dhammapada 236
  • Dhammapada 237
  • Dhammapada 238
  • Dhammapada 239
  • Dhammapada 240
  • Dhammapada 241
  • Dhammapada 242
  • Dhammapada 243
  • Dhammapada 244
  • Dhammapada 245
  • Dhammapada 246
  • Dhammapada 247
  • Dhammapada 248
  • Dhammapada 249
  • Dhammapada 250
  • Dhammapada 251
  • Dhammapada 252
  • Dhammapada 253
  • Dhammapada 254
  • Dhammapada 255
  • Chapter 19: 
    The Righteous

  • Dhammapada 256
  • Dhammapada 257
  • Dhammapada 258
  • Dhammapada 259
  • Dhammapada 260
  • Dhammapada 261
  • Dhammapada 262
  • Dhammapada 263
  • Dhammapada 264
  • Dhammapada 265
  • Dhammapada 266
  • Dhammapada 267
  • Dhammapada 268
  • Dhammapada 269
  • Dhammapada 270
  • Dhammapada 271
  • Dhammapada 272
  • Chapter 20: 
    The Path

  • Dhammapada 273
  • Dhammapada 274
  • Dhammapada 275
  • Dhammapada 276
  • Dhammapada 277
  • Dhammapada 278
  • Dhammapada 279
  • Dhammapada 280
  • Dhammapada 281
  • Dhammapada 282
  • Dhammapada 283
  • Dhammapada 284
  • Dhammapada 285
  • Dhammapada 286
  • Dhammapada 287
  • Dhammapada 288
  • Dhammapada 289
  • Chapter 21: 
    Miscellaneous

  • Dhammapada 290
  • Dhammapada 291
  • Dhammapada 292
  • Dhammapada 293
  • Dhammapada 294
  • Dhammapada 295
  • Dhammapada 296
  • Dhammapada 297
  • Dhammapada 298
  • Dhammapada 299
  • Dhammapada 300
  • Dhammapada 301
  • Dhammapada 302
  • Dhammapada 303
  • Dhammapada 304
  • Dhammapada 305
  • Chapter 22: 
    The Hell

  • Dhammapada 306
  • Dhammapada 307
  • Dhammapada 308
  • Dhammapada 309
  • Dhammapada 310
  • Dhammapada 311
  • Dhammapada 312
  • Dhammapada 313
  • Dhammapada 314
  • Dhammapada 315
  • Dhammapada 316
  • Dhammapada 317
  • Dhammapada 318
  • Dhammapada 319
  • Chapter 23: 
    The Elephant

  • Dhammapada 320
  • Dhammapada 321
  • Dhammapada 322
  • Dhammapada 323
  • Dhammapada 324
  • Dhammapada 325
  • Dhammapada 326
  • Dhammapada 327
  • Dhammapada 328
  • Dhammapada 329
  • Dhammapada 330
  • Dhammapada 331
  • Dhammapada 332
  • Dhammapada 333
  • Chapter 24:
    The Thirst

  • Dhammapada 334
  • Dhammapada 335
  • Dhammapada 336
  • Dhammapada 337
  • Dhammapada 338
  • Dhammapada 339
  • Dhammapada 340
  • Dhammapada 341
  • Dhammapada 342
  • Dhammapada 343
  • Dhammapada 344
  • Dhammapada 345
  • Dhammapada 346
  • Dhammapada 347
  • Dhammapada 348
  • Dhammapada 349
  • Dhammapada 350
  • Dhammapada 351
  • Dhammapada 352
  • Dhammapada 353
  • Dhammapada 354
  • Dhammapada 355
  • Dhammapada 356
  • Dhammapada 357
  • Dhammapada 358
  • Dhammapada 359
  • Chapter 25: 
    The Monk

  • Dhammapada 360
  • Dhammapada 361
  • Dhammapada 362
  • Dhammapada 363
  • Dhammapada 364
  • Dhammapada 365
  • Dhammapada 366
  • Dhammapada 367
  • Dhammapada 368
  • Dhammapada 369
  • Dhammapada 370
  • Dhammapada 371
  • Dhammapada 372
  • Dhammapada 373
  • Dhammapada 374
  • Dhammapada 375
  • Dhammapada 376
  • Dhammapada 377
  • Dhammapada 378
  • Dhammapada 379
  • Dhammapada 380
  • The Dhammapada (P?li; Prakrit: ?????? Dhammapada;[1] Sanskrit: ?????? Dharmapada) is a collection of sayings of the Buddha in verse form and one of the most widely read and best known Buddhist scriptures.[2] The original version of the Dhammapada is in the Khuddaka Nikaya, a division of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism.
    The Buddhist scholar and commentator Buddhaghosa explains that each saying recorded in the collection was made on a different occasion in response to a unique situation that had arisen in the life of the Buddha and his monastic community. His commentary, the Dhammapada Atthakatha, presents the details of these events and is a rich source of legend for the life and times of the Buddha.[3]
    According to tradition, the Dhammapada’s verses were spoken by the Buddha on various occasions.[8] “By distilling the complex models, theories, rhetorical style and sheer volume of the Buddha’s teachings into concise, crystalline verses, the Dhammapada makes the Buddhist way of life available to anyone…In fact, it is possible that the very source of the Dhammapada in the third century B.C.E. is traceable to the need of the early Buddhist communities in India to laicize the ascetic impetus of the Buddha’s original words.”[9] The text is part of the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka, although over half of the verses exist in other parts of the Pali Canon.[10] A 4th or 5th century CE commentary attributed to Buddhaghosa includes 305 stories which give context to the verses.

     

    Although the P?li edition is the best-known, a number of other versions are known:[11]
    Comparing the Pali Dhammapada, the Gandhari Dharmapada and the Udanavarga, Brough (2001) identifies that the texts have in common 330 to 340 verses, 16 chapter headings and an underlying structure. He suggests that the three texts have a “common ancestor” but underlines that there is no evidence that any one of these three texts might have been the “primitive Dharmapada” from which the other two evolved.[20]
    The Dhammapada is considered one of the most popular pieces of Theravada literature.[2] A critical edition of the Dhammapada was produced by Danish scholar Viggo Fausbøll in 1855, becoming the first Pali text to receive this kind of examination by the European academic community.[21]

    Readings in Pali

    3. Readings in Pali Texts
    VandanaGatha 1 – namaskara (namaskaara) Gatha 2 – tisarana (tisara.na) Gatha 3 – buddhaguna (buddhagu.na) Gatha 4 – dhammaguna (dhammagu.na) Gatha 5 – sanghaguna (sa^nghagu.na) Gatha 6 – blessing
    Dhammapada 

    Chapter 1:
    The Pairs

  • Dhammapada 1
  • Dhammapada 2
  • Dhammapada 3
  • Dhammapada 4
  • Dhammapada 5
  • Dhammapada 6
  • Dhammapada 7
  • Dhammapada 8
  • Dhammapada 9
  • Dhammapada 10
  • Dhammapada 11
  • Dhammapada 12
  • Dhammapada 13
  • Dhammapada 14
  • Dhammapada 15
  • Dhammapada 16
  • Dhammapada 17
  • Dhammapada 18
  • Dhammapada 19
  • Dhammapada 20
  • Chapter 2:
    Conscientiousness

  • Dhammapada 21
  • Dhammapada 22
  • Dhammapada 23
  • Dhammapada 24
  • Dhammapada 25
  • Dhammapada 26
  • Dhammapada 27
  • Dhammapada 28
  • Dhammapada 29
  • Dhammapada 30
  • Dhammapada 31
  • Dhammapada 32
  • Chapter 3:
    The Mind

  • Dhammapada 33
  • Dhammapada 34
  • Dhammapada 35
  • Dhammapada 36
  • Dhammapada 37
  • Dhammapada 38
  • Dhammapada 39
  • Dhammapada 40
  • Dhammapada 41
  • Dhammapada 42
  • Dhammapada 43
  • Chapter 4:
    The Flower

  • Dhammapada 44
  • Dhammapada 45
  • Dhammapada 46
  • Dhammapada 47
  • Dhammapada 48
  • Dhammapada 49
  • Dhammapada 50
  • Dhammapada 51
  • Dhammapada 52
  • Dhammapada 53
  • Dhammapada 54
  • Dhammapada 55
  • Dhammapada 56
  • Dhammapada 57
  • Dhammapada 58
  • Dhammapada 59
  • Chapter 5: 
    The Fool

  • Dhammapada 60
  • Dhammapada 61
  • Dhammapada 62
  • Dhammapada 63
  • Dhammapada 64
  • Dhammapada 65
  • Dhammapada 66
  • Dhammapada 67
  • Dhammapada 68
  • Dhammapada 69
  • Dhammapada 70
  • Dhammapada 71
  • Dhammapada 72
  • Dhammapada 73
  • Dhammapada 74
  • Dhammapada 75
  • Chapter 6: 
    The Wise

  • Dhammapada 76
  • Dhammapada 77
  • Dhammapada 78
  • Dhammapada 79
  • Dhammapada 80
  • Dhammapada 81
  • Dhammapada 82
  • Dhammapada 83
  • Dhammapada 84
  • Dhammapada 85
  • Dhammapada 86
  • Dhammapada 87
  • Dhammapada 88
  • Dhammapada 89
  • Chapter 7: 
    The Arahant

  • Dhammapada 90
  • Dhammapada 91
  • Dhammapada 92
  • Dhammapada 93
  • Dhammapada 94
  • Dhammapada 95
  • Dhammapada 96
  • Dhammapada 97
  • Dhammapada 98
  • Dhammapada 99
  • Chapter 8: 
    The Thousand

  • Dhammapada 100
  • Dhammapada 101
  • Dhammapada 102
  • Dhammapada 103
  • Dhammapada 104
  • Dhammapada 105
  • Dhammapada 106
  • Dhammapada 107
  • Dhammapada 108
  • Dhammapada 109
  • Dhammapada 110
  • Dhammapada 111
  • Dhammapada 112
  • Dhammapada 113
  • Dhammapada 114
  • Dhammapada 115
  • Chapter 9:
    The Evil

  • Dhammapada 116
  • Dhammapada 117
  • Dhammapada 118
  • Dhammapada 119
  • Dhammapada 120
  • Dhammapada 121
  • Dhammapada 122
  • Dhammapada 123
  • Dhammapada 124
  • Dhammapada 125
  • Dhammapada 126
  • Dhammapada 127
  • Dhammapada 128
  • Chapter 11: 
    The Old Age

  • Dhammapada 146
  • Dhammapada 147
  • Dhammapada 148
  • Dhammapada 149
  • Dhammapada 150
  • Dhammapada 151
  • Dhammapada 152
  • Dhammapada 153
  • Dhammapada 154
  • Dhammapada 155
  • Dhammapada 156
  • Chapter 12: 
    The Self

  • Dhammapada 157
  • Dhammapada 158
  • Dhammapada 159
  • Dhammapada 160
  • Dhammapada 161
  • Dhammapada 162
  • Dhammapada 163
  • Dhammapada 164
  • Dhammapada 165
  • Dhammapada 166
  • Chapter 13: 
    The World

  • Dhammapada 167
  • Dhammapada 168
  • Dhammapada 169
  • Dhammapada 170
  • Dhammapada 171
  • Dhammapada 172
  • Dhammapada 173
  • Dhammapada 174
  • Dhammapada 175
  • Dhammapada 176
  • Dhammapada 177
  • Dhammapada 178
  • Chapter 14: 
    The Buddha

  • Dhammapada 179
  • Dhammapada 180
  • Dhammapada 181
  • Dhammapada 182
  • Dhammapada 183
  • Dhammapada 184
  • Dhammapada 185
  • Dhammapada 186
  • Dhammapada 187
  • Dhammapada 188
  • Dhammapada 189
  • Dhammapada 190
  • Dhammapada 191
  • Dhammapada 192
  • Dhammapada 193
  • Dhammapada 194
  • Dhammapada 195
  • Dhammapada 196
  • Chapter 15: 
    The Happiness

  • Dhammapada 197
  • Dhammapada 198
  • Dhammapada 199
  • Dhammapada 200
  • Dhammapada 201
  • Dhammapada 202
  • Dhammapada 203
  • Dhammapada 204
  • Dhammapada 205
  • Dhammapada 206
  • Dhammapada 207
  • Dhammapada 208
  • Chapter 16: 
    Affection

  • Dhammapada 209
  • Dhammapada 210
  • Dhammapada 211
  • Dhammapada 212
  • Dhammapada 213
  • Dhammapada 214
  • Dhammapada 215
  • Dhammapada 216
  • Dhammapada 217
  • Dhammapada 218
  • Dhammapada 219
  • Dhammapada 220
  • Dhammapada 221
  • Chapter 17: 
    Anger

  • Dhammapada 222
  • Dhammapada 223
  • Dhammapada 224
  • Dhammapada 225
  • Dhammapada 226
  • Dhammapada 227
  • Dhammapada 228
  • Dhammapada 229
  • Dhammapada 230
  • Dhammapada 231
  • Dhammapada 232
  • Dhammapada 233
  • Dhammapada 234
  • Chapter 18: 
    Taint

  • Dhammapada 235
  • Dhammapada 236
  • Dhammapada 237
  • Dhammapada 238
  • Dhammapada 239
  • Dhammapada 240
  • Dhammapada 241
  • Dhammapada 242
  • Dhammapada 243
  • Dhammapada 244
  • Dhammapada 245
  • Dhammapada 246
  • Dhammapada 247
  • Dhammapada 248
  • Dhammapada 249
  • Dhammapada 250
  • Dhammapada 251
  • Dhammapada 252
  • Dhammapada 253
  • Dhammapada 254
  • Dhammapada 255
  • Chapter 19: 
    The Righteous

  • Dhammapada 256
  • Dhammapada 257
  • Dhammapada 258
  • Dhammapada 259
  • Dhammapada 260
  • Dhammapada 261
  • Dhammapada 262
  • Dhammapada 263
  • Dhammapada 264
  • Dhammapada 265
  • Dhammapada 266
  • Dhammapada 267
  • Dhammapada 268
  • Dhammapada 269
  • Dhammapada 270
  • Dhammapada 271
  • Dhammapada 272
  • Chapter 20: 
    The Path

  • Dhammapada 273
  • Dhammapada 274
  • Dhammapada 275
  • Dhammapada 276
  • Dhammapada 277
  • Dhammapada 278
  • Dhammapada 279
  • Dhammapada 280
  • Dhammapada 281
  • Dhammapada 282
  • Dhammapada 283
  • Dhammapada 284
  • Dhammapada 285
  • Dhammapada 286
  • Dhammapada 287
  • Dhammapada 288
  • Dhammapada 289
  • Chapter 21: 
    Miscellaneous

  • Dhammapada 290
  • Dhammapada 291
  • Dhammapada 292
  • Dhammapada 293
  • Dhammapada 294
  • Dhammapada 295
  • Dhammapada 296
  • Dhammapada 297
  • Dhammapada 298
  • Dhammapada 299
  • Dhammapada 300
  • Dhammapada 301
  • Dhammapada 302
  • Dhammapada 303
  • Dhammapada 304
  • Dhammapada 305
  • Chapter 22: 
    The Hell

  • Dhammapada 306
  • Dhammapada 307
  • Dhammapada 308
  • Dhammapada 309
  • Dhammapada 310
  • Dhammapada 311
  • Dhammapada 312
  • Dhammapada 313
  • Dhammapada 314
  • Dhammapada 315
  • Dhammapada 316
  • Dhammapada 317
  • Dhammapada 318
  • Dhammapada 319
  • Chapter 23: 
    The Elephant

  • Dhammapada 320
  • Dhammapada 321
  • Dhammapada 322
  • Dhammapada 323
  • Dhammapada 324
  • Dhammapada 325
  • Dhammapada 326
  • Dhammapada 327
  • Dhammapada 328
  • Dhammapada 329
  • Dhammapada 330
  • Dhammapada 331
  • Dhammapada 332
  • Dhammapada 333
  • Chapter 24:
    The Thirst

  • Dhammapada 334
  • Dhammapada 335
  • Dhammapada 336
  • Dhammapada 337
  • Dhammapada 338
  • Dhammapada 339
  • Dhammapada 340
  • Dhammapada 341
  • Dhammapada 342
  • Dhammapada 343
  • Dhammapada 344
  • Dhammapada 345
  • Dhammapada 346
  • Dhammapada 347
  • Dhammapada 348
  • Dhammapada 349
  • Dhammapada 350
  • Dhammapada 351
  • Dhammapada 352
  • Dhammapada 353
  • Dhammapada 354
  • Dhammapada 355
  • Dhammapada 356
  • Dhammapada 357
  • Dhammapada 358
  • Dhammapada 359
  • Chapter 25: 
    The Monk

  • Dhammapada 360
  • Dhammapada 361
  • Dhammapada 362
  • Dhammapada 363
  • Dhammapada 364
  • Dhammapada 365
  • Dhammapada 366
  • Dhammapada 367
  • Dhammapada 368
  • Dhammapada 369
  • Dhammapada 370
  • Dhammapada 371
  • Dhammapada 372
  • Dhammapada 373
  • Dhammapada 374
  • Dhammapada 375
  • Dhammapada 376
  • Dhammapada 377
  • Dhammapada 378
  • Dhammapada 379
  • Dhammapada 380
  • Dhammapada 381
  • Dhammapada 382
  • Chapter 26: 
    The Brahmin

  • Dhammapada 383
  • Dhammapada 384
  • Dhammapada 385
  • Dhammapada 386
  • Dhammapada 387
  • Dhammapada 388
  • Dhammapada 389
  • Dhammapada 390
  • Dhammapada 391
  • Dhammapada 392
  • Dhammapada 393
  • Dhammapada 394
  • Dhammapada 395
  • Dhammapada 396
  • Dhammapada 397
  • Dhammapada 398
  • Dhammapada 399
  • Dhammapada 400
  • Dhammapada 401
  • Dhammapada 402
  • Dhammapada 403
  • Dhammapada 404
  • Dhammapada 405
  • Dhammapada 406
  • Dhammapada 407
  • Dhammapada 408
  • Dhammapada 409
  • Dhammapada 410
  • Dhammapada 411
  • Dhammapada 412
  • Dhammapada 413
  • Dhammapada 414
  • Dhammapada 415
  • Dhammapada 416
  • Dhammapada 417
  • Dhammapada 418
  • Dhammapada 419
  • Dhammapada 420
  • Dhammapada 421
  • Dhammapada 422
  • Dhammapada 423
  • Selected Pali Texts1. aaditta-pariyaaya-sutta (sa.myutta-nikaaya, sabbaka-vagga, sa.laayatana-sa.myutta, 28) 
    2. anattaa-lakkha.na-sutta (sa.myutta-nikaaya, khandha-vagga, khandha-sa.myutta, 59) 
    3. dhamma-cakka-ppavattana-sutta (sa.myutta-nikaaya, mahaa-vagga, sacca-sa.myutta, 11) 
    4. dhaniya-sutta (sutta-nipaata, uraga-vagga, 2) 
    5. kaalaama-sutta (a^nguttara-nikaaya, tika-nipaata, mahaa-vagga, 65) 
    6. khagga-visaa.na-sutta (sutta-nipaata, uraga-vagga, 3) 
    7. kara.niiya-mettaa-sutta (khuddaka-nikaaya, khuddaka-paa.tha, 9) 
    8. mahaa-parinibbaa.na-sutta (diigha-nikaaya) 
    9. uraga-sutta (sutta-nipaata, uraga-vagga, 1)

    Suttas.net

    The Suttas: Original Teachings of the Buddha

    Dhammapada in Versetranslated by Bhante Varado
    and Samanera Bodhesako
    The Atthakavagga (small pdf)translated by Ven. Paññobhāsa Bhikkhu
    The Suttas: Original Teachings of the Buddha

    Dhammapada in Versetranslated by Bhante Varado
    and Samanera Bodhesako
    The Atthakavagga (small pdf)translated by Ven. Paññobh?sa Bhikkhu

    ???

    Tsai Chih Chung (Chinese: 蔡志忠; pinyin: Cài Zhìzhōng; born 1948) is a famous cartoonist born in Huatan, Changhua County, Taiwan of Taiwanese origins.[1] He is best known for his graphical works on Chinese philosophy and history, most notably the philosophers Laozi, Liezi, and Zhuangzi, which he made accessible and popularised through the use of plain language and visual aid of cartoon graphics.[2] Many of his earlier four paneled works contain elements of political satire and those which are purely comical such as his well known work, The Drunken Swordsman (大醉俠).[1]
    The books of Tsai Chih Chung have been very well received by the public in both Taiwan and mainland China. They have subsequently been translated into dozens of languages including English.[2] He currently resides in Taiwan and Vancouver.

    Voici une histoire sur la cohérence des paroles et des actes (et du rapport maître-disciple) extraite de Soyons Zen :

    Cai Zhizhong: A Master Cartoonist

    “Cartoons speak in a language that not only expresses satire and humor, but also reflects human love and natural beauty. They can describe everything. I am particularly fond of ancient Chinese philosophies, so I make cartoons out of them.”

    —-Cai Zhizhong in an interview with New Business in 2005

    The first to create cartoons of the ancient Chinese classics

    Born in 1948, Cai Zhizhong, a popular cartoonist from Taiwan, was the first to use cartoons to illustrate the seemingly recondite ancient Chinese classics in such an amusing way. China has a wealth of spiritual heritage, including philosophical thoughts, poems from the Tang dynasty (618-907), the Book of Changes and Zen Buddhism. According to Cai, this wealth of spiritual heritage may not be easily understood, prompting his attempts to express these complex ideas with simple and interesting cartoons.

    Starting from the 1980s, Cai created a series of Chinese comic books on ancient Chinese classics, like Zhuangzi Speaks: The Music of Nature, Zen Speaks: Shouts of Nothingness, Confucius Speaks: Words to Live by, Sunzi Speaks: The Art of War, and The Tao Speaks: Lao Tzu’s Whispers of Wisdom. Confucius, Lao Tzu, Zhuangzi, and Sunzi are widely credited as sages whose thoughts have played an important role in China’s development. Cai put his unique understanding and feelings of ancient thoughts into his cartoons, and added a modern interpretation of them, making boring ancient philosophies quite amusing as well as understandable. His works won a large number of adult readers for comic books, a market predominantly children-targeted. This series of comic books has hoarded great applause from readers both in Taiwan and Chinese mainland, with 4 million copies sold in Taiwan.


    Tsai Chih Chung (Chinese: ???; pinyin: Cài Zhìzh?ng; born 1948) is a famous cartoonist born in Huatan, Changhua County, Taiwan of Taiwanese origins.[1] He is best known for his graphical works on Chinese philosophy and history, most notably the philosophers Laozi, Liezi, and Zhuangzi, which he made accessible and popularised through the use of plain language and visual aid of cartoon graphics.[2] Many of his earlier four paneled works contain elements of political satire and those which are purely comical such as his well known work, The Drunken Swordsman (???).[1]
    The books of Tsai Chih Chung have been very well received by the public in both Taiwan and mainland China. They have subsequently been translated into dozens of languages including English.[2] He currently resides in Taiwan and Vancouver.

    Voici une histoire sur la cohérence des paroles et des actes (et du rapport maître-disciple) extraite de Soyons Zen :

    Cai Zhizhong: A Master Cartoonist

    “Cartoons speak in a language that not only expresses satire and humor, but also reflects human love and natural beauty. They can describe everything. I am particularly fond of ancient Chinese philosophies, so I make cartoons out of them.”

    —-Cai Zhizhong in an interview with New Business in 2005

    The first to create cartoons of the ancient Chinese classics

    Born in 1948, Cai Zhizhong, a popular cartoonist from Taiwan, was the first to use cartoons to illustrate the seemingly recondite ancient Chinese classics in such an amusing way. China has a wealth of spiritual heritage, including philosophical thoughts, poems from the Tang dynasty (618-907), the Book of Changes and Zen Buddhism. According to Cai, this wealth of spiritual heritage may not be easily understood, prompting his attempts to express these complex ideas with simple and interesting cartoons.

    Starting from the 1980s, Cai created a series of Chinese comic books on ancient Chinese classics, like Zhuangzi Speaks: The Music of Nature, Zen Speaks: Shouts of Nothingness, Confucius Speaks: Words to Live by, Sunzi Speaks: The Art of War, and The Tao Speaks: Lao Tzu’s Whispers of Wisdom. Confucius, Lao Tzu, Zhuangzi, and Sunzi are widely credited as sages whose thoughts have played an important role in China’s development. Cai put his unique understanding and feelings of ancient thoughts into his cartoons, and added a modern interpretation of them, making boring ancient philosophies quite amusing as well as understandable. His works won a large number of adult readers for comic books, a market predominantly children-targeted. This series of comic books has hoarded great applause from readers both in Taiwan and Chinese mainland, with 4 million copies sold in Taiwan.


    Jan Arntzen

    El tiempo suspendido en las noches blancas.

    Lanata viaja 12.225 km hasta el archipiélago de Hvaler, en el extremo del Fiordo de Oslo, para saber si en verdad existe ese hombre del que le habló su amigo Luis Rigou: un maestro, capitán de barcos, constructor, empecinado profesor que adopto a 33 niños tibetanos y que fue premiado por el Rey de Noruega con la Medalla de Oro al Mérito.

    El hombre se llama Jan Arntzen.

    Lanata lo encuentra en la minúscula isla de Spjærøy.

    “Los chicos se reian y me llamaban Amdo, esas fueron las primeras palabras que aprendí en tibetano”, recuerda Jan, 50 años después.

    Lanata sale en busca de aquellos chicos, que hoy ya tienen su propia familia, para que le confirmen la historia.
    Encuentra a Pempa Thondrup, Sonam Topgyal y Tenzin Kalsang.

    “Prestar la casa para 33 niños victimas de la guerra es una forma muy altruista de actuar”, le dice Tenzin.
    “Le explicamos que Amdo significa fuerte y duro, pero al mismo tiempo gentil como un cordero”, le cuenta Sonam.

    “China ocupó el Tibet en 1959, yo vivía en un monasterio con mi tio, pasamos tres o cuatro meses en camino hacia la india. Jan Arntzen dio más de lo que tenía, su generosidad es algo increíble”, insiste Tenzin.
    Jan recuerda las crudas historias de esos chicos que escaparon del Tibet y cruzaron el Himalaya hacia el exilio, sobre todo la de un niño al que su padre debió atar a un caballo cuando ya no daba más de tanto caminar para que lo arrastrara hasta la frontera con la India.

    Y le cuenta a Lanata cómo fue que junto a su esposa Wenche decidieron llevárselos a vivir con ellos en Noruega.

    “Papá y mamá no intentaron inculcarles la cultura noruega, les respetaron la propia”, cuentan Helene y Julie, hijas de Jan. Julie se para y baila para Lanata el “rock tibetano” que le enseñaron, de niña, sus hermanos adoptivos.

    “Papa es un hombre de acción, no de palabras: incluye a la gente, les muestra que los necesita”, dice Helene.
    En Paris, Luis Rigou, amigo de Lanata y esposo de Helene, dice: “De Jan aprendi el coraje”.

    El tiempo suspendido en las noches blancas.

    Lanata viaja 12.225 km hasta el archipiélago de Hvaler, en el extremo del Fiordo de Oslo, para saber si en verdad existe ese hombre del que le habló su amigo Luis Rigou: un maestro, capitán de barcos, constructor, empecinado profesor que adopto a 33 niños tibetanos y que fue premiado por el Rey de Noruega con la Medalla de Oro al Mérito.

    El hombre se llama Jan Arntzen.

    Lanata lo encuentra en la minúscula isla de Spjærøy.

    “Los chicos se reian y me llamaban Amdo, esas fueron las primeras palabras que aprendí en tibetano”, recuerda Jan, 50 años después.

    Lanata sale en busca de aquellos chicos, que hoy ya tienen su propia familia, para que le confirmen la historia.
    Encuentra a Pempa Thondrup, Sonam Topgyal y Tenzin Kalsang.

    “Prestar la casa para 33 niños victimas de la guerra es una forma muy altruista de actuar”, le dice Tenzin.
    “Le explicamos que Amdo significa fuerte y duro, pero al mismo tiempo gentil como un cordero”, le cuenta Sonam.

    “China ocupó el Tibet en 1959, yo vivía en un monasterio con mi tio, pasamos tres o cuatro meses en camino hacia la india. Jan Arntzen dio más de lo que tenía, su generosidad es algo increíble”, insiste Tenzin.
    Jan recuerda las crudas historias de esos chicos que escaparon del Tibet y cruzaron el Himalaya hacia el exilio, sobre todo la de un niño al que su padre debió atar a un caballo cuando ya no daba más de tanto caminar para que lo arrastrara hasta la frontera con la India.

    Y le cuenta a Lanata cómo fue que junto a su esposa Wenche decidieron llevárselos a vivir con ellos en Noruega.

    “Papá y mamá no intentaron inculcarles la cultura noruega, les respetaron la propia”, cuentan Helene y Julie, hijas de Jan. Julie se para y baila para Lanata el “rock tibetano” que le enseñaron, de niña, sus hermanos adoptivos.

    “Papa es un hombre de acción, no de palabras: incluye a la gente, les muestra que los necesita”, dice Helene.
    En Paris, Luis Rigou, amigo de Lanata y esposo de Helene, dice: “De Jan aprendi el coraje”.