Thích Nh?t H?nh

Thích Nhất Hạnh es un Maestro Zen nacido en Vietnam Central el 11 de Octubre de 1926, monje budista desde hace más de cuatro décadas y activista por la Paz, nominado para el Premio Nobel por ese motivo. Refugiado político en Francia desde 1972, por su combate pacífico, empezado durante la guerra de Vietnam

En Vietnam Fundó la Escuela de la Juventud para los Servicios Sociales, la Universidad Budista de Vanh Hanh, la editorial Le Boi Press y la Orden del Interser. Enseñó en la Universidad de Columbia y la Sorbona. En 1967 Fue nominado por Martin Luther King para el Premio Nobel de la Paz.

Vivio en Francia, en una comunidad de enseñanza Budista llamada Plum Village, fundada en 1982, cercana a Burdeos.

Uploaded on Jan 5, 2012
Retiro 2004.Una buena respiración es suficiente.
Uno de los maestros zen más conocidos y respetados del mundo, poeta, activista por la paz y los derechos humanos, Thich Nhat Hahn (sus estudiantes lo llaman Thay, que significa «maestro») ha tenido una vida extraordinaria. Nació en el Vietnam central, en 1926, y se convirtió en monje a la edad de 16 años. La guerra de Vietnam enfrentó a los monasterios a la difícil cuestión de decidir si llevar una vida contemplativa y dedicarse solo a la meditación en los monasterios o ayudar a sus conciudadanos que sufrían bajo los ataques de las bombas y la devastación de la guerra. Nhat Hanh fue uno de los que decidió hacer ambas cosas, ayudando a fundar el movimiento del «Budismo comprometido». Ha dedicado su vida, desde entonces, al trabajo de la transformación personal para el beneficio de los individuos y la sociedad.

thay joven

Al principio de los años 60, en Saigón, Thich Nhat Hahn fundó la Escuela para el Servicio de Ayuda Social, una organización de ayuda para la reconstrucción de los pueblos y aldeas bombardeadas, la construcción de escuelas y centros médicos, el realojamiento de familias, y la organización de cooperativas agrícolas. Con la ayuda de más de 10.000 estudiantes voluntarios, la SYSS basó su trabajo en los principios budistas de no violencia y acción compasiva. A pesar de la oposición del gobierno vietnamita, Nhat Hahn también fundó la Universidad Budista, una editorial y una influyente revista de activismo por la paz, en Vietnam.

Tras visitar los Estados Unidos en 1966 en misión de paz, se le prohibió su vuelta a Vietnam en 1966. En sus viajes siguientes a los Estados Unidos, tuvo entrevistas con oficiales federales y del Pentágono, como Robert McNamara, a los que presentó argumentos para detener la guerra y pedir la paz. Puede que Nhat Hahn haya ayudado a cambiar el curso de la historia de los Estados Unidos, cuando pidió a Martin Luther King que se opusiera a la guerra de Vietnam públicamente, ayudando, de esta manera, al movimiento por la paz. Al año siguiente, King nominó a Thich Nhat Hahn para el Premio Nóbel de la Paz. Más tarde, Nhat Hanh encabezó la delegación Budista en la Cumbre por la Paz en Paris.

En 1982 fundó Plum Village, una comunidad Budista en el exilio, en Francia, donde continua su trabajo de ayuda a los refugiados, los llamados «boat people», «gente de los barcos», prisioneros políticos, y familias pobres de Vietnam y de todo el mundo. También ha recibido un merecido reconocimiento por su trabajo por los Veteranos de Vietnam, por sus retiros de meditación y su prolífica obra literaria sobre meditación, plena consciencia y paz. Ha publicado 85 libros de poesía, prosa, oraciones, de los cuales 40 están en inglés, incluyendo los más vendidos, «Llámame por mis verdaderos nombres», «La paz está en cada paso», «Ser paz», «Tocando la paz», «Buda viviente, Cristo viviente», «Enseñanzas sobre el amor», «El camino de la emancipación», e «Ira». En Septiembre del 2001, justo pocos días tras los ataques al World Trade Center, dió un memorable discurso sobre la no violencia y el perdón, en la Iglesia Riverside de Nueva York. En Septiembre del 2003 pronunció un discurso a miembros del congreso de los Estados Unidos, en un retiro de dos días.

Thich Nhat Hanh ha hecho mucho por articular y difundir las enseñanzas budistas centrales de atención plena, amabilidad y compasión a una audiencia global amplia. El monje vietnamita, que ha escrito más de 100 libros, es solo superado por el Dalai Lama en fama e influencia.

Nhat Hanh se hizo famoso luchando por los derechos humanos y su trabajo de reconciliación durante la Guerra de Vietnam, lo que llevó a Martin Luther King Jr. a nominarlo para un Premio Nobel.

Se le considera el padre del «budismo comprometido», un movimiento que vincula la práctica de la atención plena con la acción social. También ha construido una red de monasterios y centros de retiro en seis países de todo el mundo, incluido Estados Unidos.

En 2014, Nhat Hanh, sufrió un derrame cerebral. Aunque no pudo hablar después del accidente cerebro vascular, continuó dirigiendo a la comunidad, usando su brazo izquierdo y expresiones faciales para comunicarse.

En octubre de 2018, Nhat Hanh sorprendió a sus discípulos al informarles que le gustaría regresar a su hogar en Vietnam para pasar sus últimos días en el templo raíz de Tu Hieu en Hue, donde se convirtió en monje en 1942 a los 16 años. Nhat Hanh fue exiliado de Vietnam por su activismo contra la guerra, desde 1966, hasta que finalmente fue invitado de regreso en 2005. Pero su regreso a su tierra natal se trata menos de reconciliación política que de algo mucho más profundo. Y contiene lecciones para todos nosotros sobre cómo morir en paz y cómo dejar a las personas que amamos.




Thích Nh?t H?nh es un Maestro Zen nacido en Vietnam Central el 11 de Octubre de 1926, monje budista desde hace más de cuatro décadas y activista por la Paz, nominado para el Premio Nobel por ese motivo. Refugiado político en Francia desde 1972, por su combate pacífico, empezado durante la guerra de Vietnam

En Vietnam Fundó la Escuela de la Juventud para los Servicios Sociales, la Universidad Budista de Vanh Hanh, la editorial Le Boi Press y la Orden del Interser. Enseñó en la Universidad de Columbia y la Sorbona. En 1967 Fue nominado por Martin Luther King para el Premio Nobel de la Paz.

Vivio en Francia, en una comunidad de enseñanza Budista llamada Plum Village, fundada en 1982, cercana a Burdeos.







Uploaded on Jan 5, 2012
Retiro 2004.Una buena respiración es suficiente.
Uno de los maestros zen más conocidos y respetados del mundo, poeta, activista por la paz y los derechos humanos, Thich Nhat Hahn (sus estudiantes lo llaman Thay, que significa "maestro") ha tenido una vida extraordinaria. Nació en el Vietnam central, en 1926, y se convirtió en monje a la edad de 16 años. La guerra de Vietnam enfrentó a los monasterios a la difícil cuestión de decidir si llevar una vida contemplativa y dedicarse solo a la meditación en los monasterios o ayudar a sus conciudadanos que sufrían bajo los ataques de las bombas y la devastación de la guerra. Nhat Hanh fue uno de los que decidió hacer ambas cosas, ayudando a fundar el movimiento del "Budismo comprometido". Ha dedicado su vida, desde entonces, al trabajo de la transformación personal para el beneficio de los individuos y la sociedad.

thay joven

Al principio de los años 60, en Saigón, Thich Nhat Hahn fundó la Escuela para el Servicio de Ayuda Social, una organización de ayuda para la reconstrucción de los pueblos y aldeas bombardeadas, la construcción de escuelas y centros médicos, el realojamiento de familias, y la organización de cooperativas agrícolas. Con la ayuda de más de 10.000 estudiantes voluntarios, la SYSS basó su trabajo en los principios budistas de no violencia y acción compasiva. A pesar de la oposición del gobierno vietnamita, Nhat Hahn también fundó la Universidad Budista, una editorial y una influyente revista de activismo por la paz, en Vietnam.

Tras visitar los Estados Unidos en 1966 en misión de paz, se le prohibió su vuelta a Vietnam en 1966. En sus viajes siguientes a los Estados Unidos, tuvo entrevistas con oficiales federales y del Pentágono, como Robert McNamara, a los que presentó argumentos para detener la guerra y pedir la paz. Puede que Nhat Hahn haya ayudado a cambiar el curso de la historia de los Estados Unidos, cuando pidió a Martin Luther King que se opusiera a la guerra de Vietnam públicamente, ayudando, de esta manera, al movimiento por la paz. Al año siguiente, King nominó a Thich Nhat Hahn para el Premio Nóbel de la Paz. Más tarde, Nhat Hanh encabezó la delegación Budista en la Cumbre por la Paz en Paris.

En 1982 fundó Plum Village, una comunidad Budista en el exilio, en Francia, donde continua su trabajo de ayuda a los refugiados, los llamados "boat people", "gente de los barcos", prisioneros políticos, y familias pobres de Vietnam y de todo el mundo. También ha recibido un merecido reconocimiento por su trabajo por los Veteranos de Vietnam, por sus retiros de meditación y su prolífica obra literaria sobre meditación, plena consciencia y paz. Ha publicado 85 libros de poesía, prosa, oraciones, de los cuales 40 están en inglés, incluyendo los más vendidos, "Llámame por mis verdaderos nombres", "La paz está en cada paso", "Ser paz", "Tocando la paz", "Buda viviente, Cristo viviente", "Enseñanzas sobre el amor", "El camino de la emancipación", e "Ira". En Septiembre del 2001, justo pocos días tras los ataques al World Trade Center, dió un memorable discurso sobre la no violencia y el perdón, en la Iglesia Riverside de Nueva York. En Septiembre del 2003 pronunció un discurso a miembros del congreso de los Estados Unidos, en un retiro de dos días.

Thich Nhat Hanh ha hecho mucho por articular y difundir las enseñanzas budistas centrales de atención plena, amabilidad y compasión a una audiencia global amplia. El monje vietnamita, que ha escrito más de 100 libros, es solo superado por el Dalai Lama en fama e influencia.

Nhat Hanh se hizo famoso luchando por los derechos humanos y su trabajo de reconciliación durante la Guerra de Vietnam, lo que llevó a Martin Luther King Jr. a nominarlo para un Premio Nobel.

Se le considera el padre del "budismo comprometido", un movimiento que vincula la práctica de la atención plena con la acción social. También ha construido una red de monasterios y centros de retiro en seis países de todo el mundo, incluido Estados Unidos.

En 2014, Nhat Hanh, sufrió un derrame cerebral. Aunque no pudo hablar después del accidente cerebro vascular, continuó dirigiendo a la comunidad, usando su brazo izquierdo y expresiones faciales para comunicarse.

En octubre de 2018, Nhat Hanh sorprendió a sus discípulos al informarles que le gustaría regresar a su hogar en Vietnam para pasar sus últimos días en el templo raíz de Tu Hieu en Hue, donde se convirtió en monje en 1942 a los 16 años. Nhat Hanh fue exiliado de Vietnam por su activismo contra la guerra, desde 1966, hasta que finalmente fue invitado de regreso en 2005. Pero su regreso a su tierra natal se trata menos de reconciliación política que de algo mucho más profundo. Y contiene lecciones para todos nosotros sobre cómo morir en paz y cómo dejar a las personas que amamos.




Body, mind and soul.

The Three Battles of Sanchin By Al Case Editor’s Note: The author discusses Sanchin kata (or exercise) as performed in Uechi-Ryu karate where the hands are kept open. In other styles, such as Goju-ryu, the hands are closed in a fist … Continue reading

The Three Battles of Sanchin

By Al Case

Editor’s Note: The author discusses Sanchin kata (or exercise) as performed in Uechi-Ryu karate where the hands are kept open. In other styles, such as Goju-ryu, the hands are closed in a fist when held in front of the body and thrust outward.


?

Etymology

Ideogrammic compound ( 會意 ): + 𩠐

Simplified to

道 道 道 道
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

道 (radical 162 +9, 12 strokescangjie input 卜廿竹山 (YTHU), four-corner 38306composition )

  1. pathroadstreet
  2. methodway
  3. say

道 (hiragana みちromaji michi)

  1. way; a street; a road; an alley; a pass for local traffic
  2. way of doing something

道 (hiragana  どう romaji )

  1. The Way: taoTaoism
  2. (chiefly historical) A region of Japan consisting of multiple provinces or prefectures. Feudal Japan was divided into several ; the only remaining  is Hokkaidō.

Dao is written with the Chinese character  in both Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese. It typifies the most common Chinese character classification of «radical-phonetic» or «phono-semantic» graphs, which compound a «radical» or «signific» (roughly providing semantic information) with a «phonetic» (suggesting ancient pronunciation).

Dao 道 graphically combines the chuo  (or ) «go» radical and shou  «head» phonetic. Furthermore, dao 道 is the phonetic element in dao «guide; lead» (with the cun  «thumb; hand» radical) and dao  «a tree name» (with the mu  «tree; wood» radical).

The traditional interpretation of the 道 character, dating back to the (121 CE) Shuowen Jiezi dictionary, was a rare huiyi 會意 «compound ideogram» or «ideogrammic compound«. The combination of chuo 辶 «go» and shou 首 «head» (numbers 162 and 185 in the Kangxi radicals) signified a «head going» or «to lead the way».

Dao is graphically distinguished between its earliest nominal meaning of dao 道 «way; road; path;» and the later verbal sense of «say». It should also be contrasted with dao 導 «lead the way; guide; conduct; direct; «. The Simplified character  for dao 導 has si  «6th of the 12 Earthly Branches» in place of dao 道.

The earliest written forms of dao are bronzeware script and seal script characters from Zhou Dynasty (1045–256 BCE) bronzes and writings. These ancient dao characters more clearly depict the shou 首 «head» element as hair above a face. Some variants interchange the chuo 辵 «go; advance» radical with the xing 行 «go; road» radical, with the original bronze «crossroads» depiction written in the seal character with two 彳 and 亍 «footprints».

Bronze scripts for dao 道 occasionally include an element of shou 手 «hand» or cun 寸 «thumb; hand», which occurs in dao 導 «lead». The linguist Peter A. Boodberg explained,

This «dao with the hand element» is usually identified with the modern character導 dao < d’ôg, «to lead,» «guide,» «conduct,» and considered to be a derivative or verbal cognate of the noun dao, «way,» «path.» The evidence just summarized would indicate rather that «dao with the hand» is but a variant of the basic dao and that the word itself combined both nominal and verbal aspects of the etymon. This is supported by textual examples of the use of the primary dao in the verbal sense «to lead» (e. g., Analects 1.5; 2.8) and seriously undermines the unspoken assumption implied in the common translation of Dao as «way» that the concept is essentially a nominal one. Dao would seem, then, to be etymologically a more dynamic concept than we have made it translation-wise. It would be more appropriately rendered by «lead way» and «lode» («way,» «course,» «journey,» «leading,» «guidance»; cf. «lodestone» and «lodestar»), the somewhat obsolescent deverbal noun from «to lead.»[26]

These Confucian Analects citations of dao verbally meaning «to guide; to lead» are: «The Master said, ‘In guiding a state of a thousand chariots, approach your duties with reverence and be trustworthy in what you say» and «The Master said, ‘Guide them by edicts, keep them in line with punishments, and the common people will stay out of trouble but will have no sense of shame.»

Tao or Dao ( / t / / d / Chinese: pinyin About this sound Dào ( help · Info)) is a Chinese word meaning ‘way’, ‘path’, ‘route’, or sometimes more loosely, ‘doctrine’ or ‘principle’, or as a verb, speak. Within the context of traditional Chinese philosophy and religion, Tao is a metaphysical concept originating withLaozi that gave rise to a religion (Wade–GilesTao ChiaoPinyinDaojiao) and philosophy (Wade–Giles, Tao chia; Pinyin, Daojia) referred to in English with the single term Taoism. The concept of Tao was later adopted in ConfucianismChán and Zen Buddhism and more broadly throughout East Asian philosophy and religion in general. Within these contexts Tao signifies the primordial essence or fundamental nature of the universe. In the foundational text of Taoism, the Tao Te ChingLaozi explains that Tao is not a ‘name’ for a ‘thing’ but the underlying natural order of the universe whose ultimate essence is difficult to circumscribe. Tao is thus «eternally nameless” (Dao De Jing-32. Laozi) and to be distinguished from the countless ‘named’ things which are considered to be its manifestations.

In Taoism, Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism, the object of spiritual practice is to ‘become one with the tao’ (Tao Te Ching) or to harmonise one’s will with Nature (cf. Stoicism) in order to achieve ‘effortless action’ (Wu wei). This involves meditative and moral practices. Important in this respect is the Taoist concept of De (德; virtue).

In all its uses, Tao is considered to have ineffable qualities that prevent it from being defined or expressed in words. It can, however, be known orexperienced, and its principles (which can be discerned by observing Nature) can be followed or practiced. Much of East Asian philosophical writing focuses on the value of adhering to the principles of Tao and the various consequences of failing to do so. In Confucianism and religious forms of Taoism these are often explicitly moral/ethical arguments about proper behavior, while Buddhism and more philosophical forms of Taoism usually refer to the natural and mercurial outcomes of action (comparable to karma). Tao is intrinsically related to the concepts yin and yang (pinyinyīnyáng), where every action creates counter-actions as unavoidable movements within manifestations of the Tao, and proper practice variously involves accepting, conforming to, or working with these natural developments.

The concept of Tao differs from conventional (western) ontology : it is an active and holistic conception of Nature, rather than a static, atomistic one. It is worth comparing to the original Logos of Heraclitus, c. 500 BC< The word «Dao» (道) has a variety of meanings in both ancient and modern Chinese language. Aside from its purely prosaic use to mean road, channel, path, doctrine, or similar,[1] the word has acquired a variety of differing and often confusing metaphorical, philosophical and religious uses. In most belief systems, Dao is used symbolically in its sense of ‘way’ as the ‘right’ or ‘proper’ way of existence, or in the context of ongoing practices of attainment or of the full coming into being, or the state of enlightenment or spiritual perfection that is the outcome of such practices.[2] Some scholars make sharp distinctions between moral or ethical usage of the word Dao that is prominent in Confucianism and religious Daoism and the more metaphysical usage of the term used in philosophical Daoism and most forms of Mahayana Buddhism;[3] others maintain that these are not separate usages or meanings, seeing them as mutually inclusive and compatible approaches to defining the concept.[4] The original use of the term was as a form of praxis rather than theory – a term used as a convention to refer to something that otherwise cannot be discussed in words – and early writings such as the Dao De Jing and the I Ching make pains to distinguish between conceptions of Dao (sometimes referred to as «named Dao») and the Dao itself (the «unnamed Dao»), which cannot be expressed or understood in language.[notes 1][notes 2][5] Liu Da asserts that Dao is properly understood as an experiential and evolving concept, and that there are not only cultural and religious differences in the interpretation of Dao, but personal differences that reflect the character of individual practitioners.[6]

Dao can be roughly thought of as the flow of the universe, or as some essence or pattern behind the natural world that keeps the universe balanced and ordered.[7] It is related to the idea of qi, the essential energy of action and existence. Dao is a non-dual concept – it is the greater whole from which all the individual elements of the universe derive. Keller considers it similar to the negative theology of Western scholars,[8] but Dao is rarely an object of direct worship, being treated more like the Hindu concepts of karma or dharma than as a divine object.[9] Dao is more commonly expressed in the relationship between wu (void or emptiness, in the sense of wuji) and yinyang (the natural dynamic balance between opposites), leading to its central principle of wu wei (non-action, or action without force).

Dao is usually described in terms of elements of nature, and in particular as similar to water. Like water it is undifferentiated, endlessly self-replenishing, soft and quiet but immensely powerful, and impassively generous.[10] Much of Daoist philosophy centers on the cyclical continuity of the natural world, and its contrast to the linear, goal-oriented actions of human beings.

The forms and variations of religious Daoism are incredibly diverse. They integrate a broad spectrum of academic, ritualistic, supernatural, devotional, literary, and folk practices with a multitude of results. Buddhism and Confucianism particularly affected the way many sects of Daoism framed, approached, and perceived the Dao. The multitudinous branches of religious Daoism accordingly regard the Dao, and interpret writings about it, in innumerable ways. Thus, outside of a few broad similarities, it is difficult to provide an accurate yet clear summary of their interpretation of Dao.[16]

A central tenet within most varieties of religious Daoism is that the Dao is ever-present, but must be manifested, cultivated, and/or perfected in order to be realized. It is the source of the universe and the seed of its primordial purity resides in all things. The manifestation of Dao is De, which rectifies and invigorates the world with the Dao’s radiance.[14]

Alternatively, philosophical Daoism regards the Dao as a non-religious concept; it is not a deity to be worshiped, nor is it a mystical Absolute in the religious sense of the Hindu Brahman. Joseph Wu remarked of this conception of Dao, «Dao is not religiously available; nor is it even religiously relevant.» The writings of Lao Tzu and Chang Tzu are tinged with esoteric tones and approach humanism and naturalism as paradoxes.[17] In contrast to the esotericism typically found in religious systems, the Dao is not transcendent to the self nor is mystical attainment an escape from the world in philosophical Daoism. The self steeped in Dao is the self grounded in its place within the natural universe. A person dwelling within the Dao excels in themselves and their activities.[18]

However, this distinction is complicated by hermeneutic (interpretive) difficulties in the categorization of Daoist schools, sects and movements.[19] Some scholars believe that there is no distinction between Daojia and Daojiao.[20] According to Kirkland, «most scholars who have seriously studied Daoism, both in Asia and the West, have finally abandoned the simplistic dichotomy of Dàojiā and Dàojiào, ‘philosophical Daoism’ and ‘religious Daoism.'»

Buddhism first started to spread in China during the first century AD and was experiencing a golden age of growth and maturation by the fourth century AD. Hundreds of collections of Pali andSanskrit texts were translated into Chinese by Buddhist monks within a short period of time. Dhyana was translated as ch’an (and later as zen), giving Zen Buddhism its name. The use of Chinese concepts, such as Dao, that were close to Buddhist ideas and terms helped spread the religion and make it more amenable to the Chinese people. However, the differences between the Sanskrit and Chinese terminology lead to some initial misunderstandings and the eventual development of East Asian Buddhism as a distinct entity. As part of this process, many Chinese words introduced their rich semantic and philosophical associations into Buddhism, including the use of ‘Dao’ for central concepts and tenets of Buddhism.[23]

Pai-chang Huai-hai told a student who was grappling with difficult portions of suttas, «Take up words in order to manifest meaning and you’ll obtain ‘meaning’. Cut off words and meaning is emptiness. Emptiness is the Dao. The Dao is cutting off words and speech.» Ch’an (Zen) Buddhists regard the Dao as synonymous with both the Buddhist Path (marga) and the results of it; theEightfold Path and Buddhist enlightenment (satori). Pai-chang’s statement plays upon this usage in the context of the fluid and varied Chinese usage of ‘Dao’. Words and meaning are used to refer to rituals and practice. The ‘emptiness’ refers to the Buddhist concept of sunyata. Finding the Dao and Buddha-nature is not simply a matter of formulations, but an active response to the Four Noble Truths that cannot be fully expressed or conveyed in words and concrete associations. The use of ‘Dao’ in this context refers to the literal ‘way’ of Buddhism, the return to the universal source, dharma, proper meditation, and nirvana, among other associations. ‘Dao’ is commonly used in this fashion by Chinese Buddhists, heavy with associations and nuanced meanings.

Noted Christian author C.S. Lewis used the word Tao to describe «the doctrine of objective value, the belief that certain attitudes are really true, and others really false, the kind of thing the universe is and the kind of things we are.»[25] He asserted that every religion and philosophy contains foundations of universal ethics as an attempt to line up with the Tao—the way mankind was designed to be. In Lewis’ thinking, God created the Tao and fully displayed it through the person of Jesus Christ. Christianity, then, would be the path that lines human beings up with the Tao most effectively.

Also the Greek word used in N.T. for the Way is ὁδός (hodos). Here the Way refers to the path of righteousness and salvation as revealed through Christ.

In Chinese translations of the New Testament, λόγος (logos) is translated with the Chinese word dao (道) (eg John 1:1), indicating that the translators considered the concept of Tao to be somewhat equivalent to logos in Greek philosophy.





Etymology


Ideogrammic compound ( ?? ): ? + ????

Simplified to ? ?
????
Oracle bone scriptBronze inscriptionsLarge seal scriptSmall seal script



? (radical 162 ?+9, 12 strokescangjie input ???? (YTHU), four-corner 38306composition ??)
  1. pathroadstreet
  2. methodway
  3. say




? (hiragana ??romaji michi)
  1. way; a street; a road; an alley; a pass for local traffic
  2. way of doing something

? (hiragana  ?? romaji d?)
  1. The Way: taoTaoism
  2. (chiefly historical) A region of Japan consisting of multiple provinces or prefectures. Feudal Japan was divided into several d?; the only remaining d? is Hokkaid?.



Dao is written with the Chinese character ? in both Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese. It typifies the most common Chinese character classification of "radical-phonetic" or "phono-semantic" graphs, which compound a "radical" or "signific" (roughly providing semantic information) with a "phonetic" (suggesting ancient pronunciation).

Dao ? graphically combines the chuo ? (or ?) "go" radical and shou ? "head" phonetic. Furthermore, dao ? is the phonetic element in dao ?"guide; lead" (with the cun ? "thumb; hand" radical) and dao ? "a tree name" (with the mu ? "tree; wood" radical).

The traditional interpretation of the ? character, dating back to the (121 CE) Shuowen Jiezi dictionary, was a rare huiyi ?? "compound ideogram" or "ideogrammic compound". The combination of chuo ? "go" and shou ? "head" (numbers 162 and 185 in the Kangxi radicals) signified a "head going" or "to lead the way".

Dao is graphically distinguished between its earliest nominal meaning of dao ? "way; road; path;" and the later verbal sense of "say". It should also be contrasted with dao ? "lead the way; guide; conduct; direct; ". The Simplified character ? for dao ? has si ? "6th of the 12 Earthly Branches" in place of dao ?.

The earliest written forms of dao are bronzeware script and seal script characters from Zhou Dynasty (1045–256 BCE) bronzes and writings. These ancient dao characters more clearly depict the shou ? "head" element as hair above a face. Some variants interchange the chuo ? "go; advance" radical with the xing ? "go; road" radical, with the original bronze "crossroads" depiction written in the seal character with two ? and ? "footprints".

Bronze scripts for dao ? occasionally include an element of shou ? "hand" or cun ? "thumb; hand", which occurs in dao ? "lead". The linguist Peter A. Boodberg explained,

This "dao with the hand element" is usually identified with the modern character? dao < d'ôg, "to lead," "guide," "conduct," and considered to be a derivative or verbal cognate of the noun dao, "way," "path." The evidence just summarized would indicate rather that "dao with the hand" is but a variant of the basic dao and that the word itself combined both nominal and verbal aspects of the etymon. This is supported by textual examples of the use of the primary dao in the verbal sense "to lead" (e. g., Analects 1.5; 2.8) and seriously undermines the unspoken assumption implied in the common translation of Dao as "way" that the concept is essentially a nominal one. Dao would seem, then, to be etymologically a more dynamic concept than we have made it translation-wise. It would be more appropriately rendered by "lead way" and "lode" ("way," "course," "journey," "leading," "guidance"; cf. "lodestone" and "lodestar"), the somewhat obsolescent deverbal noun from "to lead."[26]

These Confucian Analects citations of dao verbally meaning "to guide; to lead" are: "The Master said, 'In guiding a state of a thousand chariots, approach your duties with reverence and be trustworthy in what you say" and "The Master said, 'Guide them by edicts, keep them in line with punishments, and the common people will stay out of trouble but will have no sense of shame."


Tao or Dao ( / t a? / / d a? / Chinese: ? pinyin About this sound Dào) is a Chinese word meaning 'way', 'path', 'route', or sometimes more loosely, 'doctrine' or 'principle', or as a verb, speak. Within the context of traditional Chinese philosophy and religion, Tao is a metaphysical concept originating withLaozi that gave rise to a religion (Wade–GilesTao ChiaoPinyinDaojiao) and philosophy (Wade–Giles, Tao chia; Pinyin, Daojia) referred to in English with the single term Taoism. The concept of Tao was later adopted in ConfucianismChán and Zen Buddhism and more broadly throughout East Asian philosophy and religion in general. Within these contexts Tao signifies the primordial essence or fundamental nature of the universe. In the foundational text of Taoism, the Tao Te ChingLaozi explains that Tao is not a 'name' for a 'thing' but the underlying natural order of the universe whose ultimate essence is difficult to circumscribe. Tao is thus "eternally nameless” (Dao De Jing-32. Laozi) and to be distinguished from the countless 'named' things which are considered to be its manifestations.

In Taoism, Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism, the object of spiritual practice is to 'become one with the tao' (Tao Te Ching) or to harmonise one's will with Nature (cf. Stoicism) in order to achieve 'effortless action' (Wu wei). This involves meditative and moral practices. Important in this respect is the Taoist concept of De (?; virtue).

In all its uses, Tao is considered to have ineffable qualities that prevent it from being defined or expressed in words. It can, however, be known orexperienced, and its principles (which can be discerned by observing Nature) can be followed or practiced. Much of East Asian philosophical writing focuses on the value of adhering to the principles of Tao and the various consequences of failing to do so. In Confucianism and religious forms of Taoism these are often explicitly moral/ethical arguments about proper behavior, while Buddhism and more philosophical forms of Taoism usually refer to the natural and mercurial outcomes of action (comparable to karma). Tao is intrinsically related to the concepts yin and yang (pinyiny?nyáng), where every action creates counter-actions as unavoidable movements within manifestations of the Tao, and proper practice variously involves accepting, conforming to, or working with these natural developments.

The concept of Tao differs from conventional (western) ontology : it is an active and holistic conception of Nature, rather than a static, atomistic one. It is worth comparing to the original Logos of Heraclitus, c. 500 BC< The word "Dao" (?) has a variety of meanings in both ancient and modern Chinese language. Aside from its purely prosaic use to mean road, channel, path, doctrine, or similar,[1] the word has acquired a variety of differing and often confusing metaphorical, philosophical and religious uses. In most belief systems, Dao is used symbolically in its sense of 'way' as the 'right' or 'proper' way of existence, or in the context of ongoing practices of attainment or of the full coming into being, or the state of enlightenment or spiritual perfection that is the outcome of such practices.[2] Some scholars make sharp distinctions between moral or ethical usage of the word Dao that is prominent in Confucianism and religious Daoism and the more metaphysical usage of the term used in philosophical Daoism and most forms of Mahayana Buddhism;[3] others maintain that these are not separate usages or meanings, seeing them as mutually inclusive and compatible approaches to defining the concept.[4] The original use of the term was as a form of praxis rather than theory – a term used as a convention to refer to something that otherwise cannot be discussed in words – and early writings such as the Dao De Jing and the I Ching make pains to distinguish between conceptions of Dao (sometimes referred to as "named Dao") and the Dao itself (the "unnamed Dao"), which cannot be expressed or understood in language.[notes 1][notes 2][5] Liu Da asserts that Dao is properly understood as an experiential and evolving concept, and that there are not only cultural and religious differences in the interpretation of Dao, but personal differences that reflect the character of individual practitioners.[6]

Dao can be roughly thought of as the flow of the universe, or as some essence or pattern behind the natural world that keeps the universe balanced and ordered.[7] It is related to the idea of qi, the essential energy of action and existence. Dao is a non-dual concept – it is the greater whole from which all the individual elements of the universe derive. Keller considers it similar to the negative theology of Western scholars,[8] but Dao is rarely an object of direct worship, being treated more like the Hindu concepts of karma or dharma than as a divine object.[9] Dao is more commonly expressed in the relationship between wu (void or emptiness, in the sense of wuji) and yinyang (the natural dynamic balance between opposites), leading to its central principle of wu wei (non-action, or action without force).

Dao is usually described in terms of elements of nature, and in particular as similar to water. Like water it is undifferentiated, endlessly self-replenishing, soft and quiet but immensely powerful, and impassively generous.[10] Much of Daoist philosophy centers on the cyclical continuity of the natural world, and its contrast to the linear, goal-oriented actions of human beings.


The forms and variations of religious Daoism are incredibly diverse. They integrate a broad spectrum of academic, ritualistic, supernatural, devotional, literary, and folk practices with a multitude of results. Buddhism and Confucianism particularly affected the way many sects of Daoism framed, approached, and perceived the Dao. The multitudinous branches of religious Daoism accordingly regard the Dao, and interpret writings about it, in innumerable ways. Thus, outside of a few broad similarities, it is difficult to provide an accurate yet clear summary of their interpretation of Dao.[16]

A central tenet within most varieties of religious Daoism is that the Dao is ever-present, but must be manifested, cultivated, and/or perfected in order to be realized. It is the source of the universe and the seed of its primordial purity resides in all things. The manifestation of Dao is De, which rectifies and invigorates the world with the Dao's radiance.[14]

Alternatively, philosophical Daoism regards the Dao as a non-religious concept; it is not a deity to be worshiped, nor is it a mystical Absolute in the religious sense of the Hindu Brahman. Joseph Wu remarked of this conception of Dao, "Dao is not religiously available; nor is it even religiously relevant." The writings of Lao Tzu and Chang Tzu are tinged with esoteric tones and approach humanism and naturalism as paradoxes.[17] In contrast to the esotericism typically found in religious systems, the Dao is not transcendent to the self nor is mystical attainment an escape from the world in philosophical Daoism. The self steeped in Dao is the self grounded in its place within the natural universe. A person dwelling within the Dao excels in themselves and their activities.[18]

However, this distinction is complicated by hermeneutic (interpretive) difficulties in the categorization of Daoist schools, sects and movements.[19] Some scholars believe that there is no distinction between Daojia and Daojiao.[20] According to Kirkland, "most scholars who have seriously studied Daoism, both in Asia and the West, have finally abandoned the simplistic dichotomy of Dàoji? and Dàojiào, 'philosophical Daoism' and 'religious Daoism.'"

Buddhism first started to spread in China during the first century AD and was experiencing a golden age of growth and maturation by the fourth century AD. Hundreds of collections of Pali andSanskrit texts were translated into Chinese by Buddhist monks within a short period of time. Dhyana was translated as ch'an (and later as zen), giving Zen Buddhism its name. The use of Chinese concepts, such as Dao, that were close to Buddhist ideas and terms helped spread the religion and make it more amenable to the Chinese people. However, the differences between the Sanskrit and Chinese terminology lead to some initial misunderstandings and the eventual development of East Asian Buddhism as a distinct entity. As part of this process, many Chinese words introduced their rich semantic and philosophical associations into Buddhism, including the use of 'Dao' for central concepts and tenets of Buddhism.[23]

Pai-chang Huai-hai told a student who was grappling with difficult portions of suttas, "Take up words in order to manifest meaning and you'll obtain 'meaning'. Cut off words and meaning is emptiness. Emptiness is the Dao. The Dao is cutting off words and speech." Ch'an (Zen) Buddhists regard the Dao as synonymous with both the Buddhist Path (marga) and the results of it; theEightfold Path and Buddhist enlightenment (satori). Pai-chang's statement plays upon this usage in the context of the fluid and varied Chinese usage of 'Dao'. Words and meaning are used to refer to rituals and practice. The 'emptiness' refers to the Buddhist concept of sunyata. Finding the Dao and Buddha-nature is not simply a matter of formulations, but an active response to the Four Noble Truths that cannot be fully expressed or conveyed in words and concrete associations. The use of 'Dao' in this context refers to the literal 'way' of Buddhism, the return to the universal source, dharma, proper meditation, and nirvana, among other associations. 'Dao' is commonly used in this fashion by Chinese Buddhists, heavy with associations and nuanced meanings.


Noted Christian author C.S. Lewis used the word Tao to describe "the doctrine of objective value, the belief that certain attitudes are really true, and others really false, the kind of thing the universe is and the kind of things we are."[25] He asserted that every religion and philosophy contains foundations of universal ethics as an attempt to line up with the Tao—the way mankind was designed to be. In Lewis' thinking, God created the Tao and fully displayed it through the person of Jesus Christ. Christianity, then, would be the path that lines human beings up with the Tao most effectively.

Also the Greek word used in N.T. for the Way is ???? (hodos). Here the Way refers to the path of righteousness and salvation as revealed through Christ.

In Chinese translations of the New Testament, ????? (logos) is translated with the Chinese word dao (?) (eg John 1:1), indicating that the translators considered the concept of Tao to be somewhat equivalent to logos in Greek philosophy.


?

 (radical 60 +12, 15 strokescangjie input 竹人十田心 (HOJWP), four-corner 24236)<

  1. Noun:ethicsmoralitypower[1]virtue

«Virtue«, translated from Chinese de (), is also an important concept in Chinese philosophy, particularly DaoismDe (ChinesepinyinWade–Gileste) originally meant normative «virtue» in the sense of «personal character; inner strength; integrity», but semantically changed to moral «virtue; kindness; morality». Note the semantic parallel for English virtue, with an archaic meaning of «inner potency; divine power» (as in «by virtue of») and a modern one of «moral excellence; goodness».

Confucian moral manifestations of «virtue» include ren («humanity«), xiao («filial piety«), and li («proper behavior, performance of rituals«). In Confucianism, the notion of ren – according to Simon Leys – means «humanity» and «goodness». Ren originally had the archaic meaning in the Confucian Book of Poems of «virility», but progressively took on shades of ethical meaning. (On the origins and transformations of this concept see Lin Yu-sheng: «The evolution of the pre-Confucian meaning of jen and the Confucian concept of moral autonomy,» Monumenta Serica, vol.31, 1974-75.)

The Daoist concept of De, however, is more subtle, pertaining to the «virtue» or ability that an individual realizes by following the Dao («the Way»). One important normative value in much of Chinese thinking is that one’s social status should result from the amount of virtue that one demonstrates, rather than from one’s birth. In the AnalectsConfucius explains de as follows: «He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it.»[



? (radical 60 ?+12, 15 strokescangjie input ????? (HOJWP), four-corner 24236)<
  1. Noun:ethicsmoralitypower[1]virtue

"Virtue", translated from Chinese de (?), is also an important concept in Chinese philosophy, particularly DaoismDe (Chinese?pinyinWade–Gileste) originally meant normative "virtue" in the sense of "personal character; inner strength; integrity", but semantically changed to moral "virtue; kindness; morality". Note the semantic parallel for English virtue, with an archaic meaning of "inner potency; divine power" (as in "by virtue of") and a modern one of "moral excellence; goodness".

Confucian moral manifestations of "virtue" include ren ("humanity"), xiao ("filial piety"), and li ("proper behavior, performance of rituals"). In Confucianism, the notion of ren - according to Simon Leys - means "humanity" and "goodness". Ren originally had the archaic meaning in the Confucian Book of Poems of "virility", but progressively took on shades of ethical meaning. (On the origins and transformations of this concept see Lin Yu-sheng: "The evolution of the pre-Confucian meaning of jen and the Confucian concept of moral autonomy," Monumenta Serica, vol.31, 1974-75.)

The Daoist concept of De, however, is more subtle, pertaining to the "virtue" or ability that an individual realizes by following the Dao ("the Way"). One important normative value in much of Chinese thinking is that one's social status should result from the amount of virtue that one demonstrates, rather than from one's birth. In the AnalectsConfucius explains de as follows: "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."[

??

Kaizen (改善, «cambio a mejor» o «mejora» en japonés; el uso común de su traducción al castellano es «mejora continua» o «mejoramiento continuo»)

En su contexto este artículo trata de Kaizen como una estrategia o metodología de calidad en la empresa y en el trabajo, tanto individual como colectivo. Kaizen es hoy una palabra muy relevante en varios idiomas, ya que se trata de la filosofía asociada al sistema de producción Toyota, empresa fabricante de vehículos de origen japonés.

Durante los años 1950, en Japón, la ocupación de las fuerzas militares estadounidenses trajo consigo expertos en métodos estadísticos de Control de calidad de procesos que estaban familiarizados con los programas de entrenamiento denominados TWI (Training Within Industry) cuyo propósito era proveer servicios de consultoría a las industrias relacionadas con la Guerra.

Los programas TWI durante la posguerra se convirtieron en instrucción a la industria civil japonesa, en lo referente a métodos de trabajo (control estadístico de procesos). Estos conocimientos metodológicos los impartieron W. Edwards Deming y Joseph M. Juran; y fueron muy fácilmente asimilados por los japoneses. Es así como se encontraron la inteligencia emocional de los orientales (la milenaria filosofía de superación), y la inteligencia racional de los occidentales y dieron lugar a lo que ahora se conoce como la estrategia de mejora de la calidad Kaizen. La aplicación de esta estrategia a su industria llevó al país a estar entre las principales economías del mundo.

Este concepto filosófico, elemento del acervo cultural del Japón, se lo lleva a la práctica y no sólo tiene por objeto que tanto la compañía como las personas que trabajan en ella se encuentren bien hoy, sino que la empresa es impulsada con herramientas organizativas para buscar siempre mejores resultados.

Partiendo del principio de que el tiempo es el mejor indicador aislado de competitividad, actúa en grado óptimo al reconocer y eliminar desperdicios en la empresa, sea en procesos productivos ya existentes o en fase de proyecto, de productos nuevos, del mantenimiento de máquinas o incluso de procedimientos administrativos.

Su metodología trae consigo resultados concretos, tanto cualitativos como cuantitativos, en un lapso relativamente corto y a un bajo costo (por lo tanto, aumenta el beneficio) apoyado en la sinergia que genera el trabajo en equipo de la estructura formada para alcanzar las metas establecidas por la dirección de la compañía.

Fue Kaoru Ishikawa el que retomó este concepto para definir como la mejora continua o Kaizen, se puede aplicar a los procesos, siempre y cuando se conozcan todas las variables del proceso.

Los caracteres originales para esta palabra son 改善 (pronunciado kaizen en japonés; gǎishàn en chino), donde:

改 (kai en japonés, gǎi en chino) significa ‘cambio’ o ‘la acción de enmendar’.
善 (zen en japonés, shàn en chino) significa ‘bueno’ o ‘beneficioso’.


Kaizen (改善?), Japanese for «improvement», or «change for the better» refers to philosophy or practices that focus upon continuous improvement of processes in manufacturing, engineering, and business management. It has been applied in healthcare,[1] psychotherapy,[2] life-coaching, government, banking, and other industries. When used in the business sense and applied to the workplace, kaizen refers to activities that continually improve all functions, and involves all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers. It also applies to processes, such as purchasing and logistics, that cross organizational boundaries into the supply chain.[3] By improving standardized activities and processes, kaizen aims to eliminate waste (see lean manufacturing). Kaizen was first implemented in several Japanese businesses after the Second World War, influenced in part by American business and quality management teachers who visited the country. It has since spread throughout the world[4] and is now being implemented in many other venues besides just business and productivity.

The Japanese word «kaizen» simply means «improvement,» with no inherent meaning of either «continuous» or «philosophy» in Japanese dictionaries or in everyday use. The word refers to any improvement, one-time or continuous, large or small, in the same sense as the mundane English word «improvement».[5] However, given the common practice in Japan of labeling industrial or business improvement techniques with the word «kaizen» (for lack of a specific Japanese word meaning «continuous improvement» or «philosophy of improvement»), especially in the case of oft-emulated practices spearheaded by Toyota, the word Kaizen in English is typically applied to measures for implementing continuous improvement, or even taken to mean a «Japanese philosophy» thereof. The discussion below focuses on such interpretations of the word, as frequently used in the context of modern management discussions.

Kaizen is a daily process, the purpose of which goes beyond simple productivity improvement. It is also a process that, when done correctly, humanizes the workplace, eliminates overly hard work («muri»), and teaches people how to perform experiments on their work using the scientific method and how to learn to spot and eliminate waste in business processes. In all, the process suggests a humanized approach to workers and to increasing productivity: «The idea is to nurture the company’s human resources as much as it is to praise and encourage participation in kaizen activities.»[6] Successful implementation requires «the participation of workers in the improvement.»[7] People at all levels of an organization participate in kaizen, from the CEO down to janitorial staff, as well as external stakeholders when applicable. The format for kaizen can be individual, suggestion system, small group, or large group. At Toyota, it is usually a local improvement within a workstation or local area and involves a small group in improving their own work environment and productivity. This group is often guided through the kaizen process by a line supervisor; sometimes this is the line supervisor’s key role. Kaizen on a broad, cross-departmental scale in companies, generates total quality management, and frees human efforts through improving productivity using machines and computing power.[citation needed]

While kaizen (at Toyota) usually delivers small improvements, the culture of continual aligned small improvements and standardization yields large results in the form of compound productivity improvement. This philosophy differs from the «command and control» improvement programs of the mid-twentieth century. Kaizen methodology includes making changes and monitoring results, then adjusting. Large-scale pre-planning and extensive project scheduling are replaced by smaller experiments, which can be rapidly adapted as new improvements are suggested.[citation needed]

In modern usage, it is designed to address a particular issue over the course of a week and is referred to as a «kaizen blitz» or «kaizen event». These are limited in scope, and issues that arise from them are typically used in later blitzes.

After WWII, to help restore Japan, American occupation forces brought in American experts to help with the rebuilding of Japanese industry while The Civil Communications Section (CCS) developed a Management Training Program that taught statistical control methods as part of the overall material. This course was developed and taught by Homer Sarasohn and Charles Protzman in 1949-50. Sarasohn recommended W. Edwards Deming for further training in Statistical Methods.

The Economic and Scientific Section (ESS) group was also tasked with improving Japanese management skills and Edgar McVoy was instrumental in bringing Lowell Mellen to Japan to properly install the Training Within Industry (TWI) programs in 1951.

Prior to the arrival of Mellen in 1951, the ESS group had a training film to introduce the three TWI «J» programs (Job Instruction, Job Methods and Job Relations)—the film was titled «Improvement in 4 Steps» (Kaizen eno Yon Dankai). Thus the original introduction of «Kaizen» to Japan. For the pioneering, introduction, and implementation of Kaizen in Japan, the Emperor of Japan awarded the 2nd Order Medal of the Sacred Treasure to Dr. Deming in 1960. Consequently, the Union of Japanese Science and Engineering (JUSE) instituted the annual Deming Prizes for achievement in quality and dependability of products.

On October 18, 1989, JUSE awarded the Deming Prize to Florida Power & Light Co. (FPL), based in the US, for its exceptional accomplishments in process and quality control management. FPL was the first company outside Japan to win the Deming Prize.

The Toyota Production System is known for kaizen, where all line personnel are expected to stop their moving production line in case of any abnormality and, along with their supervisor, suggest an improvement to resolve the abnormality which may initiate a kaizen.

The cycle of kaizen activity can be defined as:

Standardize an operation and activities.
Measure the operation (find cycle time and amount of in-process inventory)
Gauge measurements against requirements
Innovate to meet requirements and increase productivity
Standardize the new, improved operations
Continue cycle ad infinitum

This is also known as the Shewhart cycle, Deming cycle, or PDCA. Other techniques used in conjunction with PDCA include 5 Whys, which is a form of root cause analysis in which the user asks «why» to a problem and finds an answer five successive times. There are normally a series of root causes stemming from one problem,[10] and they can be visualized using fishbone diagrams or tables.

Masaaki Imai made the term famous in his book Kaizen: The Key to Japan’s Competitive Success.[11]

Apart from business applications of the method, both Anthony Robbins[citation needed] and Robert Maurer have popularized the kaizen principles into personal development principles. In the book One Small Step Can Change Your life: The Kaizen Way, and CD set The Kaizen Way to Success, Maurer looks at how individuals can take a kaizen approach in both their personal and professional lives.[12][13]

In the Toyota Way Fieldbook, Liker and Meier discuss the kaizen blitz and kaizen burst (or kaizen event) approaches to continuous improvement. A kaizen blitz, or rapid improvement, is a focused activity on a particular process or activity. The basic concept is to identify and quickly remove waste. Another approach is that of the kaizen burst, a specific kaizen activity on a particular process in the value stream

Kaizen (??, "cambio a mejor" o "mejora" en japonés; el uso común de su traducción al castellano es "mejora continua" o "mejoramiento continuo")

En su contexto este artículo trata de Kaizen como una estrategia o metodología de calidad en la empresa y en el trabajo, tanto individual como colectivo. Kaizen es hoy una palabra muy relevante en varios idiomas, ya que se trata de la filosofía asociada al sistema de producción Toyota, empresa fabricante de vehículos de origen japonés.

Durante los años 1950, en Japón, la ocupación de las fuerzas militares estadounidenses trajo consigo expertos en métodos estadísticos de Control de calidad de procesos que estaban familiarizados con los programas de entrenamiento denominados TWI (Training Within Industry) cuyo propósito era proveer servicios de consultoría a las industrias relacionadas con la Guerra.

Los programas TWI durante la posguerra se convirtieron en instrucción a la industria civil japonesa, en lo referente a métodos de trabajo (control estadístico de procesos). Estos conocimientos metodológicos los impartieron W. Edwards Deming y Joseph M. Juran; y fueron muy fácilmente asimilados por los japoneses. Es así como se encontraron la inteligencia emocional de los orientales (la milenaria filosofía de superación), y la inteligencia racional de los occidentales y dieron lugar a lo que ahora se conoce como la estrategia de mejora de la calidad Kaizen. La aplicación de esta estrategia a su industria llevó al país a estar entre las principales economías del mundo.

Este concepto filosófico, elemento del acervo cultural del Japón, se lo lleva a la práctica y no sólo tiene por objeto que tanto la compañía como las personas que trabajan en ella se encuentren bien hoy, sino que la empresa es impulsada con herramientas organizativas para buscar siempre mejores resultados.

Partiendo del principio de que el tiempo es el mejor indicador aislado de competitividad, actúa en grado óptimo al reconocer y eliminar desperdicios en la empresa, sea en procesos productivos ya existentes o en fase de proyecto, de productos nuevos, del mantenimiento de máquinas o incluso de procedimientos administrativos.

Su metodología trae consigo resultados concretos, tanto cualitativos como cuantitativos, en un lapso relativamente corto y a un bajo costo (por lo tanto, aumenta el beneficio) apoyado en la sinergia que genera el trabajo en equipo de la estructura formada para alcanzar las metas establecidas por la dirección de la compañía.

Fue Kaoru Ishikawa el que retomó este concepto para definir como la mejora continua o Kaizen, se puede aplicar a los procesos, siempre y cuando se conozcan todas las variables del proceso.

Los caracteres originales para esta palabra son ?? (pronunciado kaizen en japonés; g?ishàn en chino), donde:

? (kai en japonés, g?i en chino) significa 'cambio' o 'la acción de enmendar'.
? (zen en japonés, shàn en chino) significa 'bueno' o 'beneficioso'.



Kaizen (???), Japanese for "improvement", or "change for the better" refers to philosophy or practices that focus upon continuous improvement of processes in manufacturing, engineering, and business management. It has been applied in healthcare,[1] psychotherapy,[2] life-coaching, government, banking, and other industries. When used in the business sense and applied to the workplace, kaizen refers to activities that continually improve all functions, and involves all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers. It also applies to processes, such as purchasing and logistics, that cross organizational boundaries into the supply chain.[3] By improving standardized activities and processes, kaizen aims to eliminate waste (see lean manufacturing). Kaizen was first implemented in several Japanese businesses after the Second World War, influenced in part by American business and quality management teachers who visited the country. It has since spread throughout the world[4] and is now being implemented in many other venues besides just business and productivity.

The Japanese word "kaizen" simply means "improvement," with no inherent meaning of either "continuous" or "philosophy" in Japanese dictionaries or in everyday use. The word refers to any improvement, one-time or continuous, large or small, in the same sense as the mundane English word "improvement".[5] However, given the common practice in Japan of labeling industrial or business improvement techniques with the word "kaizen" (for lack of a specific Japanese word meaning "continuous improvement" or "philosophy of improvement"), especially in the case of oft-emulated practices spearheaded by Toyota, the word Kaizen in English is typically applied to measures for implementing continuous improvement, or even taken to mean a "Japanese philosophy" thereof. The discussion below focuses on such interpretations of the word, as frequently used in the context of modern management discussions.

Kaizen is a daily process, the purpose of which goes beyond simple productivity improvement. It is also a process that, when done correctly, humanizes the workplace, eliminates overly hard work ("muri"), and teaches people how to perform experiments on their work using the scientific method and how to learn to spot and eliminate waste in business processes. In all, the process suggests a humanized approach to workers and to increasing productivity: "The idea is to nurture the company's human resources as much as it is to praise and encourage participation in kaizen activities."[6] Successful implementation requires "the participation of workers in the improvement."[7] People at all levels of an organization participate in kaizen, from the CEO down to janitorial staff, as well as external stakeholders when applicable. The format for kaizen can be individual, suggestion system, small group, or large group. At Toyota, it is usually a local improvement within a workstation or local area and involves a small group in improving their own work environment and productivity. This group is often guided through the kaizen process by a line supervisor; sometimes this is the line supervisor's key role. Kaizen on a broad, cross-departmental scale in companies, generates total quality management, and frees human efforts through improving productivity using machines and computing power.[citation needed]

While kaizen (at Toyota) usually delivers small improvements, the culture of continual aligned small improvements and standardization yields large results in the form of compound productivity improvement. This philosophy differs from the "command and control" improvement programs of the mid-twentieth century. Kaizen methodology includes making changes and monitoring results, then adjusting. Large-scale pre-planning and extensive project scheduling are replaced by smaller experiments, which can be rapidly adapted as new improvements are suggested.[citation needed]

In modern usage, it is designed to address a particular issue over the course of a week and is referred to as a "kaizen blitz" or "kaizen event". These are limited in scope, and issues that arise from them are typically used in later blitzes.

After WWII, to help restore Japan, American occupation forces brought in American experts to help with the rebuilding of Japanese industry while The Civil Communications Section (CCS) developed a Management Training Program that taught statistical control methods as part of the overall material. This course was developed and taught by Homer Sarasohn and Charles Protzman in 1949-50. Sarasohn recommended W. Edwards Deming for further training in Statistical Methods.

The Economic and Scientific Section (ESS) group was also tasked with improving Japanese management skills and Edgar McVoy was instrumental in bringing Lowell Mellen to Japan to properly install the Training Within Industry (TWI) programs in 1951.

Prior to the arrival of Mellen in 1951, the ESS group had a training film to introduce the three TWI "J" programs (Job Instruction, Job Methods and Job Relations)---the film was titled "Improvement in 4 Steps" (Kaizen eno Yon Dankai). Thus the original introduction of "Kaizen" to Japan. For the pioneering, introduction, and implementation of Kaizen in Japan, the Emperor of Japan awarded the 2nd Order Medal of the Sacred Treasure to Dr. Deming in 1960. Consequently, the Union of Japanese Science and Engineering (JUSE) instituted the annual Deming Prizes for achievement in quality and dependability of products.

On October 18, 1989, JUSE awarded the Deming Prize to Florida Power & Light Co. (FPL), based in the US, for its exceptional accomplishments in process and quality control management. FPL was the first company outside Japan to win the Deming Prize.


The Toyota Production System is known for kaizen, where all line personnel are expected to stop their moving production line in case of any abnormality and, along with their supervisor, suggest an improvement to resolve the abnormality which may initiate a kaizen.

The cycle of kaizen activity can be defined as:

Standardize an operation and activities.
Measure the operation (find cycle time and amount of in-process inventory)
Gauge measurements against requirements
Innovate to meet requirements and increase productivity
Standardize the new, improved operations
Continue cycle ad infinitum

This is also known as the Shewhart cycle, Deming cycle, or PDCA. Other techniques used in conjunction with PDCA include 5 Whys, which is a form of root cause analysis in which the user asks "why" to a problem and finds an answer five successive times. There are normally a series of root causes stemming from one problem,[10] and they can be visualized using fishbone diagrams or tables.

Masaaki Imai made the term famous in his book Kaizen: The Key to Japan's Competitive Success.[11]

Apart from business applications of the method, both Anthony Robbins[citation needed] and Robert Maurer have popularized the kaizen principles into personal development principles. In the book One Small Step Can Change Your life: The Kaizen Way, and CD set The Kaizen Way to Success, Maurer looks at how individuals can take a kaizen approach in both their personal and professional lives.[12][13]

In the Toyota Way Fieldbook, Liker and Meier discuss the kaizen blitz and kaizen burst (or kaizen event) approaches to continuous improvement. A kaizen blitz, or rapid improvement, is a focused activity on a particular process or activity. The basic concept is to identify and quickly remove waste. Another approach is that of the kaizen burst, a specific kaizen activity on a particular process in the value stream




?

A top line representing the level above a man with outstretched arms (大).

天 (radical 37 大+1, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一大 (MK), four-corner 10430, composition ⿱一大)
sky, heaven, celestial
god, godly, Deva
day
Note: The top line can be either longer or shorter than the arms.

Descendants

天 (hiragana てん, romaji ten):
heaven; the sky
Buddhist term, literally meaning: «heaven», referring to one of the six realms of reincarnation in Buddhist cosmology.

On: てん (ten)
Kun: あめ (ame), そら (sora)

tian, ( Chinese: “heaven” or “sky”) Wade-Giles romanization t’ien, in indigenous Chinese religion, the supreme power reigning over lesser gods and human beings. The term tian may refer to a deity, to impersonal nature, or to both.

As a god, tian is sometimes perceived to be an impersonal power in contrast to Shangdi (“Supreme Ruler”), but the two are closely identified and the terms frequently used synonymously. Evidence suggests that tian originally referred to the sky while Shangdi referred to the Supreme Ancestor who resided there. The first mention of tian seems to have occurred early in the Zhou dynasty (1046–256 bce), and it is thought that tian assimilated Shangdi, the supreme god of the preceding Shang dynasty (c. mid-16th century–mid-11th century bce). The importance of both tian and Shangdi to the ancient Chinese lay in their assumed influence over the fertility of the clan and its crops; sacrifices were offered to these powers solely by the king and, later, by the emperor.

Chinese rulers were traditionally referred to as Son of Heaven (tianzi), and their authority was believed to emanate from tian. Beginning in the Zhou dynasty, sovereignty was explained by the concept of the mandate of heaven (tianming). This was a grant of authority that depended not on divine right but on virtue. Indeed, this authority was revocable if the ruler did not attend to his virtue. Since the ruler’s virtue was believed to be reflected in the harmony of the empire, social and political unrest were traditionally considered signs that the mandate had been revoked and would soon be transferred to a succeeding dynasty.

Although in the early Zhou tian was conceived as an anthropomorphic, all-powerful deity, in later references tian is often no longer personalized. In this sense, tian can be likened to nature or to fate. In many cases, it is unclear which meaning of tian is being used. This ambiguity can be explained by the fact that Chinese philosophy was concerned less with defining the character of tian than with defining its relationship to humanity. Scholars generally agreed that tian was the source of moral law, but for centuries they debated whether tian responded to human pleas and rewarded and punished human actions or whether events merely followed the order and principles established by tian.

Shangdi, ( Chinese: “Lord-on-High”) Wade-Giles romanization Shang-ti, also called Di, ancient Chinese deity, the greatest ancestor and deity who controlled victory in battle, harvest, the fate of the capital, and the weather. He had no cultic following, however, and was probably considered too distant and inscrutable to be influenced by mortals. Shangdi was considered to be the supreme deity during the Shang dynasty (1600–1046 century bce), but during the Zhou dynasty (1046–256 bce) he was gradually supplanted by heaven (tian).

A top line representing the level above a man with outstretched arms (?).

? (radical 37 ?+1, 4 strokes, cangjie input ?? (MK), four-corner 10430, composition ???)
sky, heaven, celestial
god, godly, Deva
day
Note: The top line can be either longer or shorter than the arms.

Descendants
?
?

? (hiragana ??, romaji ten):
heaven; the sky
Buddhist term, literally meaning: "heaven", referring to one of the six realms of reincarnation in Buddhist cosmology.

On: ?? (ten)
Kun: ?? (ame), ?? (sora)

tian, ( Chinese: “heaven” or “sky”) Wade-Giles romanization t’ien, in indigenous Chinese religion, the supreme power reigning over lesser gods and human beings. The term tian may refer to a deity, to impersonal nature, or to both.

As a god, tian is sometimes perceived to be an impersonal power in contrast to Shangdi (“Supreme Ruler”), but the two are closely identified and the terms frequently used synonymously. Evidence suggests that tian originally referred to the sky while Shangdi referred to the Supreme Ancestor who resided there. The first mention of tian seems to have occurred early in the Zhou dynasty (1046–256 bce), and it is thought that tian assimilated Shangdi, the supreme god of the preceding Shang dynasty (c. mid-16th century–mid-11th century bce). The importance of both tian and Shangdi to the ancient Chinese lay in their assumed influence over the fertility of the clan and its crops; sacrifices were offered to these powers solely by the king and, later, by the emperor.

Chinese rulers were traditionally referred to as Son of Heaven (tianzi), and their authority was believed to emanate from tian. Beginning in the Zhou dynasty, sovereignty was explained by the concept of the mandate of heaven (tianming). This was a grant of authority that depended not on divine right but on virtue. Indeed, this authority was revocable if the ruler did not attend to his virtue. Since the ruler’s virtue was believed to be reflected in the harmony of the empire, social and political unrest were traditionally considered signs that the mandate had been revoked and would soon be transferred to a succeeding dynasty.

Although in the early Zhou tian was conceived as an anthropomorphic, all-powerful deity, in later references tian is often no longer personalized. In this sense, tian can be likened to nature or to fate. In many cases, it is unclear which meaning of tian is being used. This ambiguity can be explained by the fact that Chinese philosophy was concerned less with defining the character of tian than with defining its relationship to humanity. Scholars generally agreed that tian was the source of moral law, but for centuries they debated whether tian responded to human pleas and rewarded and punished human actions or whether events merely followed the order and principles established by tian.

Shangdi, ( Chinese: “Lord-on-High”) Wade-Giles romanization Shang-ti, also called Di, ancient Chinese deity, the greatest ancestor and deity who controlled victory in battle, harvest, the fate of the capital, and the weather. He had no cultic following, however, and was probably considered too distant and inscrutable to be influenced by mortals. Shangdi was considered to be the supreme deity during the Shang dynasty (1600–1046 century bce), but during the Zhou dynasty (1046–256 bce) he was gradually supplanted by heaven (tian).

??

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic 耳 (“ear”) + phonetic 呈

聖 (radical 128 耳+7, 13 strokes, cangjie input 尸口竹土 (SRHG), four-corner 16104)
holy, sacred, consecration
sage, saint, saintly

聖 (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)
holy, sacred

On: せい (sei), しょう (shō)
Kun: ひじり (hijiri), ひじり-だつ (hijiri-datsu), ひじ-る (hiji-ru), きよい (kiyoi)
Nanori: きよ (kiyo), きよし (kiyoshi)

Compound of 日 (hi, “day, light, the sun”) +‎ 知り (shiri, “knowing”). The shiri changes to jiri due to rendaku (連濁).

聖 (hiragana ひじり, romaji hijiri)
a very virtuous or godly person; a saint
(honorific) the emperor
a sage
an expert; someone distinguished in their field
a virtuous or high-ranking Buddhist priest or monk
a Buddhist priest or monk in general
a monk who has gone into seclusion for purposes of asceticism and spiritual enlightenment
a monk who has adopted an itinerant lifestyle for purposes of asceticism andspiritual enlightenment, supporting themselves by gathering alms and food contributions; by extension, an itinerant preacher monk from Mount Kōya
(euphemistic) alternate name for 清酒 (seishu) (“refined sake”)
a textile peddler (from the resemblance to itinerant 高野聖 (Kōya hijiri) Buddhist preachers who would carry everything on their backs)

(saint): 聖人 (せいじん, seijin)
(emperor): 天皇 (てんのう, tennō)
(sage): 仙人 (せんにん, sennnin)
(expert): 達人 (たつじん, tatsujin)
(virtuous monk): 聖僧 (せいそう, seisō), 大徳 (だいとく, daitoku)
(monk or priest in general): 僧侶 (そうりょう, sōryo), 法師 (ほうし, hōshi)
(ascetic in seclusion): 修験者 (しゅげんしゃ, shugensha)
(itinerant ascetic, textile peddler): 聖方 (ひじりかた, hijirikata)
(itinerant preacher monk): 高野聖 (こうやひじり, Kōya hijiri)

聖人 (traditional, Pinyin shèngrén, simplified 圣人)
a saint; a sage

人 (radical 9 人+0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 人 (O), four-corner 80000)
person
people
humanity
someone else

Pictogram (象形) – resembles the legs of a human being. The ancient version of this character depicted a man with arms and legs. Compare 大.

In print, 人 may have symmetric legs. However in handwriting, to distinguish from 入, the right leg will be shorter, the shape looking like a ʎ; in 入 the left leg is shorter.

Go’on: にん (nin)
Kan’on: じん (jin)
Kun: ひと (hito)
Nanori: じ (ji), と (to), ね (ne), ひこ (hiko), ふみ (fumi)

http://www.thetao.info/tao/big5.htm

Etymologically 聖 means the duty to listen and to repeat what’s learned.

According to R.B. Blakney, «Sheng Jen» refers to a wise man or sage. Wise men never describe themselves as wise. An anecdote describes an encounter between a traveler and a wise man. The traveler asks, «Are you a wise man?» The wise man replies, «If I say I am a wise man, then obviously I am not; but if I say I’m not a wise man, I am not telling the truth.» The term «wise man» may have been a euphemism for «king,» and poems describing the wise man may have been intended as open letters to political leaders.

Read more: The Main Ideas of the Tao Te Ching | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/info_8249619_main-ideas-tao-te-ching.html#ixzz2GpAEbpYj

Anticipate things that are difficult while they are easy, and do things that would become great while they are small. All difficult things in the world are sure to arise from a previous state in which they were easy, and all great things from one in which they were small.

六 十 三 章

為 無 為 , 事 無 事 , 味 無 味 。
大 小 多 少 , 報 怨 以 德 。
○ 難 於 易 , 為 大 於 細 。
天 下 難 事 , 必 作 於 易 ;
天 下 大 事 , 必 作 於 細 。
是 以 聖 人 終 不 為 大 , 故 能 成 其 大 。
夫 輕 諾 必 寡 信 , 多 易 必 多 難 , 是 以 聖 人 猶 難 之 , 故 終無 難 。


(Chorus)
Carry on my wayward son
There’ll be peace when you are done
Lay your weary head to rest
Don’t you cry no more

Once I rose above the noise and confusion
Just to get a glimpse beyond this illusion
I was soaring ever higher
But I flew too high

Though my eyes could see I still was a blind man
Though my mind could think I still was a mad man
I hear the voices when I’m dreaming
I can hear them say

(Chorus)

Masquerading as a man with a reason
My charade is the event of the season
And if I claim to be a wise man, well
It surely means that I don’t know

On a stormy sea of moving emotion
Tossed about, I’m like a ship on the ocean
I set a course for winds of fortune
But I hear the voices say

(Chorus)
No! (Instrumental break)

Carry on, you will always remember
Carry on, nothing equals the splendor
Now your life’s no longer empty
Surely heaven waits for you

Carry on my wayward son
There’ll be peace when you are done
Lay your weary head to rest
Don’t you cry, don’t you cry no more… no more

Phono-semantic compound (??): semantic ? (“ear”) + phonetic ?

? (radical 128 ?+7, 13 strokes, cangjie input ???? (SRHG), four-corner 16104)
holy, sacred, consecration
sage, saint, saintly

? (grade 6 “Ky?iku” kanji)
holy, sacred

On: ?? (sei), ??? (sh?)
Kun: ??? (hijiri), ???-?? (hijiri-datsu), ??-? (hiji-ru), ??? (kiyoi)
Nanori: ?? (kiyo), ??? (kiyoshi)

Compound of ? (hi, “day, light, the sun”) +? ?? (shiri, “knowing”). The shiri changes to jiri due to rendaku (??).

? (hiragana ???, romaji hijiri)
a very virtuous or godly person; a saint
(honorific) the emperor
a sage
an expert; someone distinguished in their field
a virtuous or high-ranking Buddhist priest or monk
a Buddhist priest or monk in general
a monk who has gone into seclusion for purposes of asceticism and spiritual enlightenment
a monk who has adopted an itinerant lifestyle for purposes of asceticism andspiritual enlightenment, supporting themselves by gathering alms and food contributions; by extension, an itinerant preacher monk from Mount K?ya
(euphemistic) alternate name for ?? (seishu) (“refined sake”)
a textile peddler (from the resemblance to itinerant ??? (K?ya hijiri) Buddhist preachers who would carry everything on their backs)

(saint): ?? (????, seijin)
(emperor): ?? (????, tenn?)
(sage): ?? (????, sennnin)
(expert): ?? (????, tatsujin)
(virtuous monk): ?? (????, seis?), ?? (????, daitoku)
(monk or priest in general): ?? (?????, s?ryo), ?? (???, h?shi)
(ascetic in seclusion): ??? (??????, shugensha)
(itinerant ascetic, textile peddler): ?? (?????, hijirikata)
(itinerant preacher monk): ??? (??????, K?ya hijiri)

?? (traditional, Pinyin shèngrén, simplified ??)
a saint; a sage

? (radical 9 ?+0, 2 strokes, cangjie input ? (O), four-corner 80000)
person
people
humanity
someone else

Pictogram (??) – resembles the legs of a human being. The ancient version of this character depicted a man with arms and legs. Compare ?.

In print, ? may have symmetric legs. However in handwriting, to distinguish from ?, the right leg will be shorter, the shape looking like a ?; in ? the left leg is shorter.

Go'on: ?? (nin)
Kan'on: ?? (jin)
Kun: ?? (hito)
Nanori: ? (ji), ? (to), ? (ne), ?? (hiko), ?? (fumi)

http://www.thetao.info/tao/big5.htm

Etymologically ? means the duty to listen and to repeat what's learned.

According to R.B. Blakney, "Sheng Jen" refers to a wise man or sage. Wise men never describe themselves as wise. An anecdote describes an encounter between a traveler and a wise man. The traveler asks, "Are you a wise man?" The wise man replies, "If I say I am a wise man, then obviously I am not; but if I say I'm not a wise man, I am not telling the truth." The term "wise man" may have been a euphemism for "king," and poems describing the wise man may have been intended as open letters to political leaders.

Read more: The Main Ideas of the Tao Te Ching | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/info_8249619_main-ideas-tao-te-ching.html#ixzz2GpAEbpYj

Anticipate things that are difficult while they are easy, and do things that would become great while they are small. All difficult things in the world are sure to arise from a previous state in which they were easy, and all great things from one in which they were small.

? ? ? ?

? ? ? , ? ? ? , ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ;
? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? ? , ? ?? ? ?




(Chorus)
Carry on my wayward son
There'll be peace when you are done
Lay your weary head to rest
Don't you cry no more

Once I rose above the noise and confusion
Just to get a glimpse beyond this illusion
I was soaring ever higher
But I flew too high

Though my eyes could see I still was a blind man
Though my mind could think I still was a mad man
I hear the voices when I'm dreaming
I can hear them say

(Chorus)

Masquerading as a man with a reason
My charade is the event of the season
And if I claim to be a wise man, well
It surely means that I don't know

On a stormy sea of moving emotion
Tossed about, I'm like a ship on the ocean
I set a course for winds of fortune
But I hear the voices say

(Chorus)
No! (Instrumental break)

Carry on, you will always remember
Carry on, nothing equals the splendor
Now your life's no longer empty
Surely heaven waits for you

Carry on my wayward son
There'll be peace when you are done
Lay your weary head to rest
Don't you cry, don’t you cry no more… no more

??

In Chinese, «wu ming» can mean «anonymous» (simplified Chinese: 无名; traditional Chinese: 無名; pinyin: wúmíng) or, with a different tone on the first syllable, «five people» (Chinese: 五名; pinyin: wǔ míng), the pun being part of the reason the collective adopted the name.[2] The name is meant both as a tribute to dissidents («Wu Ming» is a common byline among Chinese citizens demanding democracy and freedom of speech) and as a rejection of the celebrity-making machine which turns the author into a star. «Wu Ming» is also a reference to the third sentence in the Daodejing: «Nameless is Heaven’s and Earth’s origin» (simplified Chinese: 无名天地之始; traditional Chinese: 無名天地之始; pinyin: wúmíng tiāndì zhī shǐ).

Because the Way is unique, it cannot be described with names or words.

In Chinese, "wu ming" can mean "anonymous" (simplified Chinese: ??; traditional Chinese: ??; pinyin: wúmíng) or, with a different tone on the first syllable, "five people" (Chinese: ??; pinyin: w? míng), the pun being part of the reason the collective adopted the name.[2] The name is meant both as a tribute to dissidents ("Wu Ming" is a common byline among Chinese citizens demanding democracy and freedom of speech) and as a rejection of the celebrity-making machine which turns the author into a star. "Wu Ming" is also a reference to the third sentence in the Daodejing: "Nameless is Heaven's and Earth's origin" (simplified Chinese: ??????; traditional Chinese: ??????; pinyin: wúmíng ti?ndì zh? sh?).

Because the Way is unique, it cannot be described with names or words.

??

Ideogram (指事) 不 originated as a pictographic character which depicted the calyx of a flower. However, early inventors of the Chinese writing system found it difficult to find a pictograph that could represent the abstract concept of «negative,» and 不 probably sounded like the word «no» (Pinyin: bù or fǒu in modern Mandarin). As time passed, some elected to add a mouth to the bottom of the character (否) in order to distinguish it from the original word. The meaning for «no» also came to be associated with 不(calyx). A new character was eventually chosen to represent the original meaning (柎, Pinyin: fū).

不 (radical 1 一+3, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一火 (MF), four-corner 10900)
no, not
un-
negation prefix

Descendants

不 (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)
not, non-, un-

On: ふ (fu), ぶ (bu)
Kun: せず (sezu), にあらず (niarazu), いなや (inaya)

不 (hiragana ふ, romaji fu-)
un-, non-, in-
不 (hiragana ぶ, romaji bu-)
un-, non-, in-
bad, poor

恃 (radical 61 心+6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 心土木戈 (PGDI), four-corner 94041)
rely on, presume on, trust to

On: じ (ji), し (shi)
Kun: たのむ (tanomu)

To be independent. Carries the meaning of wu wei. The Wise Man performs his duty but does not attach himself to his accomplishments. He is therefore the absolute autocrat.

Ideogram (??) ? originated as a pictographic character which depicted the calyx of a flower. However, early inventors of the Chinese writing system found it difficult to find a pictograph that could represent the abstract concept of "negative," and ? probably sounded like the word "no" (Pinyin: bù or f?u in modern Mandarin). As time passed, some elected to add a mouth to the bottom of the character (?) in order to distinguish it from the original word. The meaning for "no" also came to be associated with ?(calyx). A new character was eventually chosen to represent the original meaning (?, Pinyin: f?).

? (radical 1 ?+3, 4 strokes, cangjie input ?? (MF), four-corner 10900)
no, not
un-
negation prefix

Descendants
?
?

? (grade 4 “Ky?iku” kanji)
not, non-, un-

On: ? (fu), ? (bu)
Kun: ?? (sezu), ???? (niarazu), ??? (inaya)

? (hiragana ?, romaji fu-)
un-, non-, in-
? (hiragana ?, romaji bu-)
un-, non-, in-
bad, poor

? (radical 61 ?+6, 9 strokes, cangjie input ???? (PGDI), four-corner 94041)
rely on, presume on, trust to

On: ? (ji), ? (shi)
Kun: ??? (tanomu)


To be independent. Carries the meaning of wu wei. The Wise Man performs his duty but does not attach himself to his accomplishments. He is therefore the absolute autocrat.

?

樸 (radical 75 木+12, 16 strokes, cangjie input 木廿金人 (DTCO), four-corner 42934)
simple, honest
plain
rough

On: ぼく (boku), はく (haku), ほく (hoku)
Kun: きじ (kiji), あらき (araki), すなお (sunao)

The Three Treasures or Three Jewels (Chinese: 三寶; pinyin: sānbǎo; Wade–Giles: san-pao) are basic virtues in Taoism. Although the Tao Te Ching originally used sanbao to mean «compassion», «frugality», and «humility», the term was later used to translate the Three Jewels (Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha) in Chinese Buddhism, and to mean the Three Treasures (jing, qi, and shen) in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Sanbao «three treasures» first occurs in Tao Te Ching chapter 67, which Lin Yutang (1948:292) says contains Laozi’s «most beautiful teachings»:

天下皆谓我道大,似不肖。夫唯大,故似不肖。若肖,久矣其细也夫!
我有三宝,持而保之。一曰慈,二曰俭,三曰不敢为天下先。
慈故能勇;俭故能广;不敢为天下先,故能成器长。
今舍慈且勇;舍俭且广;舍后且先;死矣!
夫慈以战则胜,以守则固。天将救之,以慈卫之。

Every one under heaven says that our Way is greatly like folly. But it is just because it is great, that it seems like folly. As for things that do not seem like folly — well, there can be no question about their smallness!
Here are my three treasures. Guard and keep them! The first is pity; the second, frugality; the third, refusal to be ‘foremost of all things under heaven’.
For only he that pities is truly able to be brave;
Only he that is frugal is able to be profuse.
Only he that refuses to be foremost of all things
Is truly able to become chief of all Ministers.
At present your bravery is not based on pity, nor your profusion on frugality, nor your vanguard on your rear; and this is death. But pity cannot fight without conquering or guard without saving. Heaven arms with pity those whom it would not see destroyed. (tr. Waley 1958:225)

Arthur Waley describes these Three Treasures as, «The three rules that formed the practical, political side of the author’s teaching (1) abstention from aggressive war and capital punishment, (2) absolute simplicity of living, (3) refusal to assert active authority.»

The first of the Three Treasures is ci (Chinese: 慈; pinyin: cí; Wade–Giles: tz’u; literally «compassion, tenderness, love, mercy, kindness, gentleness, benevolence»), which is also a Classical Chinese term for «mother» (with «tender love, nurturing » semantic associations). Tao Te Ching chapters 18 and 19 parallel ci («parental love») with xiao (孝 «filial love; filial piety»). Wing-tsit Chan (1963:219) believes «the first is the most important» of the Three Treasures, and compares ci with Confucianist ren (仁 «humaneness; benevolence»), which the Tao Te Ching (e.g., chapters 5 and 38) mocks.

The second is jian (Chinese: 儉; pinyin: jiǎn; Wade–Giles: chien; literally «frugality, moderation, economy, restraint, be sparing»), a practice that the Tao Te Ching (e.g., chapter 59) praises. Ellen M. Chen (1989:209) believes jian is «organically connected» with the Taoist metaphor pu (樸 «uncarved wood; simplicity»), and «stands for the economy of nature that does not waste anything. When applied to the moral life it stands for the simplicity of desire.»

The third treasure is a six-character phrase instead of a single word: Bugan wei tianxia xian 不敢為天下先 «not dare to be first/ahead in the world». Chen notes that

The third treasure, daring not be at the world’s front, is the Taoist way to avoid premature death. To be at the world’s front is to expose oneself, to render oneself vulnerable to the world’s destructive forces, while to remain behind and to be humble is to allow oneself time to fully ripen and bear fruit. This is a treasure whose secret spring is the fear of losing one’s life before one’s time. This fear of death, out of a love for life, is indeed the key to Taoist wisdom. (1989:209)

In the Mawangdui Silk Texts version of the Tao Te Ching, this traditional «Three Treasures» chapter 67 is chapter 32, following the traditional last chapter (81, 31). Based upon this early silk manuscript, Robert G. Henricks (1989:160) concludes that «Chapters 67, 68, and 69 should be read together as a unit.» Besides some graphic variants and phonetic loan characters, like ci (兹 «mat, this») for ci (慈 «compassion, love», clarified with the «heart radical» 心), the most significant difference with the received text is the addition of heng (恆, «constantly, always») with «I constantly have three …» (我恆有三) instead of «I have three …» (我有三).

? (radical 75 ?+12, 16 strokes, cangjie input ???? (DTCO), four-corner 42934)
simple, honest
plain
rough

On: ?? (boku), ?? (haku), ?? (hoku)
Kun: ?? (kiji), ??? (araki), ??? (sunao)

The Three Treasures or Three Jewels (Chinese: ??; pinyin: s?nb?o; Wade–Giles: san-pao) are basic virtues in Taoism. Although the Tao Te Ching originally used sanbao to mean "compassion", "frugality", and "humility", the term was later used to translate the Three Jewels (Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha) in Chinese Buddhism, and to mean the Three Treasures (jing, qi, and shen) in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Sanbao "three treasures" first occurs in Tao Te Ching chapter 67, which Lin Yutang (1948:292) says contains Laozi's "most beautiful teachings":
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Every one under heaven says that our Way is greatly like folly. But it is just because it is great, that it seems like folly. As for things that do not seem like folly — well, there can be no question about their smallness!
Here are my three treasures. Guard and keep them! The first is pity; the second, frugality; the third, refusal to be 'foremost of all things under heaven'.
For only he that pities is truly able to be brave;
Only he that is frugal is able to be profuse.
Only he that refuses to be foremost of all things
Is truly able to become chief of all Ministers.
At present your bravery is not based on pity, nor your profusion on frugality, nor your vanguard on your rear; and this is death. But pity cannot fight without conquering or guard without saving. Heaven arms with pity those whom it would not see destroyed. (tr. Waley 1958:225)
Arthur Waley describes these Three Treasures as, "The three rules that formed the practical, political side of the author's teaching (1) abstention from aggressive war and capital punishment, (2) absolute simplicity of living, (3) refusal to assert active authority."

The first of the Three Treasures is ci (Chinese: ?; pinyin: cí; Wade–Giles: tz'u; literally "compassion, tenderness, love, mercy, kindness, gentleness, benevolence"), which is also a Classical Chinese term for "mother" (with "tender love, nurturing " semantic associations). Tao Te Ching chapters 18 and 19 parallel ci ("parental love") with xiao (? "filial love; filial piety"). Wing-tsit Chan (1963:219) believes "the first is the most important" of the Three Treasures, and compares ci with Confucianist ren (? "humaneness; benevolence"), which the Tao Te Ching (e.g., chapters 5 and 38) mocks.

The second is jian (Chinese: ?; pinyin: ji?n; Wade–Giles: chien; literally "frugality, moderation, economy, restraint, be sparing"), a practice that the Tao Te Ching (e.g., chapter 59) praises. Ellen M. Chen (1989:209) believes jian is "organically connected" with the Taoist metaphor pu (? "uncarved wood; simplicity"), and "stands for the economy of nature that does not waste anything. When applied to the moral life it stands for the simplicity of desire."

The third treasure is a six-character phrase instead of a single word: Bugan wei tianxia xian ?????? "not dare to be first/ahead in the world". Chen notes that
The third treasure, daring not be at the world's front, is the Taoist way to avoid premature death. To be at the world's front is to expose oneself, to render oneself vulnerable to the world's destructive forces, while to remain behind and to be humble is to allow oneself time to fully ripen and bear fruit. This is a treasure whose secret spring is the fear of losing one's life before one's time. This fear of death, out of a love for life, is indeed the key to Taoist wisdom. (1989:209)
In the Mawangdui Silk Texts version of the Tao Te Ching, this traditional "Three Treasures" chapter 67 is chapter 32, following the traditional last chapter (81, 31). Based upon this early silk manuscript, Robert G. Henricks (1989:160) concludes that "Chapters 67, 68, and 69 should be read together as a unit." Besides some graphic variants and phonetic loan characters, like ci (? "mat, this") for ci (? "compassion, love", clarified with the "heart radical" ?), the most significant difference with the received text is the addition of heng (?, "constantly, always") with "I constantly have three …" (????) instead of "I have three …" (???).