Mongol: The Rise of Genghis Khan

Published on Nov 14, 2015
Mongol: The Rise of Genghis Khan
is a 2007 Russian semi-historical film about the early life of Temüjin, who later came to be known as Genghis Khan. It is directed by Sergei Bodrov, with the storyline conceived from a screenplay written by Bodrov and Arif Aliev. The film was produced by Bodrov, Sergei Selyanov and Anton Melnik and stars Tadanobu Asano, Sun Honglei and Chuluuny Khulan in principal roles. Mongol explores abduction, kinship and the repercussions of war. The film was a co-production between companies in Russia, Germany and Kazakhstan. Filming took place mainly in the People’s Republic of China, principally in Inner Mongolia (the Mongol autonomous region), and in Kazakhstan.

Published on Nov 14, 2015
Mongol: The Rise of Genghis Khan
is a 2007 Russian semi-historical film about the early life of Temüjin, who later came to be known as Genghis Khan. It is directed by Sergei Bodrov, with the storyline conceived from a screenplay written by Bodrov and Arif Aliev. The film was produced by Bodrov, Sergei Selyanov and Anton Melnik and stars Tadanobu Asano, Sun Honglei and Chuluuny Khulan in principal roles. Mongol explores abduction, kinship and the repercussions of war. The film was a co-production between companies in Russia, Germany and Kazakhstan. Filming took place mainly in the People’s Republic of China, principally in Inner Mongolia (the Mongol autonomous region), and in Kazakhstan.

Natural resources in Vietnam

Uploaded on Oct 19, 2011Forest-dependent people are largely missing out on new wealth generated through Vietnam’s increased economic development. The Centre for Sustainable Development of Mountain Areas (CSDM) is promoting allocation of mountain areas …

Uploaded on Oct 19, 2011
Forest-dependent people are largely missing out on new wealth generated through Vietnam’s increased economic development. The Centre for Sustainable Development of Mountain Areas (CSDM) is promoting allocation of mountain areas to local people, helping local authorities and people address the issue of conflict in forest management. RECOFTC — The Center for People and Forests partners with CSDM to translate findings of research on forests rights into practical recommendations for communities and policymakers. The two organizations are working together to help local people allocate forestland to households following their own recommendations. The communities in Lang Son seek to manage their forest resources in ways that will be beneficial to them now and their children in the future.

Produced and directed by:
RECOFTC — The Center for People and Forests

Uploaded on Oct 19, 2011
Tram Chim National Park is one of two wetland preservation areas in a richly biodiverse part of Vietnam called the Plain of Reeds. In an effort to balance the difficult work of conservation with the demands of poor communities in the surrounding areas that depend on the park’s resources for their livelihoods, Tram Chim is working on innovative ways to involve the local people in the conservation process. Community based sustainable use of natural resources is one approach the Park has begun to explore.

The park has been working with poor groups that demonstrate an interest in and commitment to resource conservation. The groups develop resource management plans that are reviewed and approved by park officials, granting the local people permission to enter the national park and gather sanctioned resources for their livelihoods. Since the inception of this system, park officials find their conservation and regulation work is much easier, and local people have greater incomes to provide more stability for their family. Villagers recognize the value of conserving resources today to ensure the abundance of resources will remain for future generations.

This project has been implemented by the park in cooperation with World Wildlife Fund funded by Coca-Cola and permitted by Dong Thap Provincial People Committee between 2008-2001. This film was produced by Institute of Tropical Biology in collaboration with Tram Chim National Park, RECOFTC – The Center for People and Forests, and The University of East Anglia, with financial support from the British Economic and Social Research Council.

Tram Chim National Park, Tam Nong district, Dong Thap province, Vietnam

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The Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew: מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה‎, Mamlekhet Yehuda) was a state established in the Southern Levant during the Iron Age, after the split of the United Monarchy. It is often referred to as the “Southern Kingdom” to distinguish it from the northernKingdom of Israel.
Judah emerged as a state probably no earlier than the 9th century BCE, although there are differences of opinion as to the dating.[1][2] In the 7th century BCE, Jerusalem became the capital of the kingdom and a city with a population many times greater than before and would dominate the state and its neighbours, probably as the result of a cooperative arrangement with theAssyrians, who wished to establish Judah as a pro-Assyrian vassal state controlling the valuable olive industry.[3] Judah prospered under Assyrian vassalage, (despite Hezekiah’s revolt against the Assyrian king Sennacherib[4]), but in 605 the Assyrian Empire was defeated, and the ensuing competition between the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt and the Neo-Babylonian Empire for control of theEastern Mediterranean led to the destruction of the kingdom in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582, the deportation of the elite of the community, and the incorporation of Judah into a province of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
Significant academic debate exists around the character of the Kingdom of Judah. Little archaeological evidence of an extensive, powerful Kingdom of Judah before the late 8th century BCE has been found; Nimrud Tablet K.3751, dated c.733 BCE, is the earliest known record of the name Judah (written in Assyrian cuneiform as Yaudaya or KUR.ia-ú-da-a-a).
Archaeologists of the minimalist school doubt the extent of the Kingdom of Judah as depicted in the Bible. Around 1990–2010, an important group of archaeologists and biblical scholars formed the view that the actual Kingdom of Judah bore little resemblance to the biblical portrait of a powerful monarchy. These scholars say the kingdom was no more than a small tribal entity. [6]
However, others maintain that recent findings support the biblical story. Yosef Garfinkel has written in a preliminary report published by the Israeli Antiquities Authority that finds at the Khirbet Qeiyafa site support the notion that an urban society already existed in Judah in the late 11th century BCE.[7] Other archaeologists say that the identification of Khirbet Qeiyafa as a Jewish settlement is uncertain.[8][9]

Biblical narrative

According to the Bible, the kingdom of Judah resulted from the break-up of the United kingdom of Israel(1020 to about 930 BCE) after the northern tribes refused to accept Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, as their king. At first, only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David, but soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined Judah. The two kingdoms, Judah in the south and Israel in the north, co-existed uneasily after the split, until the destruction of Israel by the Assyrians in c.722/721 left Judah as the sole remaining kingdom.
The major theme of the Hebrew Bible’s narrative is the loyalty of Judah, and especially its kings, toYahweh, which it states is the God of Israel. Accordingly, all the kings of Israel and almost all the kings of Judah were “bad”, which in terms of Biblical narrative means that they failed to enforce worship of Yahweh alone. Of the “good” kings, Hezekiah (727–698 BCE) is noted for his efforts at stamping out idolatry (in this case, the worship of Baal and Asherah, among other traditional Near Eastern divinities),[10] but his successors, Manasseh of Judah(698–642 BCE) and Amon (642–640 BCE), revived idolatry, drawing down on the kingdom the anger of Yahweh. King Josiah (640–609 BCE) returned to the worship of Yahweh alone, but his efforts were too late and Israel’s unfaithfulness caused God to permit the kingdom’s destruction by the Babylonians in c.587/586 BCE.
After Hezekiah became sole ruler in c. 715 BC, he formed alliances with Ashkelon and Egypt, and made a stand against Assyria by refusing to pay tribute.[20] (Isaiah 30-31; 36:6-9) In response, Sennacherib of Assyria attacked the fortified cities of Judah. (2 Kings 18:13) Hezekiah paid three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold to Assyria — requiring him to empty the temple and royal treasury of silver and strip the gold from the doorposts of Solomon’s Temple. (2 Kings 18:14-16)[20] However, Sennacherib besieged Jerusalem[21](2 Kings 18:17) in 701 BC, though the city was never taken.
During the long reign of Manasseh (c. 687/686 – 643/642 BC),[22] Judah was a vassal of Assyrian rulers – Sennacherib and his successors,Esarhaddon[23] and Ashurbanipal after 669 BC. Manasseh is listed as being required to provide materials for Esarhaddon’s building projects, and as one of a number of vassals who assisted Ashurbanipal’s campaign against Egypt.[23]
When Josiah became king of Judah in c. 641/640 BC,[22] the international situation was in flux. To the east, the Assyrian Empire was beginning to disintegrate, the Babylonian Empire had not yet risen to replace it, and Egypt to the west was still recovering from Assyrian rule. In this power vacuum, Judah was able to govern itself for the time being without foreign intervention. However, in the spring of 609 BC,Pharaoh Necho II personally led a sizable army up to the Euphrates to aid the Assyrians.[24] Taking the coast route Via Maris into Syria at the head of a large army, Necho passed the low tracts of Philistia and Sharon. However, the passage over the ridge of hills which shuts in on the south of the great Jezreel Valley was blocked by the Judean army led by Josiah, who may have considered that the Assyrians and Egyptians were weakened by the death of the pharaoh Psamtik I only a year earlier (610 BC).[24] Presumably in an attempt to help the Babylonians, Josiah attempted to block the advance at Megiddo, where a fierce battle was fought and where Josiah was killed.[25] Necho then joined forces with the Assyrian Ashur-uballit II and together they crossed the Euphrates and lay siege to Harran. The combined forces failed to capture the city, and Necho retreated back to northern Syria. The event also marked the disintegration of the Assyrian Empire.
On his return march to Egypt in 608 BC, Necho found that Jehoahaz had been selected to succeed his father, Josiah.[26] Necho deposed Jehoahaz, who had been king for only three months, and replaced him with his older brother, Jehoiakim. Necho imposed on Judah a levy of a hundred talents of silver (about 334 tons or about 3.4 metric tons) and a talent of gold (about 34 kilograms (75 lb)). Necho then took Jehoahaz back to Egypt as his prisoner,[27] never to return.
Jehoiakim ruled originally as a vassal of the Egyptians, paying a heavy tribute. However, when the Egyptians were defeated by the Babylonians at Carchemish in 605 BC, Jehoiakim changed allegiances, paying tribute to Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon. In 601 BC, in the fourth year of his reign, Nebuchadnezzar unsuccessfully attempted to invade Egypt and was repulsed with heavy losses. This failure led to numerous rebellions among the states of the Levant which owed allegiance to Babylon. Jehoiakim also stopped paying tribute to Nebuchadnezzar[28] and took a pro-Egyptian position. Nebuchadnezzar soon dealt with these rebellions. According to the Babylonian Chronicles, after invading “the land of Hatti (Syria/Palestine)”[29][30] in 599 BC, he lay siege to Jerusalem. Jehoiakim died in 598 BC[31] during the siege, and was succeeded by his son Jeconiah at an age of either eight or eighteen.[32] The city fell about three months later,[33][34] on 2 Adar (March 16) 597 BC. Nebuchadnezzar pillaged both Jerusalem and the Temple, carting all his spoils to Babylon. Jeconiah and his court and other prominent citizens and craftsmen, along with a sizable portion of the Jewish population of Judah, numbering about 10,000[35] were deported from the land and dispersed throughout the Babylonian Empire. (2 Kings 24:14) Among them was Ezekiel. Nebuchadnezzar appointed Zedekiah, Jehoiakim’s brother, king of the reduced kingdom, who was made a tributary of Babylon.

Destruction and dispersion

Despite the strong remonstrances of Jeremiah and others, Zedekiah revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, ceasing to pay tribute to him and entered into an alliance with PharaohHophra of Egypt. In 589 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar II returned to Judah and again besieged Jerusalem. During this period, many Jews fled to surrounding Moab, Ammon, Edom and other countries to seek refuge.[36] The city fell after an eighteen month siege and Nebuchadnezzar again pillaged both Jerusalem and the Temple,[37] after which he destroyed them both.[38] After killing all of Zedekiah’s sons, Nebuchadnezzar took Zedekiah to Babylon,[39] putting an end to the independent Kingdom of Judah. In addition to those killed during the siege, over time, some 4,600 Jews were deported after the fall of Judah.[40] By 586 BCE much of Judah was devastated, and the former kingdom suffered a steep decline of both economy and population.[41]
Jerusalem apparently remained uninhabited for much of the 6th century,[41] and the centre of gravity shifted to Benjamin, the relatively unscathed northern section of the kingdom, where the town of Mizpah became the capital of the new Babylonian province of Yehud medinata for the remnant of the Jewish population in a part of the former kingdom.[42] This was standard Babylonian practice: when the Philistine city of Ashkalon was conquered in 604 BCE, the political, religious and economic elite (but not the bulk of the population) was banished and the administrative centre shifted to a new location.[43]
Gedaliah was appointed governor of the Yehud province, supported by a Chaldean guard. The administrative centre of the province was Mizpah,[44] and not Jerusalem. On hearing of the appointment, the Jews that had taken refuge in surrounding countries returned to Judah. (Jeremiah 40:11-12) However, before long Gedaliah was assassinated by a member of the royal house, and the Chaldean soldiers killed. The population that was left in the land and those that had returned fled to Egypt fearing a Babylonian reprisal, under the leadership of Johanan, son of Kareah, ignoring the urging of the prophet Jeremiah against the move. (2 Kings 25:26, Jeremiah 43:5-7) In Egypt, the refugees settled inMigdol, Tahpanhes, Noph, and Pathros, (Jeremiah 44:1) and Jeremiah went with them as moral guardian.
The numbers that were deported to Babylon and those who made their way to Egypt and the remnant that remained in the land and in surrounding countries is subject to academic debate. The Book of Jeremiah reports that a total of 4,600 were exiled to Babylon.[40] The Books of Kings suggest that it was ten thousand, and then eight thousand.

Re-establishment under Persian rule

In 539 BCE the Persians conquered Babylon and allowed the exiled Jews to return to Yehud and rebuild the Temple, which was completed in the sixth year of Darius (515 BCE) (Ezra 6:15) under Zerubbabel, the grandson of the second to last king of Judah, Jehoiachin. Yehud province was a peaceful part of the Achaemenid Persian Empire until the fall of the Empire in c. 333 BCE to Alexander the Great.
The Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew: ????????? ?????????, Mamlekhet Yehuda) was a state established in the Southern Levant during the Iron Age, after the split of the United Monarchy. It is often referred to as the “Southern Kingdom” to distinguish it from the northernKingdom of Israel.
Judah emerged as a state probably no earlier than the 9th century BCE, although there are differences of opinion as to the dating.[1][2] In the 7th century BCE, Jerusalem became the capital of the kingdom and a city with a population many times greater than before and would dominate the state and its neighbours, probably as the result of a cooperative arrangement with theAssyrians, who wished to establish Judah as a pro-Assyrian vassal state controlling the valuable olive industry.[3] Judah prospered under Assyrian vassalage, (despite Hezekiah’s revolt against the Assyrian king Sennacherib[4]), but in 605 the Assyrian Empire was defeated, and the ensuing competition between the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt and the Neo-Babylonian Empire for control of theEastern Mediterranean led to the destruction of the kingdom in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582, the deportation of the elite of the community, and the incorporation of Judah into a province of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
Significant academic debate exists around the character of the Kingdom of Judah. Little archaeological evidence of an extensive, powerful Kingdom of Judah before the late 8th century BCE has been found; Nimrud Tablet K.3751, dated c.733 BCE, is the earliest known record of the name Judah (written in Assyrian cuneiform as Yaudaya or KUR.ia-ú-da-a-a).
Archaeologists of the minimalist school doubt the extent of the Kingdom of Judah as depicted in the Bible. Around 1990–2010, an important group of archaeologists and biblical scholars formed the view that the actual Kingdom of Judah bore little resemblance to the biblical portrait of a powerful monarchy. These scholars say the kingdom was no more than a small tribal entity. [6]
However, others maintain that recent findings support the biblical story. Yosef Garfinkel has written in a preliminary report published by the Israeli Antiquities Authority that finds at the Khirbet Qeiyafa site support the notion that an urban society already existed in Judah in the late 11th century BCE.[7] Other archaeologists say that the identification of Khirbet Qeiyafa as a Jewish settlement is uncertain.[8][9]

Biblical narrative

According to the Bible, the kingdom of Judah resulted from the break-up of the United kingdom of Israel(1020 to about 930 BCE) after the northern tribes refused to accept Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, as their king. At first, only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David, but soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined Judah. The two kingdoms, Judah in the south and Israel in the north, co-existed uneasily after the split, until the destruction of Israel by the Assyrians in c.722/721 left Judah as the sole remaining kingdom.
The major theme of the Hebrew Bible’s narrative is the loyalty of Judah, and especially its kings, toYahweh, which it states is the God of Israel. Accordingly, all the kings of Israel and almost all the kings of Judah were “bad”, which in terms of Biblical narrative means that they failed to enforce worship of Yahweh alone. Of the “good” kings, Hezekiah (727–698 BCE) is noted for his efforts at stamping out idolatry (in this case, the worship of Baal and Asherah, among other traditional Near Eastern divinities),[10] but his successors, Manasseh of Judah(698–642 BCE) and Amon (642–640 BCE), revived idolatry, drawing down on the kingdom the anger of Yahweh. King Josiah (640–609 BCE) returned to the worship of Yahweh alone, but his efforts were too late and Israel’s unfaithfulness caused God to permit the kingdom’s destruction by the Babylonians in c.587/586 BCE.
After Hezekiah became sole ruler in c. 715 BC, he formed alliances with Ashkelon and Egypt, and made a stand against Assyria by refusing to pay tribute.[20] (Isaiah 30-31; 36:6-9) In response, Sennacherib of Assyria attacked the fortified cities of Judah. (2 Kings 18:13) Hezekiah paid three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold to Assyria — requiring him to empty the temple and royal treasury of silver and strip the gold from the doorposts of Solomon’s Temple. (2 Kings 18:14-16)[20] However, Sennacherib besieged Jerusalem[21](2 Kings 18:17) in 701 BC, though the city was never taken.
During the long reign of Manasseh (c. 687/686 – 643/642 BC),[22] Judah was a vassal of Assyrian rulers – Sennacherib and his successors,Esarhaddon[23] and Ashurbanipal after 669 BC. Manasseh is listed as being required to provide materials for Esarhaddon’s building projects, and as one of a number of vassals who assisted Ashurbanipal’s campaign against Egypt.[23]
When Josiah became king of Judah in c. 641/640 BC,[22] the international situation was in flux. To the east, the Assyrian Empire was beginning to disintegrate, the Babylonian Empire had not yet risen to replace it, and Egypt to the west was still recovering from Assyrian rule. In this power vacuum, Judah was able to govern itself for the time being without foreign intervention. However, in the spring of 609 BC,Pharaoh Necho II personally led a sizable army up to the Euphrates to aid the Assyrians.[24] Taking the coast route Via Maris into Syria at the head of a large army, Necho passed the low tracts of Philistia and Sharon. However, the passage over the ridge of hills which shuts in on the south of the great Jezreel Valley was blocked by the Judean army led by Josiah, who may have considered that the Assyrians and Egyptians were weakened by the death of the pharaoh Psamtik I only a year earlier (610 BC).[24] Presumably in an attempt to help the Babylonians, Josiah attempted to block the advance at Megiddo, where a fierce battle was fought and where Josiah was killed.[25] Necho then joined forces with the Assyrian Ashur-uballit II and together they crossed the Euphrates and lay siege to Harran. The combined forces failed to capture the city, and Necho retreated back to northern Syria. The event also marked the disintegration of the Assyrian Empire.
On his return march to Egypt in 608 BC, Necho found that Jehoahaz had been selected to succeed his father, Josiah.[26] Necho deposed Jehoahaz, who had been king for only three months, and replaced him with his older brother, Jehoiakim. Necho imposed on Judah a levy of a hundred talents of silver (about 33?4 tons or about 3.4 metric tons) and a talent of gold (about 34 kilograms (75 lb)). Necho then took Jehoahaz back to Egypt as his prisoner,[27] never to return.
Jehoiakim ruled originally as a vassal of the Egyptians, paying a heavy tribute. However, when the Egyptians were defeated by the Babylonians at Carchemish in 605 BC, Jehoiakim changed allegiances, paying tribute to Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon. In 601 BC, in the fourth year of his reign, Nebuchadnezzar unsuccessfully attempted to invade Egypt and was repulsed with heavy losses. This failure led to numerous rebellions among the states of the Levant which owed allegiance to Babylon. Jehoiakim also stopped paying tribute to Nebuchadnezzar[28] and took a pro-Egyptian position. Nebuchadnezzar soon dealt with these rebellions. According to the Babylonian Chronicles, after invading “the land of Hatti (Syria/Palestine)”[29][30] in 599 BC, he lay siege to Jerusalem. Jehoiakim died in 598 BC[31] during the siege, and was succeeded by his son Jeconiah at an age of either eight or eighteen.[32] The city fell about three months later,[33][34] on 2 Adar (March 16) 597 BC. Nebuchadnezzar pillaged both Jerusalem and the Temple, carting all his spoils to Babylon. Jeconiah and his court and other prominent citizens and craftsmen, along with a sizable portion of the Jewish population of Judah, numbering about 10,000[35] were deported from the land and dispersed throughout the Babylonian Empire. (2 Kings 24:14) Among them was Ezekiel. Nebuchadnezzar appointed Zedekiah, Jehoiakim’s brother, king of the reduced kingdom, who was made a tributary of Babylon.

Destruction and dispersion

Despite the strong remonstrances of Jeremiah and others, Zedekiah revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, ceasing to pay tribute to him and entered into an alliance with PharaohHophra of Egypt. In 589 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar II returned to Judah and again besieged Jerusalem. During this period, many Jews fled to surrounding Moab, Ammon, Edom and other countries to seek refuge.[36] The city fell after an eighteen month siege and Nebuchadnezzar again pillaged both Jerusalem and the Temple,[37] after which he destroyed them both.[38] After killing all of Zedekiah’s sons, Nebuchadnezzar took Zedekiah to Babylon,[39] putting an end to the independent Kingdom of Judah. In addition to those killed during the siege, over time, some 4,600 Jews were deported after the fall of Judah.[40] By 586 BCE much of Judah was devastated, and the former kingdom suffered a steep decline of both economy and population.[41]
Jerusalem apparently remained uninhabited for much of the 6th century,[41] and the centre of gravity shifted to Benjamin, the relatively unscathed northern section of the kingdom, where the town of Mizpah became the capital of the new Babylonian province of Yehud medinata for the remnant of the Jewish population in a part of the former kingdom.[42] This was standard Babylonian practice: when the Philistine city of Ashkalon was conquered in 604 BCE, the political, religious and economic elite (but not the bulk of the population) was banished and the administrative centre shifted to a new location.[43]
Gedaliah was appointed governor of the Yehud province, supported by a Chaldean guard. The administrative centre of the province was Mizpah,[44] and not Jerusalem. On hearing of the appointment, the Jews that had taken refuge in surrounding countries returned to Judah. (Jeremiah 40:11-12) However, before long Gedaliah was assassinated by a member of the royal house, and the Chaldean soldiers killed. The population that was left in the land and those that had returned fled to Egypt fearing a Babylonian reprisal, under the leadership of Johanan, son of Kareah, ignoring the urging of the prophet Jeremiah against the move. (2 Kings 25:26, Jeremiah 43:5-7) In Egypt, the refugees settled inMigdol, Tahpanhes, Noph, and Pathros, (Jeremiah 44:1) and Jeremiah went with them as moral guardian.
The numbers that were deported to Babylon and those who made their way to Egypt and the remnant that remained in the land and in surrounding countries is subject to academic debate. The Book of Jeremiah reports that a total of 4,600 were exiled to Babylon.[40] The Books of Kings suggest that it was ten thousand, and then eight thousand.

Re-establishment under Persian rule

In 539 BCE the Persians conquered Babylon and allowed the exiled Jews to return to Yehud and rebuild the Temple, which was completed in the sixth year of Darius (515 BCE) (Ezra 6:15) under Zerubbabel, the grandson of the second to last king of Judah, Jehoiachin. Yehud province was a peaceful part of the Achaemenid Persian Empire until the fall of the Empire in c. 333 BCE to Alexander the Great.

Los fenicios

Los fenicios se enclavaron entre las estribaciones de los montes Líbano y el Mediterráneo, en costas del Asia Menor, existe una pequeña y estrecha faja geográfica, de unos 200 kilómetros de largo y 40 kilómetros de ancho, que en la antigüedad se conoció como Fenicia, que significaba “País de Palmeras”. Sus limites fueron:

– Norte : Siria.
– Sur : Palestina.
– Este : Montañas del Líbano y

Los fenicios se enclavaron entre las estribaciones de los montes Líbano y el Mediterráneo, en costas del Asia Menor, existe una pequeña y estrecha faja geográfica, de unos 200 kilómetros de largo y 40 kilómetros de ancho, que en la antigüedad se conoció como Fenicia, que significaba “País de Palmeras”. Sus limites fueron:

– Norte : Siria.
– Sur : Palestina.
– Este : Montañas del Líbano y

conservar los alimentos fuera de la heladera

7 de octubre 2014

La diseñadora coreana Jihyun Ryou creó una serie de objetos decorativos que tienen la función de conservar los alimentos fuera de la heladera. El concepto detrás de su proyecto es el de recuperar los conocimientos ancestrales para mantener el sabor y los nutrientes de la comida.

7 de octubre 2014

La diseñadora coreana Jihyun Ryou creó una serie de objetos decorativos que tienen la función de conservar los alimentos fuera de la heladera. El concepto detrás de su proyecto es el de recuperar los conocimientos ancestrales para mantener el sabor y los nutrientes de la comida.

????

Canaan (/ˈknən/; Northwest Semitic knaʿn; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍; biblical Hebrew: כנען / knaʿn; Masoretic: כְּנָעַן / Kənáʿan) was, during the late 2nd millennium BC, a region in the Ancient Near East, which as described in the Bible roughly corresponds to theLevant, i.e. modern-day Lebanon, Israel, the western part of Jordan and southwestern Syria.
The name is used commonly in the Hebrew Bible, with particular definition in references Genesis 10 and Numbers 34, where the “Land of Canaan” extends from Lebanon southward to the “Brook of Egypt” and eastward to the Jordan River Valley. References to Canaan in the Bible are usually backward looking, referring to a region that had become something else (e.g. theLand of Israel), and references to Canaanites commonly describe them as a people who had been annihilated.[1]
Archaeological attestation of the name Canaan in Ancient Near Eastern sources is almost exclusively during the period in which the region was a colony of the New Kingdom of Egypt, with usage of the name almost disappearing following the Late Bronze Age collapse.[2] The references suggest that during this period the term was familiar to the region’s neighbors on all sides, although it has been disputed to what extent such references provide a coherent description of its location and boundaries, and regarding whether the inhabitants used the term to describe themselves.[3] The Amarna Letters and other cuneiform documents use Kinaḫḫu, while other sources of the Egyptian New Kingdom mention numerous military campaigns conducted in Ka-na-na.[4]
The name “Canaanites” is attested, many centuries later, as the endonym of the people later known to the Ancient Greeks from c.500 BC as Phoenicians,[1] and following the emigration of Canaanite speakers to Carthage, was also used as a self-designation by the Punics. This mirrors later usage in later books of the Hebrew Bible, such as at the end of the Book of Zechariah, where it is thought to refer to a class of merchants or to non-monotheistic worshippers in Israel or neighbouring Sidon and Tyre, as well as in its single independent usage in the New Testament, where it is used as a synonym for Syrophoenician.
Canaan was of significant geopolitical importance in the Late Bronze Age Amarna period as the area where the spheres of interestof the Egyptian, Hittite, and Assyrian Empires converged. Much of the modern knowledge about Canaan stems from archaeological excavation in this area at sites such as Tel Hazor, Tel Megiddo and Gezer. Canaanite culture apparently developed in situ from the Circum-Arabian Nomadic Pastoral Complex, which in turn developed from a fusion of Near Eastern Harifian hunter gatherers with Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) farming cultures, practicing animal domestication, during the 6200 BC climatic crisis.[5] The Late Bronze Age state of Ugarit (at Ras Shamra in Syria) is considered quintessentially Canaanite archaeologically,[6] even though its Ugaritic language does not belong to the Canaanite groupproper.[7][8][9]
Linguistically, the Canaanite languages form a group within the Northwest Semitic languages; its best-known member today is the Hebrew language, being mostly known from Iron Age epigraphy. Other Canaanite languages are Phoenician, Ammonite, Moabite, and Edomite.

In biblical usage, the name was confined to the country west of the Jordan, the Canaanites being described as dwelling “by the sea, and along by the side of the Jordan” (Numbers 33:51; Joshua 22:9), and was especially identified with Phoenicia (Isaiah 23:11).[16] The Philistines, while an integral part of the Canaanite milieu, do not seem to have been ethnic Canaanites, and were listed in the Table of Nations as descendants of Misraim; the Arameans, Moabites, Ammonites, Midianites and Edomites were also considered fellow descendants of Shem or Abraham, and distinct from generic Canaanites/Amorites. “Heth”, representing the Hittites, is a son of Canaan. The later Hittites spoke an Indo-European language (called Nesili), but their predecessors the Hattians had spoken a little-known language (Hattili), of uncertain affinities.
The Horites formerly of Mount Seir were implied to be Canaanite (Hivite), although unusually there is no direct confirmation of this in the narrative. The Hurrians based in Northern Mesopotamia, who spoke a language isolate, were initially regarded by Bible scholars as akin to the Horites, though this is no longer the case.
The biblical narrative makes a point of the renaming of the “Land of Canaan” to the “Land of Israel” as marking the Israelite conquest of the Promised Land.[17]
Canaan and the Canaanites are mentioned some 160 times in the Hebrew Bible, mostly in the Pentateuch and the books of Joshua andJudges.[18]
Canaan first appears as one of Noah‘s grandsons during the narrative known as the Curse of Ham, in which Canaan is cursed with perpetual slavery because his father Ham had “looked upon” the drunk and naked Noah.
God later promises the land of Canaan to Abraham, and eventually delivers it to descendants of Abraham, the Israelites.[18] The biblical history has become increasingly problematic as the archaeological and textual evidence supports the idea that the early Israelites were in fact themselves Canaanites.[18]
The Hebrew Bible lists borders for the land of Canaan. Numbers 34:2 includes the phrase “the land of Canaan as defined by its borders.” The borders are then delineated in Numbers 34:3–12. The term “Canaanites” in biblical Hebrew is applied especially to the inhabitants of the lower regions, along the sea coast and on the shores of Jordan, as opposed to the inhabitants of the mountainous regions. By the time of the Second Temple, “Canaanite” in Hebrew had come to be not an ethnic designation, so much as a general synonym for “merchant”, as it is interpreted in, for example, Job 40:30, or Proverbs 31:24.[19]
John N. Oswalt notes that “Canaan consists of the land west of the Jordan and is distinguished from the area east of the Jordan.” Oswalt then goes on to say that in Scripture Canaan “takes on a theological character” as “the land which is God’s gift” and “the place of abundance”.[20]
The Hebrew Bible describes the Israelite conquest of Canaan in the “Former Prophets” (Nevi’im Rishonim [נביאים ראשונים] ), viz. the books of Joshua, Judges, 1st & 2nd Samuel, 1st & 2nd Kings. These five books of the Old Testament canon give the narrative of the Israelites after the death of Moses and Joshua leading them into Canaan.[21] In 586 BC, the Israelites in turn lost the land to the Babylonians. These narratives of the Former Prophets are also “part of a larger work, called the Deuteronomistic History“.[22]

Biblical Canaanites

The part of the book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible often called the Table of Nations describes the Canaanites as being descended from an ancestor called Canaan, the son of Ham and grandson of Noah (Hebrew: כְּנַעַן‎, Knaan), saying (Genesis 10:15–19):
Canaan is the father of Sidon, his firstborn; and of the Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, Arvadites, Zemarites, and Hamathites. Later the Canaanite clans scattered, and the borders of Canaan reached [across the Mediterranean coast] from Sidon toward Gerar as far as Gaza, and then [inland around the Jordan Valley] toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha.
The Sidon whom the Table identifies as the firstborn son of Canaan has the same name as that of the coastal city of Sidon, in Lebanon. This city dominated the Phoenician coast, and may have enjoyed hegemony over a number of ethnic groups, who are said to belong to the “Land of Canaan”.
Similarly, Canaanite populations are said to have inhabited:
The Canaanites (Hebrew: כנענים, Modern Kna’anim Tiberian Kənaʻănîm) are said to have been one of seven regional ethnic divisions or “nations” driven out by the Israelites followingThe Exodus. Specifically, the other nations include the Hittites, the Girgashites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites (Deuteronomy 7:1).
According to the Book of Jubilees, the Israelite conquest of Canaan is attributed to Canaan’s steadfast refusal to join his elder brothers in Ham’s allotment beyond the Nile, and instead “squatting” on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, within the inheritance delineated for Shem. Canaan thus incurs a further curse from Noah for disobeying the agreed apportionment of land.
One of the 613 mitzvot (precisely n. 596) prescribes that no inhabitants of the cities of six Canaanite nations, the same as mentioned in 7:1, minus the Girgashites, were to be left alive.
While the Hebrew Bible contrasts the Canaanites ethnically from the Ancient Israelites, modern scholars Jonathan Tubb and Mark Smith have theorized the kingdoms of Israel and Judah to be a subset of Canaanite culture, based on their archaeological and linguistic interpretations.[23][24]

During the 2nd millennium BC, Ancient Egyptian texts use the term Canaan to refer to an Egyptian-ruled colony, whose boundaries generally corroborate the definition of Canaan found in the Hebrew Bible, bounded to the west by the Mediterranean Sea, to the north in the vicinity of Hamath in Syria, to the east by the Jordan Valley, and to the south by a line extended from the Dead Sea to around Gaza. Nevertheless, the Egyptian and Hebrewuses of the term are not identical: the Egyptian texts also identify the coastal city of Qadesh in north west Syria near Turkey as part of the “Land of Canaan”, so that the Egyptian usage seems to refer to the entire Levantine coast of the Mediterranean Sea, making it a synonym of another Egyptian term for this coastland, Retenu.
Lebanon, in northern Canaan, bordered by the Litani river to the watershed of the Orontes river, was known by the Egyptians as upper Retjenu.[35] In Egyptian campaign accounts, the term Djahi was used to refer to the watershed of the Jordan river. Many earlier Egyptian sources also mention numerous military campaigns conducted in Ka-na-na, just inside Asia.[4]
16 references are known in Egyptian sources, from the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt onwards.[31]
  • Amenhotep II inscriptions: Canaanites are included in a list of prisoners of war
  • Three topographical lists
  • Papyrus Anastasi I 27,1″ refers to the route from Sile to Gaza “the [foreign countries] of the end of the land of Canaan”
  • Merneptah Stele
  • Papyrus Anastasi IIIA 5-6 and Papyrus Anastasi IV 16,4 refer to “Canaanite slaves from Hurru”
  • Papyrus Harris[36] After the collapse of the Levant under the so-called “Peoples of the Sea Ramesses III (ca. 1194 BC) is said to have built a temple to the god Amen to receive tribute from the southern Levant. This was described as being built in Pa-Canaan, a geographical reference whose meaning is disputed, with suggestions that it may refer to the city of Gaza or to the entire Egyptian-occupied territory in the south west corner of the Near East.[37]

Later sources

Padiiset’s Statue is the last known Egyptian reference to Canaan, a small statuette labelled “Envoy of the Canaan and of Palestine, Pa-di-Eset, the son of Apy”. It is more than 300 years after the preceding known inscription.[38]
During the period from c.900-330 BCE, the dominant empires of the Neo-Assyrians and Achaemenid Persians make no mention of Canaan.
The Greek term “Phoenicia” is first attested in the first two works of Western literature, Homer‘s Iliad and Odyssey. It does not occur in the Hebrew Bible, but occurs three times in the New Testament in the Book of Acts.[41] In the 6th century BC, Hecataeus of Miletus affirms that Phoenicia was formerly called χνα, a name that Philo of Byblos subsequently adopted into his mythology as his eponym for the Phoenicians: “Khna who was afterwards called Phoinix“. Quoting fragments attributed to Sanchuniathon, he relates that Byblos, Berytus and Tyre were among the first cities ever built, under the rule of the mythical Cronus, and credits the inhabitants with developing fishing, hunting, agriculture, shipbuilding and writing.
Coins of the city of Beirut / Laodicea bear the legend, “Of Laodicea, a metropolis in Canaan”; these coins are dated to the reign of Antiochus IV (175–164 BC) and his successors until 123BC.[40]
Saint Augustine also mentions that one of the terms the seafaring Phoenicians called their homeland was “Canaan”. Augustine also records that the rustic people of Hippo in North Africa retained the Punic self-designation Chanani.[42]
The Greeks also popularized the term Palestine for roughly the region of Canaan, excluding Phoenicia, with Herodotus‘ first recorded use of Palaistinê, ca. 480 BC. From 110 BC, the Hasmoneans extended their authority over much of the region, creating a JudeanSamaritanIdumaeanIturaeanGalilean alliance. The Judean (Jewish, see Ioudaioi) control over the wider area resulted in it also becoming known as Judaea, a term that had previously only referred to the smaller region of the Judean Mountains, the allotment of the Tribe of Judah and heartland of the former Kingdom of Judah.[43][44] Between 73–63 BCE, the Roman Republic extended its influence into the region in the Third Mithridatic War, conquering Judea in 63 BCE, and splitting the former Hasmonean Kingdom into five districts. Around 130–135 CE, as a result of the suppression of the Bar Kochba revolt, the province of Iudaea was joined with Galilee to form new province of Syria Palaestina. There is circumstantial evidence linking Hadrian with the name change,[45] although the precise date is not certain,[45] and the interpretation of some scholars that the name change may have been intended “to complete the dissociation with Judaea”[46][47] is disputed.[48] The region of former Canaan continued to be known to all parties as Palestine from 133 until 1948 with the establishment of the modern State of Israel.

By the Early Iron Age, the southern Levant came to be dominated by the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, besides the Philistinecity-states on the Mediterranean coast, and the kingdoms of Moab, Ammon and Aram-Damascus east of the Jordan River, andEdom to the south. The northern Levant was divided into various petty kingdoms, the so-called Syro-Hittite states and the Phoenician city-states.
The entire region (including all Phoenician/Canaanite and Aramean states, together with Israel, Philistia and Samarra) was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire during the 10th and 9th centuries BC, and would remain so for three hundred years until the end of the 7th century BC. Assyrian emperor-kings such as Ashurnasirpal, Adad-nirari II, Sargon II, Tiglath-Pileser III,Esarhaddon, Sennacherib and Ashurbanipal came to dominate Canaanite affairs. The Egyptians, then under a Nubian Dynasty, made a failed attempt to regain a foothold in the region, but were vanquished by the Assyrians, leading to an Assyrian invasion and conquest of Egypt and the destruction of the Kushite Empire. The Kingdom of Judah was forced to pay tribute to Assyria. Between 616 and 605 BC the Assyrian Empire collapsed due to a series of bitter internal civil wars, followed by an attack by an alliance of Babylonians, Medes and Persians and the Scythians. The Babylonians inherited the western part of the empire of their Assyrian brethren, including all the lands in Canaan and Syria, together with Israel and Judah. They successfully defeated the Egyptians, who had belatedly attempted to aid their former masters, the Assyrians, and then remained in the region in an attempt to regain a foothold in the Near East. The Babylonian Empire itself collapsed in 539 BC, and Canaan fell to the Persians and became a part of the Achaemenid Empire. It remained so until in 332 BC it was conquered by the Greeks under Alexander the Great, later to fall to Rome in the late 2nd century BC, and then Byzantium, until the Arab Islamic invasion and conquest of the 7th century AD.[57]
Canaan included what today are Lebanon, Israel and the Palestinian territories, northwestern Jordan, and some western areas of Syria.[61] According to archaeologist Jonathan N. Tubb, “Ammonites, Moabites, Israelites and Phoenicians undoubtedly achieved their own cultural identities, and yet ethnically they were all Canaanites”, “the same people who settled in farming villages in the region in the 8th millennium BC.”[62]
There is uncertainty about whether the name Canaan refers to a specific Semitic ethnic group wherever they live, the homeland of this ethnic group, or a region under the control of this ethnic group, or perhaps any of the three.
Canaanite civilization was a response to long periods of stable climate interrupted by short periods of climate change. During these periods, Canaanites profited from their intermediary position between the ancient civilizations of the Middle East —Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia (Sumer, Akkad, Assyria, Babylonia), the Hittites, and Minoan Crete — to become city states of merchant princes along the coast, with small kingdoms specializing in agricultural products in the interior. This polarity, between coastal towns and agrarian hinterland, was illustrated in Canaanite mythology by the struggle between the storm god, variously called Teshub (Hurrian) or Ba’al Hadad (Semitic Amorite/Aramean) and Ya’a, Yaw, Yahu or Yam, god of the sea and rivers. Early Canaanite civilization was characterized by small walled market towns, surrounded by peasant farmers growing a range of local horticultural products, along with commercial growing of olives, grapes for wine, and pistachios, surrounded by extensive grain cropping, predominantly wheat and barley. Harvest in early summer was a season when transhumance nomadism was practiced — shepherds staying with their flocks during the wet season and returning to graze them on the harvested stubble, closer to water supplies in the summer. Evidence of this cycle of agriculture is found in the Gezer calendar and in the biblical cycle of the year.
Periods of rapid climate change generally saw a collapse of this mixed Mediterranean farming system; commercial production was replaced with subsistence agricultural foodstuffs; and transhumance pastoralism became a year-round nomadic pastoral activity, whilst tribal groups wandered in a circular pattern north to the Euphrates, or south to the Egyptian delta with their flocks. Occasionally, tribal chieftains would emerge, raiding enemy settlements and rewarding loyal followers from the spoils or by tariffs levied on merchants. Should the cities band together and retaliate, a neighbouring state intervene or should the chieftain suffer a reversal of fortune, allies would fall away or inter-tribal feuding would return. It has been suggested that the Patriarchal tales of the Bible reflect such social forms.[63] During the periods of the collapse of Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia and the First Intermediate Period of Egypt, the Hyksos invasions and the end of the Middle Bronze Age in Assyria and Babylonia, and the Late Bronze Age collapse, trade through the Canaanite area would dwindle, as Egypt, Babylonia, and to a lesser degree Assyria, withdrew into their isolation. When the climates stabilized, trade would resume firstly along the coast in the area of the Philistine and Phoenician cities. As markets redeveloped, new trade routes that would avoid the heavy tariffs of the coast would develop from Kadesh Barnea, throughHebron, Lachish, Jerusalem, Bethel, Samaria, Shechem, Shiloh through Galilee to Jezreel, Hazor and Megiddo. Secondary Canaanite cities would develop in this region. Further economic development would see the creation of a third trade route from Eilath, Timna, Edom (Seir), Moab, Ammon and thence to the Aramean states of Damascus and Palmyra. Earlier states (for example the Philistines and Tyrians in the case of Judah and Israel, for the second route, and Judah and Israel for the third route) tried generally unsuccessfully to control the interior trade.[64]
Eventually, the prosperity of this trade would attract more powerful regional neighbours, such as Ancient Egypt, Assyria, the Babylonians, Persians, Ancient Greeks and Romans, who would control the Canaanites politically, levying tribute, taxes and tariffs. Often in such periods, thorough overgrazing would result in a climatic collapse and a repeat of the cycle (e.g. PPNB, Ghassulian, Uruk, and the Bronze Age cycles already mentioned). The fall of later Canaanite civilization occurred with the incorporation of the area into the Greco-Roman world (as Iudaea province), and after Byzantine times, into the Muslim Arab and proto-Muslim Umayyad Caliphate. Western Aramaic, one of the two lingua francas of Canaanite civilization, is still spoken in a number of small Syrian villages, whilst Phoenician Canaanite disappeared as a spoken language in about 100 AD. A separate Akkadian-infused Eastern Aramaic is still spoken by the existing Assyrians of Iraq, Iran, northeast Syria and southeast Turkey.
Tel Kabri contains the remains of a Canaanite city from the Middle Bronze Age (2000–1550 B.C.). The city, the most important of the cities in the Western Galilee during that period, had a palace at its center. Tel Kabri is the only Canaanite city that can be excavated in its entirety because after the city was abandoned, no other city was built over its remains. It is notable because the predominant extra-Canaanite cultural influence is Minoan; Minoan-style frescoes decorate the palace.[
Canaan (/?ke?n?n/; Northwest Semitic kna?n; Phoenician: ????????????????; biblical Hebrew: ???? / kna?n; Masoretic: ???????? / K?ná?an) was, during the late 2nd millennium BC, a region in the Ancient Near East, which as described in the Bible roughly corresponds to theLevant, i.e. modern-day Lebanon, Israel, the western part of Jordan and southwestern Syria.
The name is used commonly in the Hebrew Bible, with particular definition in references Genesis 10 and Numbers 34, where the “Land of Canaan” extends from Lebanon southward to the “Brook of Egypt” and eastward to the Jordan River Valley. References to Canaan in the Bible are usually backward looking, referring to a region that had become something else (e.g. theLand of Israel), and references to Canaanites commonly describe them as a people who had been annihilated.[1]
Archaeological attestation of the name Canaan in Ancient Near Eastern sources is almost exclusively during the period in which the region was a colony of the New Kingdom of Egypt, with usage of the name almost disappearing following the Late Bronze Age collapse.[2] The references suggest that during this period the term was familiar to the region’s neighbors on all sides, although it has been disputed to what extent such references provide a coherent description of its location and boundaries, and regarding whether the inhabitants used the term to describe themselves.[3] The Amarna Letters and other cuneiform documents use Kina??u, while other sources of the Egyptian New Kingdom mention numerous military campaigns conducted in Ka-na-na.[4]
The name “Canaanites” is attested, many centuries later, as the endonym of the people later known to the Ancient Greeks from c.500 BC as Phoenicians,[1] and following the emigration of Canaanite speakers to Carthage, was also used as a self-designation by the Punics. This mirrors later usage in later books of the Hebrew Bible, such as at the end of the Book of Zechariah, where it is thought to refer to a class of merchants or to non-monotheistic worshippers in Israel or neighbouring Sidon and Tyre, as well as in its single independent usage in the New Testament, where it is used as a synonym for Syrophoenician.
Canaan was of significant geopolitical importance in the Late Bronze Age Amarna period as the area where the spheres of interestof the Egyptian, Hittite, and Assyrian Empires converged. Much of the modern knowledge about Canaan stems from archaeological excavation in this area at sites such as Tel Hazor, Tel Megiddo and Gezer. Canaanite culture apparently developed in situ from the Circum-Arabian Nomadic Pastoral Complex, which in turn developed from a fusion of Near Eastern Harifian hunter gatherers with Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) farming cultures, practicing animal domestication, during the 6200 BC climatic crisis.[5] The Late Bronze Age state of Ugarit (at Ras Shamra in Syria) is considered quintessentially Canaanite archaeologically,[6] even though its Ugaritic language does not belong to the Canaanite groupproper.[7][8][9]
Linguistically, the Canaanite languages form a group within the Northwest Semitic languages; its best-known member today is the Hebrew language, being mostly known from Iron Age epigraphy. Other Canaanite languages are Phoenician, Ammonite, Moabite, and Edomite.

In biblical usage, the name was confined to the country west of the Jordan, the Canaanites being described as dwelling “by the sea, and along by the side of the Jordan” (Numbers 33:51; Joshua 22:9), and was especially identified with Phoenicia (Isaiah 23:11).[16] The Philistines, while an integral part of the Canaanite milieu, do not seem to have been ethnic Canaanites, and were listed in the Table of Nations as descendants of Misraim; the Arameans, Moabites, Ammonites, Midianites and Edomites were also considered fellow descendants of Shem or Abraham, and distinct from generic Canaanites/Amorites. “Heth”, representing the Hittites, is a son of Canaan. The later Hittites spoke an Indo-European language (called Nesili), but their predecessors the Hattians had spoken a little-known language (Hattili), of uncertain affinities.
The Horites formerly of Mount Seir were implied to be Canaanite (Hivite), although unusually there is no direct confirmation of this in the narrative. The Hurrians based in Northern Mesopotamia, who spoke a language isolate, were initially regarded by Bible scholars as akin to the Horites, though this is no longer the case.
The biblical narrative makes a point of the renaming of the “Land of Canaan” to the “Land of Israel” as marking the Israelite conquest of the Promised Land.[17]
Canaan and the Canaanites are mentioned some 160 times in the Hebrew Bible, mostly in the Pentateuch and the books of Joshua andJudges.[18]
Canaan first appears as one of Noah‘s grandsons during the narrative known as the Curse of Ham, in which Canaan is cursed with perpetual slavery because his father Ham had “looked upon” the drunk and naked Noah.
God later promises the land of Canaan to Abraham, and eventually delivers it to descendants of Abraham, the Israelites.[18] The biblical history has become increasingly problematic as the archaeological and textual evidence supports the idea that the early Israelites were in fact themselves Canaanites.[18]
The Hebrew Bible lists borders for the land of Canaan. Numbers 34:2 includes the phrase “the land of Canaan as defined by its borders.” The borders are then delineated in Numbers 34:3–12. The term “Canaanites” in biblical Hebrew is applied especially to the inhabitants of the lower regions, along the sea coast and on the shores of Jordan, as opposed to the inhabitants of the mountainous regions. By the time of the Second Temple, “Canaanite” in Hebrew had come to be not an ethnic designation, so much as a general synonym for “merchant”, as it is interpreted in, for example, Job 40:30, or Proverbs 31:24.[19]
John N. Oswalt notes that “Canaan consists of the land west of the Jordan and is distinguished from the area east of the Jordan.” Oswalt then goes on to say that in Scripture Canaan “takes on a theological character” as “the land which is God’s gift” and “the place of abundance”.[20]
The Hebrew Bible describes the Israelite conquest of Canaan in the “Former Prophets” (Nevi’im Rishonim [?????? ???????] ), viz. the books of Joshua, Judges, 1st & 2nd Samuel, 1st & 2nd Kings. These five books of the Old Testament canon give the narrative of the Israelites after the death of Moses and Joshua leading them into Canaan.[21] In 586 BC, the Israelites in turn lost the land to the Babylonians. These narratives of the Former Prophets are also “part of a larger work, called the Deuteronomistic History“.[22]

Biblical Canaanites

The part of the book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible often called the Table of Nations describes the Canaanites as being descended from an ancestor called Canaan, the son of Ham and grandson of Noah (Hebrew: ?????????, Knaan), saying (Genesis 10:15–19):
Canaan is the father of Sidon, his firstborn; and of the Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, Arvadites, Zemarites, and Hamathites. Later the Canaanite clans scattered, and the borders of Canaan reached [across the Mediterranean coast] from Sidon toward Gerar as far as Gaza, and then [inland around the Jordan Valley] toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha.
The Sidon whom the Table identifies as the firstborn son of Canaan has the same name as that of the coastal city of Sidon, in Lebanon. This city dominated the Phoenician coast, and may have enjoyed hegemony over a number of ethnic groups, who are said to belong to the “Land of Canaan”.
Similarly, Canaanite populations are said to have inhabited:
The Canaanites (Hebrew: ??????, Modern Kna’anim Tiberian K?na??nîm) are said to have been one of seven regional ethnic divisions or “nations” driven out by the Israelites followingThe Exodus. Specifically, the other nations include the Hittites, the Girgashites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites (Deuteronomy 7:1).
According to the Book of Jubilees, the Israelite conquest of Canaan is attributed to Canaan’s steadfast refusal to join his elder brothers in Ham’s allotment beyond the Nile, and instead “squatting” on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, within the inheritance delineated for Shem. Canaan thus incurs a further curse from Noah for disobeying the agreed apportionment of land.
One of the 613 mitzvot (precisely n. 596) prescribes that no inhabitants of the cities of six Canaanite nations, the same as mentioned in 7:1, minus the Girgashites, were to be left alive.
While the Hebrew Bible contrasts the Canaanites ethnically from the Ancient Israelites, modern scholars Jonathan Tubb and Mark Smith have theorized the kingdoms of Israel and Judah to be a subset of Canaanite culture, based on their archaeological and linguistic interpretations.[23][24]

During the 2nd millennium BC, Ancient Egyptian texts use the term Canaan to refer to an Egyptian-ruled colony, whose boundaries generally corroborate the definition of Canaan found in the Hebrew Bible, bounded to the west by the Mediterranean Sea, to the north in the vicinity of Hamath in Syria, to the east by the Jordan Valley, and to the south by a line extended from the Dead Sea to around Gaza. Nevertheless, the Egyptian and Hebrewuses of the term are not identical: the Egyptian texts also identify the coastal city of Qadesh in north west Syria near Turkey as part of the “Land of Canaan”, so that the Egyptian usage seems to refer to the entire Levantine coast of the Mediterranean Sea, making it a synonym of another Egyptian term for this coastland, Retenu.
Lebanon, in northern Canaan, bordered by the Litani river to the watershed of the Orontes river, was known by the Egyptians as upper Retjenu.[35] In Egyptian campaign accounts, the term Djahi was used to refer to the watershed of the Jordan river. Many earlier Egyptian sources also mention numerous military campaigns conducted in Ka-na-na, just inside Asia.[4]
16 references are known in Egyptian sources, from the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt onwards.[31]
  • Amenhotep II inscriptions: Canaanites are included in a list of prisoners of war
  • Three topographical lists
  • Papyrus Anastasi I 27,1″ refers to the route from Sile to Gaza “the [foreign countries] of the end of the land of Canaan”
  • Merneptah Stele
  • Papyrus Anastasi IIIA 5-6 and Papyrus Anastasi IV 16,4 refer to “Canaanite slaves from Hurru”
  • Papyrus Harris[36] After the collapse of the Levant under the so-called “Peoples of the Sea Ramesses III (ca. 1194 BC) is said to have built a temple to the god Amen to receive tribute from the southern Levant. This was described as being built in Pa-Canaan, a geographical reference whose meaning is disputed, with suggestions that it may refer to the city of Gaza or to the entire Egyptian-occupied territory in the south west corner of the Near East.[37]

Later sources

Padiiset’s Statue is the last known Egyptian reference to Canaan, a small statuette labelled “Envoy of the Canaan and of Palestine, Pa-di-Eset, the son of Apy”. It is more than 300 years after the preceding known inscription.[38]
During the period from c.900-330 BCE, the dominant empires of the Neo-Assyrians and Achaemenid Persians make no mention of Canaan.
The Greek term “Phoenicia” is first attested in the first two works of Western literature, Homer‘s Iliad and Odyssey. It does not occur in the Hebrew Bible, but occurs three times in the New Testament in the Book of Acts.[41] In the 6th century BC, Hecataeus of Miletus affirms that Phoenicia was formerly called ???, a name that Philo of Byblos subsequently adopted into his mythology as his eponym for the Phoenicians: “Khna who was afterwards called Phoinix“. Quoting fragments attributed to Sanchuniathon, he relates that Byblos, Berytus and Tyre were among the first cities ever built, under the rule of the mythical Cronus, and credits the inhabitants with developing fishing, hunting, agriculture, shipbuilding and writing.
Coins of the city of Beirut / Laodicea bear the legend, “Of Laodicea, a metropolis in Canaan”; these coins are dated to the reign of Antiochus IV (175–164 BC) and his successors until 123BC.[40]
Saint Augustine also mentions that one of the terms the seafaring Phoenicians called their homeland was “Canaan”. Augustine also records that the rustic people of Hippo in North Africa retained the Punic self-designation Chanani.[42]
The Greeks also popularized the term Palestine for roughly the region of Canaan, excluding Phoenicia, with Herodotus‘ first recorded use of Palaistinê, ca. 480 BC. From 110 BC, the Hasmoneans extended their authority over much of the region, creating a JudeanSamaritanIdumaeanIturaeanGalilean alliance. The Judean (Jewish, see Ioudaioi) control over the wider area resulted in it also becoming known as Judaea, a term that had previously only referred to the smaller region of the Judean Mountains, the allotment of the Tribe of Judah and heartland of the former Kingdom of Judah.[43][44] Between 73–63 BCE, the Roman Republic extended its influence into the region in the Third Mithridatic War, conquering Judea in 63 BCE, and splitting the former Hasmonean Kingdom into five districts. Around 130–135 CE, as a result of the suppression of the Bar Kochba revolt, the province of Iudaea was joined with Galilee to form new province of Syria Palaestina. There is circumstantial evidence linking Hadrian with the name change,[45] although the precise date is not certain,[45] and the interpretation of some scholars that the name change may have been intended “to complete the dissociation with Judaea”[46][47] is disputed.[48] The region of former Canaan continued to be known to all parties as Palestine from 133 until 1948 with the establishment of the modern State of Israel.

By the Early Iron Age, the southern Levant came to be dominated by the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, besides the Philistinecity-states on the Mediterranean coast, and the kingdoms of Moab, Ammon and Aram-Damascus east of the Jordan River, andEdom to the south. The northern Levant was divided into various petty kingdoms, the so-called Syro-Hittite states and the Phoenician city-states.
The entire region (including all Phoenician/Canaanite and Aramean states, together with Israel, Philistia and Samarra) was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire during the 10th and 9th centuries BC, and would remain so for three hundred years until the end of the 7th century BC. Assyrian emperor-kings such as Ashurnasirpal, Adad-nirari II, Sargon II, Tiglath-Pileser III,Esarhaddon, Sennacherib and Ashurbanipal came to dominate Canaanite affairs. The Egyptians, then under a Nubian Dynasty, made a failed attempt to regain a foothold in the region, but were vanquished by the Assyrians, leading to an Assyrian invasion and conquest of Egypt and the destruction of the Kushite Empire. The Kingdom of Judah was forced to pay tribute to Assyria. Between 616 and 605 BC the Assyrian Empire collapsed due to a series of bitter internal civil wars, followed by an attack by an alliance of Babylonians, Medes and Persians and the Scythians. The Babylonians inherited the western part of the empire of their Assyrian brethren, including all the lands in Canaan and Syria, together with Israel and Judah. They successfully defeated the Egyptians, who had belatedly attempted to aid their former masters, the Assyrians, and then remained in the region in an attempt to regain a foothold in the Near East. The Babylonian Empire itself collapsed in 539 BC, and Canaan fell to the Persians and became a part of the Achaemenid Empire. It remained so until in 332 BC it was conquered by the Greeks under Alexander the Great, later to fall to Rome in the late 2nd century BC, and then Byzantium, until the Arab Islamic invasion and conquest of the 7th century AD.[57]
Canaan included what today are Lebanon, Israel and the Palestinian territories, northwestern Jordan, and some western areas of Syria.[61] According to archaeologist Jonathan N. Tubb, “Ammonites, Moabites, Israelites and Phoenicians undoubtedly achieved their own cultural identities, and yet ethnically they were all Canaanites”, “the same people who settled in farming villages in the region in the 8th millennium BC.”[62]
There is uncertainty about whether the name Canaan refers to a specific Semitic ethnic group wherever they live, the homeland of this ethnic group, or a region under the control of this ethnic group, or perhaps any of the three.
Canaanite civilization was a response to long periods of stable climate interrupted by short periods of climate change. During these periods, Canaanites profited from their intermediary position between the ancient civilizations of the Middle East —Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia (Sumer, Akkad, Assyria, Babylonia), the Hittites, and Minoan Crete — to become city states of merchant princes along the coast, with small kingdoms specializing in agricultural products in the interior. This polarity, between coastal towns and agrarian hinterland, was illustrated in Canaanite mythology by the struggle between the storm god, variously called Teshub (Hurrian) or Ba’al Hadad (Semitic Amorite/Aramean) and Ya’a, Yaw, Yahu or Yam, god of the sea and rivers. Early Canaanite civilization was characterized by small walled market towns, surrounded by peasant farmers growing a range of local horticultural products, along with commercial growing of olives, grapes for wine, and pistachios, surrounded by extensive grain cropping, predominantly wheat and barley. Harvest in early summer was a season when transhumance nomadism was practiced — shepherds staying with their flocks during the wet season and returning to graze them on the harvested stubble, closer to water supplies in the summer. Evidence of this cycle of agriculture is found in the Gezer calendar and in the biblical cycle of the year.
Periods of rapid climate change generally saw a collapse of this mixed Mediterranean farming system; commercial production was replaced with subsistence agricultural foodstuffs; and transhumance pastoralism became a year-round nomadic pastoral activity, whilst tribal groups wandered in a circular pattern north to the Euphrates, or south to the Egyptian delta with their flocks. Occasionally, tribal chieftains would emerge, raiding enemy settlements and rewarding loyal followers from the spoils or by tariffs levied on merchants. Should the cities band together and retaliate, a neighbouring state intervene or should the chieftain suffer a reversal of fortune, allies would fall away or inter-tribal feuding would return. It has been suggested that the Patriarchal tales of the Bible reflect such social forms.[63] During the periods of the collapse of Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia and the First Intermediate Period of Egypt, the Hyksos invasions and the end of the Middle Bronze Age in Assyria and Babylonia, and the Late Bronze Age collapse, trade through the Canaanite area would dwindle, as Egypt, Babylonia, and to a lesser degree Assyria, withdrew into their isolation. When the climates stabilized, trade would resume firstly along the coast in the area of the Philistine and Phoenician cities. As markets redeveloped, new trade routes that would avoid the heavy tariffs of the coast would develop from Kadesh Barnea, throughHebron, Lachish, Jerusalem, Bethel, Samaria, Shechem, Shiloh through Galilee to Jezreel, Hazor and Megiddo. Secondary Canaanite cities would develop in this region. Further economic development would see the creation of a third trade route from Eilath, Timna, Edom (Seir), Moab, Ammon and thence to the Aramean states of Damascus and Palmyra. Earlier states (for example the Philistines and Tyrians in the case of Judah and Israel, for the second route, and Judah and Israel for the third route) tried generally unsuccessfully to control the interior trade.[64]
Eventually, the prosperity of this trade would attract more powerful regional neighbours, such as Ancient Egypt, Assyria, the Babylonians, Persians, Ancient Greeks and Romans, who would control the Canaanites politically, levying tribute, taxes and tariffs. Often in such periods, thorough overgrazing would result in a climatic collapse and a repeat of the cycle (e.g. PPNB, Ghassulian, Uruk, and the Bronze Age cycles already mentioned). The fall of later Canaanite civilization occurred with the incorporation of the area into the Greco-Roman world (as Iudaea province), and after Byzantine times, into the Muslim Arab and proto-Muslim Umayyad Caliphate. Western Aramaic, one of the two lingua francas of Canaanite civilization, is still spoken in a number of small Syrian villages, whilst Phoenician Canaanite disappeared as a spoken language in about 100 AD. A separate Akkadian-infused Eastern Aramaic is still spoken by the existing Assyrians of Iraq, Iran, northeast Syria and southeast Turkey.
Tel Kabri contains the remains of a Canaanite city from the Middle Bronze Age (2000–1550 B.C.). The city, the most important of the cities in the Western Galilee during that period, had a palace at its center. Tel Kabri is the only Canaanite city that can be excavated in its entirety because after the city was abandoned, no other city was built over its remains. It is notable because the predominant extra-Canaanite cultural influence is Minoan; Minoan-style frescoes decorate the palace.[