addiction

Bruce K. Alexander (born 20 December 1939)[1] is a psychologist and professor emeritus from Vancouver, BC, Canada.[1] He has taught and conducted research on thepsychology of addiction at Simon Fraser University since 1970.[2] He retired from active teaching in 2005. … Continue reading

Bruce K. Alexander (born 20 December 1939)[1] is a psychologist and professor emeritus from Vancouver, BC, Canada.[1] He has taught and conducted research on thepsychology of addiction at Simon Fraser University since 1970.[2] He retired from active teaching in 2005. Alexander and SFU colleagues conducted a series of experiments into drug addiction known as the Rat Park experiments. He has written two books: Peaceful Measures: Canada’s Way Out of the War on Drugs (1990)[3] and The Globalization of Addiction: A Study in Poverty of the Spirit (2008).


Rat Park

The Rat Park experiments, published in psychopharmacology journals in the late 1970s and early 1980s, flatly contradicted the dominant view of addiction in their day. They quickly disappeared from view, having evoked only negative responses in the mainstream press and journals. Lauren Slater’s controversial psychology book, Opening Skinner’s Box: Great Psychological Experiments of the Twentieth Century[5] helped to bring them back to public attention in 2005. These experiments are now widely known and cited.

The Rat Park experiments were among the first to show the error in the once dominant myth that certain drugs, particularly the opiates, convert all or most users into drug addicts. In the 1970s, this myth was said to be demonstrated by the high consumption of opiates and stimulants of rats isolated in specially modified Skinner Boxes that allowed drug self-administration. Alexander and his colleagues demonstrated experimentally that rats isolated in cages of about the same size as Skinner Boxes consume far more morphine than rats that are socially housed in Rat Park.[6] Subsequent research has confirmed that social housing reduces drug intake in rats[7] and that the dominant myth was wrong both for rats and for human beings.[8] Nonetheless, the myth is still embedded in popular culture.

Addiction as a social problem

Alexander then explored the broader implications of Rat Park experiments for human beings. The main conclusions of his experimental and historical research since 1985 can be summarized as follows:

  1. Drug addiction is only a small corner of the addiction problem. Most serious addictions do not involve either drugs or alcohol[9]
  2. Addiction is more a social problem than an individual problem. When socially integrated societies are fragmented by internal or external forces, addiction of all sorts increases dramatically, becoming almost universal in extremely fragmented societies.[10]
  3. Addiction arises in fragmented societies because people use it as a way of adapting to extreme social dislocation. As a form of adaptation, addiction is neither a disease that can be cured nor a moral error that can be corrected by punishment and education.[11]

Therefore, the current NIDA Model of addiction, which Alexander refers to as the official view, is untenable.[12] Contemporary world society can only overcome mass dislocation (and addiction) by restoring psychosocial integration on a political and social level. This requires major social change.[4]

Alexander’s controversial conclusions have been celebrated by some mainstream sources outside the United States. Alexander received a 2007 Sterling Prize for Controversy in Canada, a 2009 high commendation from the British Medical Association, and an invitation to present at the Royal Society of Arts and Manufactures in London in 2011. Although all mainstream American sources have ignored Alexander’s work, it has acquired considerable recognition in outsider sources.[5]

1995 WHO cocaine research project

One line of research in which Alexander played a key role was actively suppressed by the World Health Assembly. Early in the 1990s the World Health Organization (WHO) organized the largest study on cocaine use ever undertaken. Profiles of cocaine use were gathered from 21 cities located in 19 countries all over the world. Alexander was selected as the principal investigator for the Vancouver site. The WHO announced publication of the results of the global study in a press release in 1995.[13]

However, an American representative in the World Health Assembly effectively banned the publication, apparently because the study seemed to contradict the dominant myth of addictive drugs, as applied to cocaine. Part of the study’s findings were “that occasional cocaine use does not typically lead to severe or even minor physical or social problems.” In the sixth meeting of the B committee the US representative threatened that “If WHO activities relating to drugs failed to reinforce proven drug control approaches, funds for the relevant programs should be curtailed”. This led to the WHO decision to postpone publication. The study has not been published officially but was leaked in 2009 and is available at wikileaks.[1]

Published on Jan 7, 2014
Dr. Gabor Maté talks about the root causes of addiction and how to deal with them. This is taken from the Q&A part of TJ Dawe’s show – “Medicine”.


The Middle Way

Buddhism is a nontheistic religion that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, who is commonly known as the Buddha, meaning “the awakened one”. According to Buddhist tradition, the Buddha lived … Continue reading


Buddhism is a nontheistic religion that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, who is commonly known as the Buddha, meaning “the awakened one”. According to Buddhist tradition, the Buddha lived and taught in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE.[1] He is recognized by Buddhists as an awakened or enlightened teacher who shared his insights to help sentient beings end their suffering through the elimination of craving and ignorance by way of understanding and the seeing of dependent origination, with the ultimate goal of attainment of the sublime state of nirvana.[2]

Two major branches of Buddhism are generally recognized: Theravada (“The School of the Elders”) and Mahayana (“The Great Vehicle”). Theravada has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar etc.). Mahayana is found throughout East Asia (China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan etc.) and includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism, Shingon, and Tiantai (Tendai). In some classifications, Vajrayana—practiced mainly in Tibet and Mongolia, and adjacent parts of China and Russia—is recognized as a third branch, while others classify it as a part of Mahayana.

While Buddhism is practiced primarily in Asia, both major branches are now found throughout the world. Estimates of Buddhists worldwide vary significantly depending on the way Buddhist adherence is defined. Estimates range from 350 million to 1.6 billion, with 350–550 million the most widely accepted figure. Buddhism is also recognized as one of the fastest growing religions in the world.[3][4][5][6]
Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures, and especially their respective practices.[7] The foundations of Buddhist tradition and practice are the Three Jewels: the Buddha, the Dharma (the teachings), and the Sangha (the community). Taking “refuge in the triple gem” has traditionally been a declaration and commitment to being on the Buddhist path, and in general distinguishes a Buddhist from a non-Buddhist.[8] Other practices may include following ethical precepts; support of the monastic community; renouncing conventional living and becoming a monastic; the development of mindfulness and practice of meditation; cultivation of higher wisdom and discernment; study of scriptures; devotional practices; ceremonies; and in the Mahayana tradition, invocation of buddhas and bodhisattvas.


The Four Noble Truths (Sanskrit: catv?ri ?ryasaty?ni; Pali: catt?ri ariyasacc?ni) are “the truths of the Noble Ones,” which express the basic orientation of Buddhism: this worldly existence is fundamentally unsatisfactory, but there is a path to liberation from repeated worldly existence. The truths are as follows:

  1. The Truth of Dukkha is that all conditional phenomena and experiences are not ultimately satisfying;
  2. The Truth of the Origin of Dukkha is that craving for and clinging to what is pleasurable and aversion to what is not pleasurable result in becoming, rebirth, dissatisfaction, and redeath;
  3. The Truth of the Cessation of Dukkha is that putting an end to this craving and clinging also means that rebirth, dissatisfaction, and redeath can no longer arise;
  4. The Truth of the Path Of Liberation from Dukkha is that by following the Noble Eightfold Path—namely, behaving decently, cultivating discipline, and practicing mindfulness and meditation—an end can be put to craving, to clinging, to becoming, to rebirth, to dissatisfaction, and to redeath.

The four truths provide a useful conceptual framework for making sense of Buddhist thought, which has to be personally understood or “experienced.” Many Buddhist teachers present them as the essence of Buddhist teachings, though this importance developed over time, substituting older notions of what constitutes prajna, or “liberating insight.”[1][2]

In the sutras the four truths have both a symbolic and a propositional function. They represent the awakening and liberation of the Buddha, but also the possibility of liberation for all sentient beings, describing how release from craving is to be reached.

The first noble truth is the truth of dukkha.[note 17] It gives an overview of what is regarded to be dukkha, starting with samsara, the ongoing process of death and rebirth:[citation needed]

  1. Birth is dukkha, aging is dukkha, illness is dukkha, death is dukkha;
  2. Sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, & despair are dukkha;
  3. Association with the unbeloved is dukkha; separation from the loved is dukkha;
  4. Not getting what is wanted is dukkha.
  5. In conclusion, the five clinging-aggregates are dukkha.

The Dukkhata Sutta, Samyutta Nikaya 45.165,[web 13][web 14] describes three kinds of dukkhataa, suffering in the most general sense:[web 13][note 18]

  1. Dukkha-dukkhataa, “the actual feeling of physical or mental pain or anguish”,[web 13] “response to unpleasant physical or mental experiences”;[web 14]
  2. Sa?kh?ra-dukkhataa, “the suffering produced by all ‘conditioned phenomena’”;[note 19][note 20] “craving for things to be how we want them to be.”[web 14] It is a basic unsatisfactoriness pervading all forms of existence, due to ignorance of the fact that all forms of life are changing, impermanent and without any inner core or substance. It is a lack of satisfaction, a sense that things never measure up to our expectations or standards.
  3. Vipari??ma-dukkhataa, “the suffering associated with pleasant bodily and mental feelings: “because they are the cause for the arising of pain when they change”,[web 13]“when we’re enjoying a pleasant experience, we crave for it to continue […] inevitably, the universal law of impermanence leaves that craving unsatisfied.”[web 14]

Majjhima Nikaya 149:3 gives a concise description of dukkha:

When one abides inflamed by lust, fettered, infatuated, contemplating gratification, […] [o]ne’s bodily and mental troubles increase, one’s bodily and mental torments increase, one’s bodily and mental fevers increase, and one experiences bodily and mental suffering.[23]

From a Buddhist perspective, labelling Buddhism as “a bleak, pessimistic and world-denying philosophy,” as some commentators have done, “may reflect a deep-seated refusal to accept the reality of dukkha itself.”[24]


The Noble Eightfold Path (Pali: ariyo a??ha?giko maggo, Sanskrit: ?ry?????gam?rga)[1] is one of the principal teachings of?r?vakay?na. It is used to develop insight into the true nature of phenomena (or reality) and to eradicate greed, hatred, and delusion. The Noble Eightfold Path is the fourth of the Buddha’s Four Noble Truths; the first element of the Noble Eightfold Path is, in turn, an understanding of the Four Noble Truths. It is also known as the Middle Path or Middle Way. Its goal is Arhatship.[2] The Noble Eightfold Path is contrasted with the Bodhisattva path of Mahayana which culminates in Buddhahood.[3]

All eight elements of the Path begin with the word “right,” which translates the word samyañc (in Sanskrit) or samm? (in P?li). These denote completion, togetherness, and coherence, and can also suggest the senses of “perfect” or “ideal.”[4] ‘Samma’ is also translated as “wholesome,” “wise” and “skillful.”

In Buddhist symbolism, the Noble Eightfold Path is often represented by means of the dharma wheel (dharmachakra), whose eight spokes represent the eight elements of the path.

The Noble Eightfold Path is sometimes divided into three basic divisions, as follows:[11][12]

Division Eightfold Path factors Acquired factors
Wisdom (Sanskrit: prajñ?, P?li: paññ?) 1. Right view 9. Superior right knowledge
2. Right intention 10. Superior right liberation
Ethical conduct (Sanskrit: ??la, P?li: s?la) 3. Right speech
4. Right action
5. Right livelihood
Concentration (Sanskrit and P?li: sam?dhi) 6. Right effort
7. Right mindfulness
8. Right concentration

This presentation is called the “Three Higher Trainings” in Mah?y?na Buddhism: higher moral discipline, higher concentration and higher wisdom. “Higher” here refers to the fact that these trainings that lead to liberation and enlightenment are engaged in with the motivation of renunciation or bodhicitta.


The Way of Zen

The Way of Zen begins as a succinct guide through the histories of Buddhism and Taoism leading up to the development of Zen Buddhism, which drew deeply from both traditions. It then goes on to paint a broad but insightful picture of Zen as it was and is practiced, both as a religion and as an element of diverse East Asian arts and disciplines. Watts’s narrative clears away the mystery while enhancing the mystique of Zen.

Since the first publication of this book in 1957, Zen Buddhism has become firmly established in the West. As Zen has taken root in Western soil, it has incorporated much of the attitude and approach set forth by Watts in The Way of Zen, which remains one of the most important introductory books in Western Zen

C. G. Jung – Essay on Wotan [w. Nietzsche]

Essay on Wotan By Dr Carl Gustav Jung [First published as WOTAN, Neue Schweizer Rundschau (Zurich). n.s., III (March, 1936), 657-69. Republished in AUFSATZE ZURZEITGESCHICHTE (Zurich, 1946), 1-23. Trans. by Barbara Hannah in ESSAYS ON CONTEMPORARY EVENTS (London, 1947), 1-16; this … Continue reading

Essay on Wotan

By Dr Carl Gustav Jung

[First published as WOTAN, Neue Schweizer Rundschau (Zurich). n.s., III
(March, 1936), 657-69. Republished in AUFSATZE ZURZEITGESCHICHTE
(Zurich, 1946), 1-23. Trans. by Barbara Hannah in ESSAYS ON CONTEMPORARY
EVENTS (London, 1947), 1-16; this version has been consulted.
Motto, trans. by H.C. Roberts:]

WOTAN

 

En Germanie naistront diverses sectes,

S’approchans fort de l’heureux paganisme:

Le coeur captif et petites receptes

Feront retour a payer la vraye disme.

— Propheties De Maistre Michel Nostradamus, 1555

[“In Germany Shall diverse sects arise,

Coming very near to happy paganism.

The heart captivated and small receivings

Shall open the gate to pay the true tithe.” ]

 

When we look back to the time before 1914, we find ourselves living in a world of events which would have been inconceivable before the war. We were even beginning to regard war between civilized nations as a fable, thinking that such an absurdity would become less and less possible on our rational, internationally organized world.  And what came after the war was a veritable witches’ sabbath. Everywhere fantastic revolutions, violent alterations of the map, reversions in politics to medieval or even antique prototypes, totalitarian states that engulf their neighbours and outdo all previous theocracies in their absolutist claims, persecutions of Christians and Jews, wholesale political murder, and finally we have witnessed a light-hearted piratical raid on a peaceful, half-civilized people.

 

With such goings on in the wide world it is not in the least surprising that there should be equally curious manifestations on a smaller scale in other spheres. In the realm of philosophy we shall have to wait some time before anyone is able to assess the kind of age we are living in. But in the sphere of religion we can see at once that some very significant things have been happening. We need feel no surprise that in Russia the colourful splendours of the Eastern Orthodox Church have been superseded by the Movement of the Godless — indeed, one breathed a sigh of relief oneself when one emerged from the haze of an Orthodox church with its multitude of lamps and entered an honest mosque, where the sublime and invisible omnipresence of God was not crowded out by a superfluity of sacred paraphernalia. Tasteless and pitiably unintelligent as it is, and however deplorable the low spiritual level of the “scientific” reaction, it was inevitable that nineteenth-century “scientific” enlightenment should one day dawn in Russia.

 

But what is more than curious — indeed, piquant to a degree — is that an ancient god of storm and frenzy, the long quiescent Wotan, should awake, like an extinct volcano, to new activity, in a civilized country that had long been supposed to have outgrown the Middle Ages. We have seen him come to life in the German Youth Movement, and right at the beginning the blood of several sheep was shed in honor of his resurrection. Armed with rucksack and lute, blond youths, and sometimes girls as well, were to be seen as restless wanderers on every road from the North Cape to Sicily, faithful votaries of the roving god. Later, towards the end of the Weimar Republic, the wandering role was taken over by thousands of unemployed, who were to be met with everywhere on their aimless journeys. By 1933 they wandered no longer, but marched in their hundreds of thousands. The Hitler movement literally brought the whole of Germany to its feet, from five-year-olds to veterans, and produced a spectacle of a nation migrating from one place to another. Wotan the wanderer was on the move. He could be seen, looking rather shamefaced, in the meeting-house of a sect of simple folk in North Germany, disguised as Christ sitting on a white horse. I do not know if these people were aware of Wotan’s ancient connection with the figures of Christ and Dionysus, but it is not very probable.

 

Wotan is a restless wanderer who creates unrest and stirs up strife, now here, now there, and works magic. He was soon changed by Christianity into the devil, and only lived on in fading local traditions as a ghostly hunter who was seen with his retinue, flickering like a will o’ the wisp through the stormy night. In the Middle Ages the role of the restless wanderer was taken over by Ahasuerus, the Wandering Jew, which is not a Jewish but a Christian legend. The motif of the wanderer who has not accepted Christ was projected on the Jews, in the same way as we always rediscover our unconscious psychic contents in other people. At any rate the coincidence of Antisemitism with the reawakening of Wotan is a psychological subtlety that may perhaps be worth mentioning.

 

The German youths who celebrated the solstice with sheep-sacrifices were not the first to hear the rustling in the primeval forest of the unconsciousness. They were anticipated by Nietzsche, Schuler, Stefan George, and Ludwig Klages. The literary tradition of the Rhineland and the country south of the Main has a classical stamp that cannot easily be got rid of; every interpretation of intoxication and exuberance is apt to be taken back to classical models, to Dionysus, to the puer aeternus and the cosmogonic Eros. No doubt it sounds better to academic ears to interpret these things as Dionysus, but Wotan might be a more correct interpretation. He is the god of storm and frenzy, the unleasher of passions and the lust of battle; moreover he is a superlative magician and artist in illusion who is versed in all secrets of an occult nature.

 

Nietzsche‘s case is certainly a peculiar one. He had no knowledge of Germanic literature; he discovered the “cultural Philistine”; and the announcement that “God is dead” led to Zarathustra’s meeting with an unknown god in unexpected form, who approached him sometimes as an enemy and sometimes disguised as Zarathustra himself. Zarathustra, too, was a soothsayer, a magician, and the storm-wind:

And like a wind shall I come to blow among them, and with my spirit shall take away the breath of their spirit; thus my future will sit. Truly, a strong wind is Zarathustra to all that are low; and this counsel gives he to his enemies and to all that spit and spew: “Beware of spitting against the wind.”

 

And when Zarathustra dreamed that he was guardian of the graves in the “lone mountain fortress of death,” and was making a mighty effort to open the gates, suddenly

A roaring wind tore the gates asunder; whistling,shrieking, and keening, it cast a black coffin before me. And amid the roaring and whistling and shrieking the coffin burst open and spouted a thousand peals of laughter.

The disciple who interpreted the dream said to Zarathustra:

Are you not yourself the wind with shrill whistling,which bursts open the gates of the fortress of death? Are you not yourself the coffin filled with life’s gay malice and angel-grimaces?

In 1863 or 1864, in his poem TO THE UNKNOWN GOD, Nietzsche had written:

 I shall and will know thee, Unknown One,

Who searchest out the depths of my soul,

And blowest through my life like a storm,

Ungraspable, and yet my kinsman!

I shall and will know thee, and serve thee.

 

Twenty years later, in his MISTRAL SONG, he wrote:

 

Mistral wind, chaser of clouds,

Killer of gloom, sweeper of the skies,

Raging storm-wind, how I love thee!

And we are not both the first-fruits

Of the same womb, forever predestined

To the same fate?

 

In the dithyramb known as ARIADNE’S LAMENT, Nietzsche is completely the victim of the hunter-god:

 

Stretched out, shuddering,

Like a half-dead thing whose feet are warmed,

Shaken by unknown fevers,

Shivering with piercing icy frost arrows,

Hunted by thee, O thought,

Unutterable! Veiled! horrible one!

Thou huntsman behind the cloud.

Struck down by thy lightning bolt,

Thou mocking eye that stares at me from the dark!

Thus I lie.

Writhing, twisting, tormented

With all eternal tortures,

Smitten

By thee, cruel huntsman,

Thou unknown — God!

 

This remarkable image of the hunter-god is not a mere dithyrambic figure of speech but is based on an experience which Nietzsche had when he was fifteen years old, at Pforta. It is described in a book by Nietzsche’s sister, Elizabeth Foerster-Nietzsche. As he was wandering about in a gloomy wood at night, he was terrified by a “blood-curdling shriek from a neighboring lunatic asylum,” and soon afterwards he came face to face with a huntsman whose “features were wild and uncanny.” Setting his whistle to his lips “in a valley surrounded by wild scrub,” the huntsman “blew such a shrill blast” that Nietzsche lost consciousness– but woke up again in Pforta. It was a nightmare. It is significant that in his dream Nietzsche, who in reality intended to go to Eisleben, Luther’s town, discussed with the huntsman the question of going instead to”Teutschenthal” (Valley of the Germans). No one with ears can misunderstand the shrill whistling of the storm-god in the nocturnal wood.

 

Was it really only the classical philologist in Nietzsche that led to the god being called Dionysus instead of Wotan — or was it perhaps due to his fateful meeting with Wagner?

 

In his REICH OHNE RAUM, which was first published in 1919, Bruno Goetz saw the secret of coming events in Germany in the form of a very strange vision. I have never forgotten this little book, for it struck meat the time as a forecast of the German weather. It anticipates the conflict between the realm of ideas and life, between Wotan’s dual nature as a god of storm and a god of secret musings. Wotan disappeared when his oaks fell and appeared again when the Christian God proved too weak to save Christendom from fratricidal slaughter. When the Holy Father at Rome could only impotently lament before God the fate of the grex segregatus, the one-eyed old hunter, on the edge of the German forest, laughed and saddled Sleipnir.

 

We are always convinced that the modern world is a reasonable world, basing our opinion on economic, political, and psychological factors. But if we may forget for a moment that we are living in the year of Our Lord 1936, and, laying aside our well-meaning, all-too-human reasonableness,may burden God or the gods with the responsibility for contemporary events instead of man, we would find Wotan quite suitable as a casual hypothesis. In fact, I venture the heretical suggestion that the unfathomable depths of Wotan’s character explain more of National Socialism than all three reasonable factors put together. There is no doubt that each of these factors explains an important aspect of what is going on in Germany, but Wotan explains yet more. He is particularly enlightening in regard to a general phenomenon which is so strange to anybody not a German that it remains incomprehensible, even after the deepest reflection.

 

Perhaps we may sum up this general phenomenon as E

rgriffenheit — a state of being seized or possessed. The term postulates not only an Ergriffener (one who is seized) but, also, an Ergreifer (one who seizes). Wotan is an Ergreifer of men, and, unless one wishes to deify Hitler– which has indeed actually happened — he is really the only explanation. It is true that Wotan shares this quality with his cousin Dionysus, but Dionysus seems to have exercised his influence mainly on women. The maenads were a species of female storm-troopers, and, according to mythical reports, were dangerous enough. Wotan confined himself to the berserkers, who found their vocation as the Blackshirts of mythical kings.

 

A mind that is still childish thinks of the gods as metaphysical entities existing in their own right, or else regards them as playful or superstitious inventions. From either point of view the parallel between Wotan redivivus and the social, political and psychic storm that is shaking Germany might have at least the value of a parable. But since the gods are without doubt personifications of psychic forces, to assert their metaphysical existence is as much an intellectual presumption as the opinion that they could ever be invented. Not that “psychic forces” have anything to do with the conscious mind, fond as we are of playing with the idea that consciousness and psyche are identical. This is only another piece of intellectual presumption. “Psychic forces” have far more to do with the realm of the unconscious. Our mania for rational explanations obviously has its roots in our fear of metaphysics, for the two were always hostile brothers. Hence,anything unexpected that approaches us from the dark realm is regarded either as coming from outside and, therefore, as real, or else as an hallucination and, therefore, not true. The idea that anything could be real or true which does not come from outside has hardly begun to dawn on contemporary man.

 

For the sake of better understanding and to avoid prejudice, we could of course dispense with the name “Wotan” and speak instead of the furor teutonicus. But we should only be saying the same thing and not as well, for the furor in this case is a mere psychologizing of Wotan and tells us no more than that the Germans are in a state of”fury.” We thus lose sight of the most peculiar feature of this whole phenomenon, namely, the dramatic aspect of the Ergreifer and the Ergriffener. The impressive thing about the German phenomenon is that one man, who is obviously “possessed,” has infected a whole nation to such an extent that everything is set in motion and has started rolling on its course towards perdition.

 

It seems to me that Wotan hits the mark as an hypothesis. Apparently he really was only asleep in the Kyffhauser mountain until the ravens called him and announced the break of day. He is a fundamental attribute of the German psyche, an irrational psychic factor which acts on the high pressure of civilization like a cyclone and blows it away. Despite their crankiness, the Wotan-worshipers seem to have judged things more correctly than the worshipers of reason. Apparently everyone had forgotten that Wotan is a Germanic datum of first importance, the truest expression and unsurpassed personification of a fundamental quality that is particularly characteristic of the Germans. Houston Stewart Chamberlain is a symptom which arouses suspicion that other veiled gods may be sleeping elsewhere. The emphasis on the Germanic race — commonly called “Aryan” — the Germanic heritage, blood and soil, the Wagalaweia songs, the ride of the Valkyries, Jesus as a blond and blue-eyed hero, the Greek mother of St Paul, the devil as an international Alberich in Jewish or Masonic guise, the Nordic aurora borealis as the light of civilization, the inferior Mediterranean races — all this is the indispensable scenery for the drama that is taking place and at the bottom they all mean the same thing: a god has taken possession of the Germans and their house is filled with a “mighty rushing wind.” It was soon after Hitler seized power, if I am not mistaken, that a cartoon appeared in PUNCH of a raving berserker tearing himself free from his bonds. A hurricane has broken loose in Germany while we still believe it is fine weather.

 

Things are comparatively quiet in Switzerland, though occasionally there is a puff of wind from the north or south. Sometimes it has a slightly ominous sound, sometimes it whispers so harmlessly or even idealistically that no one is alarmed. “Let the sleeping dogs lie” –we manage to get along pretty well with this proverbial wisdom. It is sometimes said that the Swiss are singularly averse to making a problem of themselves. I must rebut this accusation: the Swiss do have their problems, but they would not admit it for anything in the world, even though they see which way the wind is blowing. We thus pay our tribute to the time of storm and stress in Germany, but we never mention it, and this enables us to feel vastly superior.

 

It is above all the Germans who have an opportunity,perhaps unique in history, to look into their own hearts and to learn what those perils of the soul were from which Christianity tried to rescue mankind. Germany is a land of spiritual catastrophes, where nature never makes more than a pretense of peace with the world-ruling reason. The disturber of the peace is a wind that blows into Europe from Asia’s vastness, sweeping in on a wide front from Thrace to the Baltic, scattering the nations before it like dry leaves. or inspiring thoughts that shake the world to its foundations. It is an elemental Dionysus breaking into the Apollonian order. The rouser of this tempest is named Wotan, and we can learn a good deal about him from the political confusion and spiritual upheaval he has caused throughout history. For a more exact investigation of his character, however, we must go back to the age of myths, which did not explain everything in terms of man and his limited capacities, but sought the deeper cause in the psyche and its autonomous powers. Man’s earliest intuitions personified these powers. Man’s earliest intuitions personified these powers as gods, and described them in the myths with great care and circumstantiality according to their various characters.This could be done the more readily on account of the firmly established primordial types or images which are innate in the unconscious of many races and exercise a direct influence upon them. Because the behavior of a race takes on its specific character from its underlying images, we can speak of an archetype “Wotan.” As an autonomous psychic factor, Wotan produces effects in the collective life of a people and thereby reveals his own nature. For Wotan has a peculiar biology of his own, quite apart from the nature of man. It is only from time to time that individuals fall under the irresistible influence of this unconscious factor. When it is quiescent, one is no more aware of the archetype Wotan than of a latent epilepsy. Could the Germans who were adults in 1914  have foreseen what they would be today? Such amazing transformations are the effect of the god of wind, that “bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, nor whither it goeth.” It seizes everything in its path and overthrows everything that is not firmly rooted. When the wind blows it shakes everything that is insecure, whether without or within.

 

Martin Ninck has recently published a monograph which is a most welcome addition to our knowledge of Wotan’s nature. The reader need not fear that this book is nothing but a scientific study written with academic aloofness from the subject. Certainly the right to scientific objectivity is fully preserved, and the material has been collected with extraordinary thoroughness and presented in unusually clear form. But, over and above all this, one feels that the author is vitally interested in it, that the chord of Wotan is vibrating in him, too. This is no criticism — on the contrary, it is one of the chief merits of the book, which without this enthusiasm might easily have degenerated into a tedious catalogue. Ninck sketches a really magnificent portrait of the German archetype Wotan. He describes him in ten chapters, using all the available sources, as the berserker, the god of storm, the wanderer,the warrior, the Wunsch- and Minne-god, the lord of the dead and of the Einherjar, the master of secret knowledge, the magician, and the god of the poets. Neither the Valkyries nor the Fylgja are forgotten, for they form part of the mythological background and fateful significance of Wotan. Ninck’s inquiry into the name and its origin is particularly instructive. He shows that Wotan is not only a god of rage and frenzy who embodies the instinctual and emotion aspect of the unconscious. Its intuitive and inspiring side, also,manifests itself in him, for he understands the runes and can interpret fate.

 

The Romans identified Wotan with Mercury, but his character does not really correspond to any Roman or Greek god, although there are certain resemblances. He is a wanderer like Mercury, for instance, he rules over the dead like Pluto and Kronos, and is connected with Dionysus by his emotional frenzy, particularly in its mantic aspect. It is surprising that Ninck does not mention Hermes, the god of revelation, who as pneuma and nous is associated with the wind. He would be the connecting-link with the Christian pneuma and the miracle of Pentecost. As Poimandres (the shepherd of men), Hermes is an Ergreifer like Wotan. Ninck rightly points out that Dionysus and the other Greek gods always remained under the supreme authority of Zeus, which indicates a fundamental difference between the Greek and the Germanic temperament. Ninck assumes an inner affinity between Wotan and Kronus, and the latter’s defeat may perhaps be a sign that the Wotan-archetype was once overcome and split up in prehistoric times. At all events, the Germanic god represents a totality on avery primitive level, a psychological condition in which man’s will was almost identical with the god’s and entirely at his mercy. But the Greeks had gods who helped man against other gods; indeed, All-Father Zeus himself is not far from the ideal of a benevolent, enlightened despot.

 

It was not in Wotan’s nature to linger on and show signs of old age. He simply disappeared when the times turned against him, and remained invisible for more than a thousand years, working anonymously and indirectly.Archetypes are like riverbeds which dry up when the water deserts them, but which it can find again at any time. An archetype is like an old water course along which the water of life has flowed for centuries, digging a deep channel for itself. The longer it has flowed in this channel the more likely it is that sooner or later the water will return to its old bed. The life of the individual as a member of society and particularly as a part of the State maybe regulated like a canal, but the life of nations is a great rushing river which is utterly beyond human control, in the hands of One who has always been stronger than men. The League of Nations, which was supposed to possess supranational authority, is regarded by some as a child in need of care and protection, by others as an abortion. Thus, the life of nations rolls on unchecked, without guidance, unconscious of where it is going, like a rock crashing down the side of a hill, until it is stopped by an obstacle stronger than itself. Political events move from one impasse to the next, like a torrent caught in gullies, creeks and marshes. All human control comes to an end when the individual is caught in a mass movement. Then, the archetypes begin to function, as happens, also, in the lives of individuals when they are confronted with situations that cannot be dealt with in any of the familiar ways. But what a so-called Fuhrer does with a mass movement can plainly be seen if we turn our eyes to the north or south of our country.

 

The ruling archetype does not remain the same forever, as is evident from the temporal limitations that have been set to the hoped-for reign of peace, the “thousand-year Reich.” The Mediterranean father-archetype of the just, order-loving, benevolent ruler had been shattered over the whole of northern Europe, as the present fate of the Christian Churches bears witness. Fascism in Italy and the civil war in Spain show that in the south as well the cataclysm has been far greater than one expected. Even the Catholic Church can no longer afford trials of strength.

 

The nationalist God has attacked Christianity on abroad front. In Russia, he is called technology and science, in Italy, Duce, and in Germany, “German Faith,” “German Christianity,” or the State. The “German Christians” are a contradiction in terms and would do better to join Hauer’s “German Faith Movement.” These are decent and well-meaning people who honestly admit their Ergriffenheit and try to come to terms with this new and undeniable fact. They go to an enormous amount of trouble to make it look less alarming by dressing it up in a conciliatory historical garb and giving us consoling glimpses of great figures such as Meister Eckhart, who was, also, a German and, also, ergriffen. In this way the awkward question of who the Ergreifer is is circumvented. He was always”God.” But the more Hauer restricts the world-wide sphere of Indo-European culture to the “Nordic” in general and to the Edda in particular, and the more “German” this faith becomes as a manifestation of Ergriffenheit, the more painfully evident it is that the”German” god is the god of the Germans.

 

One cannot read Hauer’s book without emotion, if one regards it as the tragic and really heroic effort of a conscientious scholar who, without knowing how it happened to him, was violently summoned by the inaudible voice of the Ergreifer and is now trying with all his might, and with all his knowledge and ability, to build a bridge between the dark forces of life and the shining world of historical ideas. But what do all the beauties of the past from totally different levels of culture mean to the man of today, when confronted with a living and unfathomable tribal god such as he has never experienced before? They are sucked like dry leaves into the roaring whirlwind, and the rhythmic alliterations of the Edda became inextricably mixed up with Christian mystical texts, German poetry and the wisdom of the Upanishads. Hauer himself is ergriffen by the depths of meaning in the primal words lying at the root of the Germanic languages, to an extent that he certainly never knew before. Hauer the Indologist is not to blame for this, nor yet the Edda; it is rather the fault of kairos — the present moment in time — whose name on closer investigation turns out to be Wotan. I would, therefore, advise the German Faith Movement to throw aside their scruples. Intelligent people who will not confuse them with the crude Wotan-worshipers whose faith is a mere pretense. There are people in the German Faith Movement who are intelligent enough not only to believe, but to know, that the god of the Germans is Wotan and not the Christian God. This is a tragic experience and no disgrace. It has always been terrible to fall into the hands of a living god. Yahweh was no exception to this rule, and the Philistines, Edomites, Amorites and the rest, who were outside the Yahweh experience, must certainly have found it exceedingly disagreeable. The Semitic experience of Allah was for a long time an extremely painful affair for the whole of Christendom. We who stand outside judge the Germans far too much, as if they were responsible agents, but perhaps it would be nearer the truth to regard them, also, as victims.

 

If we apply are admittedly peculiar point of view consistently, we are driven to conclude that Wotan must, in time, reveal not only the restless, violent, stormy side of his character, but, also, his ecstatic and mantic qualities — a very different aspect of his nature. If this conclusion is correct, National Socialism would not be the last word. Things must be concealed in the background which we cannot imagine at present, but we may expect them to appear in the course of the next few years or decades.Wotan’s reawakening is a stepping back into the past; the stream was damned up and has broken into its old channel. But the Obstruction will not last forever; it is rather a reculer pour mieux sauter, and the water will overleap the obstacle. Then, at last, we shall know what Wotan is saying when he”murmers with Mimir’s head.”

Fast move the sons of Mim,and fate

Is heard in the note of the Gjallarhorn;

Loud blows Heimdall, the horn is aloft,

In fear quake all who on Hel-roads are.

Yggdrasill shakes and shivers on high

The ancient limbs, and the giant is loose;

Wotan murmurs with Mimir’s head

But the kinsman of Surt shall slay him soon.

How fare the gods? how farethe elves?

All Jotunheim groans, the gods are at council;

Loud roar the dwarfs by the doors of stone,

The masters of the rocks: would you know yet more?

Now Garm howls loud before Gnipahellir;

The fetters will burst, and the wolf run free;

Much I do know, and more can see

Of the fate of the gods, the mighty in fight.

From the east comes Hrym with shield held high;

In giant-wrath does the serpent writhe;

O’er the waves he twists, and the tawny eagle

Gnaws corpses screaming; Naglfar is loose.

O’er the sea from the norththere sails a ship

With the people of Hel, at the helm stands Loki;

After the wolf do wild men follow,

And with them the brother of Byleist goes.

Continuar leyendo “C. G. Jung – Essay on Wotan [w. Nietzsche]”

Regrets – Reminders of What Could Have Been

When I look back into my life I see a shadow of what happened and sometimes I wonder of what could have been. With hindsight, it feels like one should have known all along the results of our actions. If … Continue reading

When I look back into my life I see a shadow of what happened and sometimes I wonder of what could have been. With hindsight, it feels like one should have known all along the results of our actions. If I had taken her to my apartment…, if I had taken that memo out of the briefing…, if …. Once we know the right answers to an exam, we can fantasize going back and ace it. The short term consequences of these alternative happenings might be more or less predictable but as time goes on it is impossible to tell if the future of the alternative past is better, worst, or even comparable to our actual present.
Hindsight bias, also known as the knew-it-all-along effect or creeping determinism, is the inclination, after an event has occurred, to see the event as having been predictable, despite little or no objective basis for predicting it, prior to its occurrence. Hindsight bias may cause memory distortion, where the recollection and reconstruction of content can lead to false theoretical outcomes. A person believes he or she “knew it all along”. Such examples are present in the writings of historians describing outcomes of battles, physicians recalling clinical trials, and in judicial systems trying to attribute responsibility and predictability of accidents.
You know (in a way) the way it was but it is impossible to know what could have been.
Regrets distort reality not only in the objectivity of causal dynamics but also in the subjective perception of our emotions. The pleasures and expectations I get from my dreams can never be matched by achieving them.
Real things are more complex and fuzzy than the ideas inside my head, but more important I have only one life, one moment to live and I can only experiment one thing. Once I do, all the I coulds are wasted and gone. There is an old tale that explains this: A man goes on the jungle when he realizes that a Tiger is stalking him. He falls into a panic and runs into a cliff. He rolls down the step and grabs a bush to stop the fall. He sees that another Tiger is waiting for him at the base of the cliff. At that moment a couple of rats start to mince the base of the bush and the man is certain to fall into the Tiger below. Then the man notices some berries just within his reach. He grabs them and his mouth is filled with the refreshing taste of the berries.

Regrets – Reminders of What Could Have Been

When I look back into my life I see a shadow of what happened and sometimes I wonder of what could have been. With hindsight, it feels like one should have known all along the results of our actions. If … Continue reading

When I look back into my life I see a shadow of what happened and sometimes I wonder of what could have been. With hindsight, it feels like one should have known all along the results of our actions. If I had taken her to my apartment…, if I had taken that memo out of the briefing…, if …. Once we know the right answers to an exam, we can fantasize going back and ace it. The short term consequences of these alternative happenings might be more or less predictable but as time goes on it is impossible to tell if the future of the alternative past is better, worst, or even comparable to our actual present.
Hindsight bias, also known as the knew-it-all-along effect or creeping determinism, is the inclination, after an event has occurred, to see the event as having been predictable, despite little or no objective basis for predicting it, prior to its occurrence. Hindsight bias may cause memory distortion, where the recollection and reconstruction of content can lead to false theoretical outcomes. A person believes he or she “knew it all along”. Such examples are present in the writings of historians describing outcomes of battles, physicians recalling clinical trials, and in judicial systems trying to attribute responsibility and predictability of accidents.
You know (in a way) the way it was but it is impossible to know what could have been.
Regrets distort reality not only in the objectivity of causal dynamics but also in the subjective perception of our emotions. The pleasures and expectations I get from my dreams can never be matched by achieving them.
Real things are more complex and fuzzy than the ideas inside my head, but more important I have only one life, one moment to live and I can only experiment one thing. Once I do, all the I coulds are wasted and gone. There is an old tale that explains this: A man goes on the jungle when he realizes that a Tiger is stalking him. He falls into a panic and runs into a cliff. He rolls down the step and grabs a bush to stop the fall. He sees that another Tiger is waiting for him at the base of the cliff. At that moment a couple of rats start to mince the base of the bush and the man is certain to fall into the Tiger below. Then the man notices some berries just within his reach. He grabs them and his mouth is filled with the refreshing taste of the berries.

Spinoza

La inmanencia es el ente intrínseco de un cuerpo; en filosofía se califica a toda aquella actividad como inmanente a un ser cuando la acción perdura en su interior, cuando tiene su fin en otro mismo ser. Se opone por lo tanto a trascendencia.
Así, Agustín de Hipona pudo decir que la inmanencia es, precisamente, la propiedad por la que una determinada realidad permanece como cerrada en sí misma, agotando en ella todo su ser y su actuar. La trascendencia supone, por tanto, la inmanencia como uno de sus momentos, al cual se añade la superación que el trascender representa.
Estos conceptos ocuparon también un papel importante en la filosofía escolástica, de la cual emanan los términos actio immanens y actio transiens y se constituye la absoluta diferencia entre ambas expresiones. Autores como Wolff y Spinoza adoptaron esta interpretación, sobre todo en este último, donde la inmanencia se erige como un punto de apoyo y noción elemental del método spinozista. Esto se debe a que según Spinoza Dios es causa inmanente en oposición a causa transitiva de todas las cosas en este método. Si Dios es la causa de todas las cosas que residen en Él, y que todo está en Dios, fuera de Él no es concebible la existencia de ningún cuerpo porque Dios es causa inmanente y no transitiva de todo lo que existe. Esta corriente, calificada también como “inmanentismo racionalista” es propia del pensamiento moderno; la trascendencia se suele ubicar en las filosofías contemporáneas.
El sistema de Spinoza se identifica con cualquier planteamiento filosófico perteneciente al panteísmo, de modo que inmanencia en este caso es un concepto en el que la existencia de todos los seres no puede ser explicada sin la presencia de Dios.
También se considera filosofía inmanentista la que mantiene la preeminencia de la experiencia religiosa interna por encima de la sapiencia reflexiva de Dios. En Maurice Blondel y sobre todo en Edouard Le Roy tenemos una acérrima defensa de esta perspectiva.
El concepto de inmanencia, entendido aquí como total y consciente rechazo de la trascendencia, es también importante en la tradición marxista. Particularmente, Antonio Gramscicalifica la filosofía de la praxis como un “inmanentismo absoluto”, un “historicismo absoluto” y un “humanismo absoluto”.
La inmanencia es el ente intrínseco de un cuerpo; en filosofía se califica a toda aquella actividad como inmanente a un ser cuando la acción perdura en su interior, cuando tiene su fin en otro mismo ser. Se opone por lo tanto a trascendencia.
Así, Agustín de Hipona pudo decir que la inmanencia es, precisamente, la propiedad por la que una determinada realidad permanece como cerrada en sí misma, agotando en ella todo su ser y su actuar. La trascendencia supone, por tanto, la inmanencia como uno de sus momentos, al cual se añade la superación que el trascender representa.
Estos conceptos ocuparon también un papel importante en la filosofía escolástica, de la cual emanan los términos actio immanens y actio transiens y se constituye la absoluta diferencia entre ambas expresiones. Autores como Wolff y Spinoza adoptaron esta interpretación, sobre todo en este último, donde la inmanencia se erige como un punto de apoyo y noción elemental del método spinozista. Esto se debe a que según Spinoza Dios es causa inmanente en oposición a causa transitiva de todas las cosas en este método. Si Dios es la causa de todas las cosas que residen en Él, y que todo está en Dios, fuera de Él no es concebible la existencia de ningún cuerpo porque Dios es causa inmanente y no transitiva de todo lo que existe. Esta corriente, calificada también como “inmanentismo racionalista” es propia del pensamiento moderno; la trascendencia se suele ubicar en las filosofías contemporáneas.
El sistema de Spinoza se identifica con cualquier planteamiento filosófico perteneciente al panteísmo, de modo que inmanencia en este caso es un concepto en el que la existencia de todos los seres no puede ser explicada sin la presencia de Dios.
También se considera filosofía inmanentista la que mantiene la preeminencia de la experiencia religiosa interna por encima de la sapiencia reflexiva de Dios. En Maurice Blondel y sobre todo en Edouard Le Roy tenemos una acérrima defensa de esta perspectiva.
El concepto de inmanencia, entendido aquí como total y consciente rechazo de la trascendencia, es también importante en la tradición marxista. Particularmente, Antonio Gramscicalifica la filosofía de la praxis como un “inmanentismo absoluto”, un “historicismo absoluto” y un “humanismo absoluto”.

panteísmo

El panteísmo es una creencia o concepción del mundo y una doctrina filosófica según la cual el Universo, la naturaleza y Dios son equivalentes. La ley natural, la existencia y el universo (la suma de todo lo que fue, es y será) se representa por medio del concepto teológico de “Dios”. La palabra está compuesta del término griego πᾶν (pan), que significa todo, y θεός (theos), que significa Dios; así se forma una frase que afirma: todo es Dios y Dios es todo.
El panteísmo es la creencia de que el universo (con todas sus extensiones celestes y criaturas) y Dios son lo mismo, o sea, son uno. Es decir, Dios no es un criatura en particular ni una simple energía; sino que cada criatura es un aspecto o una manifestación de Dios, que es concebido como el actor divino que desempeña a la vez los innumerables papeles de humanos, animales, plantas, estrellas y fuerzas de la naturaleza. Algunos pensadores han considerado panteísta el trasfondo de los politeísmos1 La visión panteísta, si es admitida, aporta un nexo entre diferentes religiones, en especial las no creacionistas.

La naturaleza es sinónimo de Dios en el Panteísmo.

De manera general, el panteísmo puede ser considerado como una ideología filosófica o como una concepción del mundo. En el teísmo se enfrentan dos términos: “dios” y “mundo“. El panteísmo procede a identificarlos. El resultado ha de ser un monismo, que puede adoptar diversas caracterizaciones.
El panteísmo puede mostrar algunas variantes. Por un lado puede considerar a la realidad divina, como la única realidad verdadera y a ella se reduce el mundo; en este caso el mundo es concebido como proceso, emanación, desarrollo o manifestación de Dios; declaradamente una “teofanía“.
En otro sentido, la naturaleza puede ser concebida como la única realidad verdadera. A esa realidad se reduce Dios, que suele ser concebido entonces como la unidad del mundo, como una especie de principio orgánico de la naturaleza, o también, como autoconciencia del universo. Esta forma de panteísmo recibe la denominación de “Panteísmo Ateo” o “Panteísmo Naturalista”.
En ambas formas, no hay ninguna realidad trascendente. Todo lo que existe es inmanente y la divinidad es entendida más bien como principio del mundo.
El panteísmo es una creencia o concepción del mundo y una doctrina filosófica según la cual el Universo, la naturaleza y Dios son equivalentes. La ley natural, la existencia y el universo (la suma de todo lo que fue, es y será) se representa por medio del concepto teológico de “Dios”. La palabra está compuesta del término griego ??? (pan), que significa todo, y ???? (theos), que significa Dios; así se forma una frase que afirma: todo es Dios y Dios es todo.
El panteísmo es la creencia de que el universo (con todas sus extensiones celestes y criaturas) y Dios son lo mismo, o sea, son uno. Es decir, Dios no es un criatura en particular ni una simple energía; sino que cada criatura es un aspecto o una manifestación de Dios, que es concebido como el actor divino que desempeña a la vez los innumerables papeles de humanos, animales, plantas, estrellas y fuerzas de la naturaleza. Algunos pensadores han considerado panteísta el trasfondo de los politeísmos1 La visión panteísta, si es admitida, aporta un nexo entre diferentes religiones, en especial las no creacionistas.

La naturaleza es sinónimo de Dios en el Panteísmo.

De manera general, el panteísmo puede ser considerado como una ideología filosófica o como una concepción del mundo. En el teísmo se enfrentan dos términos: “dios” y “mundo“. El panteísmo procede a identificarlos. El resultado ha de ser un monismo, que puede adoptar diversas caracterizaciones.
El panteísmo puede mostrar algunas variantes. Por un lado puede considerar a la realidad divina, como la única realidad verdadera y a ella se reduce el mundo; en este caso el mundo es concebido como proceso, emanación, desarrollo o manifestación de Dios; declaradamente una “teofanía“.
En otro sentido, la naturaleza puede ser concebida como la única realidad verdadera. A esa realidad se reduce Dios, que suele ser concebido entonces como la unidad del mundo, como una especie de principio orgánico de la naturaleza, o también, como autoconciencia del universo. Esta forma de panteísmo recibe la denominación de “Panteísmo Ateo” o “Panteísmo Naturalista”.
En ambas formas, no hay ninguna realidad trascendente. Todo lo que existe es inmanente y la divinidad es entendida más bien como principio del mundo.

????

Published on Aug 19, 2013

A remastered/noiseless version of “Alan Watts Teaches The Art Of Meditation”.

Omega Point now consists of two kinds of videos:
-Videos like this one that have been enhanced and uploaded in full-version
-Short videos presented by graphics, kinetic Typography and relevant footage with music

Follow Omega Point on Facebook:
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Omega-…

Alan Watts’ website:
www.alanwatts.org

Published on Aug 19, 2013

A remastered/noiseless version of “Alan Watts Teaches The Art Of Meditation”.

Omega Point now consists of two kinds of videos:
-Videos like this one that have been enhanced and uploaded in full-version
-Short videos presented by graphics, kinetic Typography and relevant footage with music

Follow Omega Point on Facebook:
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Omega-…

Alan Watts’ website:
www.alanwatts.org

Alan Watts’s Books

Published on Mar 5, 2014 Alan Watts Bibliography Alan Watts is one of the most widely read philosophers of the 20th century. In addition to his 28 books, Alan Watts delivered hundreds of public lectures and seminars the recordings of … Continue reading

Published on Mar 5, 2014
Alan Watts Bibliography
Alan Watts is one of the most widely read philosophers of the 20th century. In addition to his 28 books, Alan Watts delivered hundreds of public lectures and seminars the recordings of which have been preserved in the archives of the Electronic University. Alan’s eldest son Mark Watts has reviewed and cataloged these talks to prepare them for public broadcast. In 2005 Amber Star of Zencast.org created Alan Watts podcast to help disseminate these lectures to a new iPod listening generation . Today the Electronic University and Zencast.org are pleased to present the highlights of the spoken works of Alan Watts.

Alan Watts’s Books

The Spirit of Zen 1936
The Legacy of Asia and Western Man 1939
The Meaning of Happiness 1940
Behold the Spirit 1947
Easter – Its Story and Meaning 1950
The Supreme Identity 1950
The Wisdom of Insecurity 1951
Myth and Ritual in Christianity 1953
The Way of Zen 1957
Nature, Man, and Woman 1958
This Is It 1960
Psychotherapy East and West 1961
The Joyous Cosmology 1962
The Two Hands of God 1963
Beyond Theology 1964
The Book On the Taboo Against Knowing Who You Are 1966
Nonsense 1967
Does It Matter? 1970
Erotic Spirituality 1971
The Art of Contemplation 1972
In My Own Way (autobiography) 1972
Cloud-hidden, Whereabouts Unknown 1973
Tao: The Watercourse Way 1975

Alan Watts – Monographs and Pamphlets
An Outline of Zen Buddhism 1932
Seven Symbols of Life 1936
The Psychology of Acceptance 1939
The Theological Mystica of St. Dionysius 1944
The Meaning of Preisthood 1946
Zen Buddhism 1947
Zen 1948
The Way of Liberation in Zen Buddhism 1955
Beat Zen, Square Zen, and Zen 1956

Alan Watts – Records

Om: The Sound of Hinduism 1967
Why Not Now: Dhyana, The Art of Meditation 1969
This bibliography doesn’t include the numerous books of essays and lecture transcripts published after his death.

Alan Watts’s Books

Published on Mar 5, 2014 Alan Watts Bibliography Alan Watts is one of the most widely read philosophers of the 20th century. In addition to his 28 books, Alan Watts delivered hundreds of public lectures and seminars the recordings of … Continue reading

Published on Mar 5, 2014
Alan Watts Bibliography
Alan Watts is one of the most widely read philosophers of the 20th century. In addition to his 28 books, Alan Watts delivered hundreds of public lectures and seminars the recordings of which have been preserved in the archives of the Electronic University. Alan’s eldest son Mark Watts has reviewed and cataloged these talks to prepare them for public broadcast. In 2005 Amber Star of Zencast.org created Alan Watts podcast to help disseminate these lectures to a new iPod listening generation . Today the Electronic University and Zencast.org are pleased to present the highlights of the spoken works of Alan Watts.

Alan Watts’s Books

The Spirit of Zen 1936
The Legacy of Asia and Western Man 1939
The Meaning of Happiness 1940
Behold the Spirit 1947
Easter – Its Story and Meaning 1950
The Supreme Identity 1950
The Wisdom of Insecurity 1951
Myth and Ritual in Christianity 1953
The Way of Zen 1957
Nature, Man, and Woman 1958
This Is It 1960
Psychotherapy East and West 1961
The Joyous Cosmology 1962
The Two Hands of God 1963
Beyond Theology 1964
The Book On the Taboo Against Knowing Who You Are 1966
Nonsense 1967
Does It Matter? 1970
Erotic Spirituality 1971
The Art of Contemplation 1972
In My Own Way (autobiography) 1972
Cloud-hidden, Whereabouts Unknown 1973
Tao: The Watercourse Way 1975

Alan Watts – Monographs and Pamphlets
An Outline of Zen Buddhism 1932
Seven Symbols of Life 1936
The Psychology of Acceptance 1939
The Theological Mystica of St. Dionysius 1944
The Meaning of Preisthood 1946
Zen Buddhism 1947
Zen 1948
The Way of Liberation in Zen Buddhism 1955
Beat Zen, Square Zen, and Zen 1956

Alan Watts – Records

Om: The Sound of Hinduism 1967
Why Not Now: Dhyana, The Art of Meditation 1969
This bibliography doesn’t include the numerous books of essays and lecture transcripts published after his death.