China Uncensored

1 in 4 US Companies are leaving China. That’s according to the latest survey by the American Chamber of Commerce in China. Why? Is it pollution, IP theft, corruption, or a slowing economy? Published on Nov 16, 2015 Is the … Continue reading


1 in 4 US Companies are leaving China. That’s according to the latest survey by the American Chamber of Commerce in China. Why? Is it pollution, IP theft, corruption, or a slowing economy?

Published on Nov 16, 2015
Is the world’s largest economy really all it’s cracked up to be? The Chinese Communist Party likes to brag it’s an economic powerhouse with GDP and growth the rest of the world envies. But it turns out, China’s economy really isn’t what you think. Watch this episode of China Uncensored to find out why!

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Hun (Chinese: 魂; pinyin: hún; Wade–Giles: hun; literally “cloud-soul”) and po (Chinese: 魄; pinyin: pò; Wade–Giles: p’o; literally “white-soul”) are types of souls in Chinese philosophy and religion. Within this ancient soul dualism tradition, every living human has both a … Continue reading

Hun (Chinese: ?; pinyin: hún; Wade–Giles: hun; literally “cloud-soul”) and po (Chinese: ?; pinyin: pò; Wade–Giles: p’o; literally “white-soul”) are types of souls in Chinese philosophy and religion. Within this ancient soul dualism tradition, every living human has both a hun spiritual, ethereal, yang soul which leaves the body after death, and also a po corporeal, substantive, yin soul which remains with the corpse of the deceased. Some controversy exists over the number of souls in a person; for instance, one of the traditions within Daoism proposes a soul structure of sanhunqipo ????; that is, “three hun and seven po”. The historian Yü Ying-shih describes hun and po as “two pivotal concepts that have been, and remain today, the key to understanding Chinese views of the human soul and the afterlife.”

The Chinese characters ? and ? for hun and po typify the most common character classification of “radical-phonetic” or “phono-semantic” graphs, which combine a “radical” or “signific” (recurring graphic elements that roughly provide semantic information) with a “phonetic” (suggesting ancient pronunciation). Hun ? (or ?) and po ? have the “ghost radical” gui ? “ghost; devil” and phonetics of yun ? “cloud; cloudy” and bai ? “white; clear; pure”.
Besides the common meaning of “a soul”, po ? was a variant Chinese character for po ? “a lunar phase” and po ? “dregs”. The Shujing “Book of History” used po ? as a graphic variant for po ? “dark aspect of the moon” – this character usually means ba ? “overlord; hegemon”. For example, “On the third month, when (the growth phase, ??) of the moon began to wane, the duke of Chow [i.e., Duke of Zhou] commenced the foundations, and proceeded to build the new great city of L?” (tr. Legge 1865:434). The Zhuangzi “[Writings of] Master Zhuang” wrote zaopo ?? (lit. “rotten dregs”) “worthless; unwanted; waste matter” with a po ? variant. A wheelwright sees Duke Huan of Qi with books by dead sages and says, “what you are reading there is nothing but the [??] chaff and dregs of the men of old!” (tr. Watson 1968:152).
In the history of Chinese writing, characters for po ?/? “lunar brightness” appeared before those for hun ? “soul; spirit”. The spiritual hun ? and po ? “dual souls” are first recorded in Warring States Period (475–221 BCE) Seal Script characters. The lunar po ? or ? “moon’s brightness” appears in both Zhou Dynasty (1045–256 BCE) Bronzeware script and Oracle bone script, but not in Shang Dynasty (ca. 1600–1046 BCE) oracle inscriptions. The earliest form of this “lunar brightness” character was found on a (ca. 11th century BCE) Zhou oracle bone inscription (Yü 1987:370).

The po soul’s etymology is better understood than the hun soul’s. Schuessler (2007:290, 417) reconstructs hun ? “‘spiritual soul’ which makes a human personality” and po ? “vegetative or animal soul … which accounts for growth and physiological functions” as Middle Chinese ?u?n and p?ak from Old Chinese *wûn and *phrâk.
The (ca. 80 CE) Baihu Tang ??? gave pseudo-etymologies for hun and po through Chinese character puns. It explains hun ? with zhuan ? “deliver; pass on; impart; spread” and yun ? “rue (used to keep insects out of books); to weed”, and po ? with po ? ” compel; force; coerce; urgent” and bai ? “white; bright”.
What do the words hun and [po] mean? Hun expresses the idea of continuous propagation ([zhuan] ?), unresting flight; it is the qi of the Lesser Yang, working in man in an external direction, and it governs the nature (or the instincts, [xing] ?). [Po] expresses the idea of a continuous pressing urge ([po] ?) on man; it is the [qi] of the Lesser Yin, and works in him, governing the emotions ([qing] ?). Hun is connected with the idea of weeding ([yun] ?), for with the instincts the evil weeds (in man’s nature) are removed. [Po] is connected with the idea of brightening ([bai] ?), for with the emotions the interior (of the personality) is governed. (tr. Needham and Lu 1974:87)
Etymologically, Schuessler says pò ? “animal soul” “is the same word as” pò ? “a lunar phase”. He cites the Zuozhuan (534 BCE, see below) using the lunar jishengpo ??? to mean “With the first development of a fetus grows the vegetative soul”.
Pò, the soul responsible for growth, is the same as pò the waxing and waning of the moon”. The meaning ‘soul’ has probably been transferred from the moon since men must have been aware of lunar phases long before they had developed theories on the soul. This is supported by the etymology ‘bright’, and by the inverted word order which can only have originated with meteorological expressions … The association with the moon explains perhaps why the pò soul is classified as Yin … in spite of the etymology ‘bright’ (which should be Yang), hun’s Yang classificiation may be due to the association with clouds and by extension sky, even though the word invokes ‘dark’. ‘Soul’ and ‘moon’ are related in other cultures, by cognation or convergence, as in Tibeto-Burman and Proto-Lolo–Burmese *s/?-la “moon; soul; spirit”, Written Tibetan cognates bla “soul” and zla “moon”, and Proto-Miao–Yao *bla “spirit; soul; moon”. (2007:417)
Lunar associations of po are evident in the Classical Chinese terms chanpo ?? “the moon” (with “toad; toad in the moon; moon”) and haopo ?? “moon; moonlight” (with “white; bright; luminous”).
The semantics of po ? “white soul” probably originated with ? “lunar whiteness”. Zhou bronze inscriptions commonly recorded lunar phases with the terms jishengpo ??? “after the brightness has grown” and jisipo ??? “after the brightness has died”, which Schuessler explains as “second quarter of the lunar month” and “last quarter of the lunar month”. Chinese scholars have variously interpreted these two terms as lunar quarters or fixed days, and (Shaughnessy 1992:136–145) Wang Guowei’s lunar-quarter analysis the most likely. Thus, jishengpo is from the 7th/8th to the 14th/15th days of the lunar month and jisipo is from the 23rd/24th to the end of the month. Yü (1987:370) translates them as “after the birth of the crescent” and “after the death of the crescent”. Etymologically, lunar and spiritual po < p?ak < *phrâk ? are cognate with bai < b?k < *brâk ? “white” (Matisoff 1980, Yü 1981, Carr 1985). According to Hu Shih (1946:30), po etymologically means “white, whiteness, and bright light”; “The primitive Chinese seem to have regarded the changing phases of the moon as periodic birth and death of its [po], its ‘white light’ or soul.” Yü (1981:83) says this ancient association between the po soul and the “growing light of the new moon is of tremendous importance to our understanding of certain myths related to the seventh day of the months.” Two celebrated examples in Chinese mythology are Xi Wangmu and Emperor Wu meeting on the seventh day of the first lunar month and The Princess and the Cowherd or Qixi Festival held on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month.
The etymology of hun < ?u?n < *wûn ? is comparatively less certain. Hu (1946:31) said, “The word hun is etymologically the same as the word yun, meaning “clouds.” The clouds float about and seem more free and more active than the cold, white-lighted portion of the growing and waning moon.” Schuessler cites two possibilities.
Since pò is the ‘bright’ soul, hún is the ‘dark’ soul and therefore cognate to yún ? ‘cloud’ [Carr 1985:62], perhaps in the sense of ‘shadowy’ because some believe that the hún soul will live after death in a world of shadows [Eberhard 1967:17]. (2007:290)

Based on Zuozhuan usages of hun and po in four historical contexts, Yü (1987:370) extrapolates that po was the original name for a human soul, and the dualistic conception of hun and po “began to gain currency in the middle of the sixth century” BCE.
Two earlier 6th century contexts used the po soul alone. Both describe Tian ? “heaven; god” duo ? “seizing; taking away” a person’s po, which resulted in a loss of mental faculties. In 593 BCE (Duke Xuan 15th year, tr. Legge 1872:329), after Zhao Tong ?? behaved inappropriately at the Zhou court, an observer predicted: “In less than ten years [Zhao Tong] will be sure to meet with great calamity. Heaven has taken his [?] wits away from him.” In 543 BCE (Duke Xiang 29th year, tr. Legge 1872:551), Boyou ?? from Zheng (state) acted irrationally, which an official interpreted as: “Heaven is destroying [Boyou], and has taken away his [?] reason.” Boyou’s political enemies subsequently arranged to take away his hereditary position and assassinate him.
Two later 6th century Zuozhuan contexts used po together with the hun soul. In 534 BCE (Duke Zhao 7th year, tr. Legge 1872:618), the ghost of Boyou ?? (above) was seeking revenge on his murderers, and terrifying the people of Zheng. The philosopher and statesman Zi Chan, realizing that Boyou’s loss of hereditary office had caused his spirit to be deprived of sacrifices, reinstated his son to the family position, and the ghost disappeared. When a friend asked Zi Chan to explain ghosts, he gave what Yu (1972:372) calls “the locus classicus on the subject of the human soul in the Chinese tradition.”
When a man is born, (we see) in his first movements what is called the [?] animal soul. [???] After this has been produced, it is developed into what is called the [?] spirit. By the use of things the subtle elements are multiplied, and the [??] soul and spirit become strong. They go on in this way, growing in etherealness and brightness, till they become (thoroughly) spiritual and intelligent. When an ordinary man or woman dies a violent death, the [??] soul and spirit are still able to keep hanging about men in the shape of an evil apparition; how much more might this be expected in the case of [Boyou]. … Belonging to a family which had held for three generations the handle of government, his use of things had been extensive, the subtle essences which he had imbibed had been many. His clan also was a great one, and his connexions [sic] were distinguished. Is it not entirely reasonable that, having died a violent death, he should be a [?] ghost?
Compare the translation of Needham and Lu (1974:86), who interpret this as an early Chinese discourse on embryology.
When a foetus begins to develop, it is (due to) the [po]. (When this soul has given it a form) then comes the Yang part, called hun. The essences ([qing] ?) of many things (wu ?) then give strength to these (two souls), and so they acquire the vitality, animation and good cheer (shuang ?) of these essences. Thus eventually there arises spirituality and intelligence (shen ming ??).”
In 516 BCE (Duke Zhao 20th year, tr. Legge 1872:708), the Duke of Song (state) and a guest named Shusun ?? were both seen weeping during a supposedly joyful gathering. Yue Qi ??, a Song court official, said: “This year both our ruler and [Shusun] are likely to die. I have heard that joy in the midst of grief and grief in the midst of joy are signs of a loss of [xin ?] mind. The essential vigor and brightness of the mind is what we call the [hun] and the [po]. When these leave it, how can the man continue long?” Hun and po souls, explains Yu (1987:371), “are regarded as the very essence of the mind, the source of knowledge and intelligence. Death is thought to follow inevitably when the hun and the p’o leave the body. We have reason to believe that around this time the idea of hun was still relatively new.”

?

 (radical 84 +6, 10 strokescangjie input 人弓火木 (ONFD), four-corner 80917)

  1. airgassteamvapor
  2. breathspirit


In traditional Chinese culture (also chi or ch’i) is an active principle forming part of any living thing.[1][2][3] Qi is frequently translated as “life energy”, “life force”, or “energy flow”. Qi is the central underlying principle in traditional Chinese medicine and martial arts. The literal translation of “qi” is “breath”, “air”, or “gas”.

Concepts similar to qi can be found in many cultures, for example, prana in Vedantic philosophy, mana in Hawaiian culture, lüng in Tibetan Buddhism, and Vital energy in Western philosophy. Some elements of qi can be understood in the term energy when used by writers and practitioners of various esoteric forms of spirituality and alternative medicine. Elements of the qi concept can also be found in Western popular culture, for example “The Force” in Star Wars.[4] Notions in the West of energeiaélan vital, or “vitalism” are purported to be similar.

The etymological explanation for the form of the qi logogram (or chi) in the traditional form  is “steam () rising from rice () as it cooks”. The earliest way of writing qi consisted of 3 wavy lines, used to represent one’s breath seen on a cold day. A later version, 气, identical to the present-day simplified character, is a stylized version of those same 3 lines. For some reason, early writers of Chinese found it desirable to substitute for 气 a cognate character that originally meant to feed other people in a social context such as providing food for guests.[citation needed] Appropriately, that character combined the 3-line qi character with the character for rice. So 气 plus 米 formed 氣, and that is the Traditional Chinese character still used today (the oracle bone character, the seal script character and the modern “school standard” or Kǎi shū characters in the box at the right show 3 stages of the evolution of this character).

References to concepts analogous to the qi taken to be the life-process or flow of energy that sustains living beings are found in many belief systems, especially in Asia. Philosophical conceptions of qi from the earliest records of Chinese philosophy (5th century BCE) correspond to Western notions of humours and the ancient Hindu yogic concept of prana (“life force” in Sanskrit). The earliest description of “force” in the current sense of vital energy is found in the Vedas of ancient India (circa 1500–1000 BCE),[7] and from the writings of the Chinese philosopher Mencius (4th century BCE). Historically, the Huangdi Neijing/”The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Medicine” (circa 2nd century BCE) is credited with first establishing the pathways through which qi circulates in the human body.[8][9]

Within the framework of Chinese thought, no notion may attain such a degree of abstraction from empirical data as to correspond perfectly to one of our modern universal concepts. Nevertheless, the term qi comes as close as possible to constituting a generic designation equivalent to our word “energy”. When Chinese thinkers are unwilling or unable to fix the quality of an energetic phenomenon, the character qi (氣) inevitably flows from their brushes.
—Manfred Porkert[10]

Traditional Chinesecharacter , also used in Korean hanja. In Japanese kanji, this character was used until 1946, when it was changed to .

The ancient Chinese described it as “life force”. They believed qi permeated everything and linked their surroundings together. They likened it to the flow of energy around and through the body, forming a cohesive and functioning unit.[citation needed] By understanding its rhythm and flow they believed they could guide exercises and treatments to provide stability and longevity.[citation needed]
Although the concept of qi has been important within many Chinese philosophies, over the centuries the descriptions of qi have varied and have sometimes been in conflict.[citation needed] Until China came into contact with Western scientific and philosophical ideas, they had not categorized all things in terms of matter and energy.[citation needed] Qi and li (理: “pattern”) were ‘fundamental’ categories similar to matter and energy.[citation needed]
Fairly early on, some Chinese thinkers began to believe that there were different fractions of qi and that the coarsest and heaviest fractions of qi formed solids, lighter fractions formed liquids, and the most ethereal fractions were the “lifebreath” that animates living beings.[11]
Yuán qì is a notion of innate or pre-natal qi to distinguish it from acquired qi that a person may develop over the course of their lifetime.
The earliest texts that speak of qi give some indications of how the concept developed. The philosopher Mo Di used the word qi to refer to noxious vapors that would in due time arise from a corpse were it not buried at a sufficient depth.[12] He reported that early civilized humans learned how to live in houses to protect their qi from the moisture that had troubled them when they lived in caves.[13] He also associated maintaining one’s qi with providing oneself adequate nutrition.[14] In regard to another kind of qi, he recorded how some people performed a kind of prognostication by observing the qi(clouds) in the sky.[15]
In the Analects of Confucius, compiled from the notes of his students sometime after his death in 479 B.C., qi could mean “breath”,[16] and combining it with the Chinese word for blood (making 血氣, xueqi, blood and breath), the concept could be used to account for motivational characteristics.
The [morally] noble man guards himself against 3 things. When he is young, his xueqi has not yet stabilized, so he guards himself against sexual passion. When he reaches his prime, his xueqi is not easily subdued, so he guards himself against combativeness. When he reaches old age, his xueqi is already depleted, so he guards himself against acquisitiveness.
—Confucius, Analects, 16:7
Mencius described a kind of qi that might be characterized as an individual’s vital energies. This qi was necessary to activity, and it could be controlled by a well-integrated willpower.[17] When properly nurtured, this qi was said to be capable of extending beyond the human body to reach throughout theuniverse.[17] It could also be augmented by means of careful exercise of one’s moral capacities.[17] On the other hand, the qi of an individual could be degraded by adverse external forces that succeed in operating on that individual.[18]
Not only human beings and animals were believed to have qiZhuangzi indicated that wind is the qi of the Earth.[19] Moreover, cosmic yin and yang “are the greatest of qi.”[20] He described qi as “issuing forth” and creating profound effects.[21] He said “Human beings are born [because of] the accumulation of qi. When it accumulates there is life. When it dissipates there is death… There is one qi that connects and pervades everything in the world.”[22]
Another passage traces life to intercourse between Heaven and Earth: “The highest Yin is the most restrained. The highest Yang is the most exuberant. The restrained comes forth from Heaven. The exuberant issues forth from Earth. The two intertwine and penetrate forming a harmony, and [as a result] things are born.”[23]
“The Guanzi essay Neiye 內業 (Inward training) is the oldest received writing on the subject of the cultivation of vapor [qi] and meditation techniques. The essay was probably composed at the Jixia Academy in Qi in the late fourth century B.C.”[24]
Xun Zi, another Confucian scholar of the Jixia Academy, followed in later years. At 9:69/127, Xun Zi says, “Fire and water have qi but do not have life. Grasses and trees have life but do not have perceptivity. Fowl and beasts have perceptivity but do not have yi (sense of right and wrong, duty, justice). Men have qi, life, perceptivity, and yi.” Chinese people at such an early time had no concept of radiant energy, but they were aware that one can be heated by a campfire from a distance away from the fire. They accounted for this phenomenon by claiming “qi” radiated from fire. At 18:62/122, he also uses “qi” to refer to the vital forces of the body that decline with advanced age.
Among the animals, the gibbon and the crane were considered experts at inhaling the qi. The Confucian scholar Dong Zhongshu (ca. 150 BC) wrote in Luxuriant Dew of the Spring and Autumn Annals:[25] “The gibbon resembles a macaque, but he is larger, and his color is black. His forearms being long, he lives eight hundred years, because he is expert in controlling his breathing.” (“猿似猴。大而黑。長前臂。所以壽八百。好引氣也。”)
Later, the syncretic text assembled under the direction of Liu An, the Huai Nan Zi, or “Masters of Huainan”, has a passage that presages most of what is given greater detail by the Neo-Confucians:
Heaven (seen here as the ultimate source of all being) falls (duo 墮, i.e., descends into proto-immanence) as the formless. Fleeting, fluttering, penetrating, amorphous it is, and so it is called the Supreme Luminary. The dao begins in the Void Brightening. The Void Brightening produces the universe (yuzhou). The universe produces qiQi has bounds. The clear, yang [qi] was ethereal and so formed heaven. The heavy, turbid [qi] was congealed and impeded and so formed earth. The conjunction of the clear, yang [qi] was fluid and easy. The conjunction of the heavy, turbid [qi] was strained and difficult. So heaven was formed first and earth was made fast later. The pervading essence (xijing) of heaven and earth becomes yin and yang. The concentrated (zhuan) essences of yin and yang become the four seasons. The dispersed (san) essences of the four seasons become the myriad creatures. The hot qi of yang in accumulating produces fire. The essence (jing) of the fire-qi becomes the sun. The cold qi of yin in accumulating produces water. The essence of the water-qibecomes the moon. The essences produced by coitus (yin) of the sun and moon become the stars and celestial markpoints (chen, planets).
—Huai-nan-zi, 3:1a/19

There have been a number of studies of qi, especially in the sense used by traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. These studies have often been problematic and hard to compare to each other due to lack of common nomenclature.[33] Some studies claim to have been able to measure qi, or the effects of manipulating qi (such as through acupuncture),[citation needed] but the proposed existence of qi has also been questioned within the scientific community.[citation needed]

United States National Institutes of Health consensus statement on acupuncture in 1997 noted that concepts such as qi “are difficult to reconcile with contemporary biomedical information.”[34]In 2007 “Network”, a newsletter published by the MD Anderson Cancer Center at the University of Texas to discuss “topics of interest to cancer patients”, published an article covering the concepts where qi is believed to be effective and research into possible benefits for cancer patients.[35] A review of clinical trials investigating the use of internal qigong for pain management found no convincing evidence that it was effective.

Qìgōng (气功 or 氣功) is a practice involving coordinated breathing, movement, and awareness, traditionally viewed as a practice to cultivate and balance qi. With roots in traditional Chinesemedicinephilosophy, and martial artsqigong is now practiced worldwide for exercise, healing, meditation, and training for martial arts. Typically a qigong practice involves rhythmic breathing coordinated with slow stylized movement, a calm mindful state, and visualization of guiding qi

Qi is a didactic concept in many ChineseKorean and Japanese martial arts. Martial qigong is a feature of both internal and external training systems in China[41] and other East Asiancultures.[42] The most notable of the qi-focused “internal” force (jin) martial arts are BaguazhangXing Yi QuanT’ai Chi Ch’uanSnake Kung FuSouthern Dragon Kung FuAikidoAikijujutsu,KyūdōHapkidojian and katana swordplay, Luohan QuanShaolin Kung FuLiu He Ba FaBuddhist Style, and some forms of KarateTae Kwon Do and Silat.

Demonstrations of qi or ki are popular in some martial arts and may include the immovable body, the unraisable body, the unbendable arm and other feats of power. All, or some, of these feats can alternatively be explained using biomechanics and physics.

? (radical 84 ?+6, 10 strokescangjie input ???? (ONFD), four-corner 80917)

  1. airgassteamvapor
  2. breathspirit


In traditional Chinese culture (also chi or ch’i) is an active principle forming part of any living thing.[1][2][3] Qi is frequently translated as “life energy”, “life force”, or “energy flow”. Qi is the central underlying principle in traditional Chinese medicine and martial arts. The literal translation of “qi” is “breath”, “air”, or “gas”.

Concepts similar to qi can be found in many cultures, for example, prana in Vedantic philosophy, mana in Hawaiian culture, lüng in Tibetan Buddhism, and Vital energy in Western philosophy. Some elements of qi can be understood in the term energy when used by writers and practitioners of various esoteric forms of spirituality and alternative medicine. Elements of the qi concept can also be found in Western popular culture, for example “The Force” in Star Wars.[4] Notions in the West of energeiaélan vital, or “vitalism” are purported to be similar.

The etymological explanation for the form of the qi logogram (or chi) in the traditional form ? is “steam (?) rising from rice (?) as it cooks”. The earliest way of writing qi consisted of 3 wavy lines, used to represent one’s breath seen on a cold day. A later version, ?, identical to the present-day simplified character, is a stylized version of those same 3 lines. For some reason, early writers of Chinese found it desirable to substitute for ? a cognate character that originally meant to feed other people in a social context such as providing food for guests.[citation needed] Appropriately, that character combined the 3-line qi character with the character for rice. So ? plus ? formed ?, and that is the Traditional Chinese character still used today (the oracle bone character, the seal script character and the modern “school standard” or K?i sh? characters in the box at the right show 3 stages of the evolution of this character).

References to concepts analogous to the qi taken to be the life-process or flow of energy that sustains living beings are found in many belief systems, especially in Asia. Philosophical conceptions of qi from the earliest records of Chinese philosophy (5th century BCE) correspond to Western notions of humours and the ancient Hindu yogic concept of prana (“life force” in Sanskrit). The earliest description of “force” in the current sense of vital energy is found in the Vedas of ancient India (circa 1500–1000 BCE),[7] and from the writings of the Chinese philosopher Mencius (4th century BCE). Historically, the Huangdi Neijing/”The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Medicine” (circa 2nd century BCE) is credited with first establishing the pathways through which qi circulates in the human body.[8][9]

Within the framework of Chinese thought, no notion may attain such a degree of abstraction from empirical data as to correspond perfectly to one of our modern universal concepts. Nevertheless, the term qi comes as close as possible to constituting a generic designation equivalent to our word “energy”. When Chinese thinkers are unwilling or unable to fix the quality of an energetic phenomenon, the character qi (?) inevitably flows from their brushes.
—Manfred Porkert[10]

Traditional Chinesecharacter , also used in Korean hanja. In Japanese kanji, this character was used until 1946, when it was changed to ?.

The ancient Chinese described it as “life force”. They believed qi permeated everything and linked their surroundings together. They likened it to the flow of energy around and through the body, forming a cohesive and functioning unit.[citation needed] By understanding its rhythm and flow they believed they could guide exercises and treatments to provide stability and longevity.[citation needed]
Although the concept of qi has been important within many Chinese philosophies, over the centuries the descriptions of qi have varied and have sometimes been in conflict.[citation needed] Until China came into contact with Western scientific and philosophical ideas, they had not categorized all things in terms of matter and energy.[citation needed] Qi and li (?: “pattern”) were ‘fundamental’ categories similar to matter and energy.[citation needed]
Fairly early on, some Chinese thinkers began to believe that there were different fractions of qi and that the coarsest and heaviest fractions of qi formed solids, lighter fractions formed liquids, and the most ethereal fractions were the “lifebreath” that animates living beings.[11]
Yuán qì is a notion of innate or pre-natal qi to distinguish it from acquired qi that a person may develop over the course of their lifetime.
The earliest texts that speak of qi give some indications of how the concept developed. The philosopher Mo Di used the word qi to refer to noxious vapors that would in due time arise from a corpse were it not buried at a sufficient depth.[12] He reported that early civilized humans learned how to live in houses to protect their qi from the moisture that had troubled them when they lived in caves.[13] He also associated maintaining one’s qi with providing oneself adequate nutrition.[14] In regard to another kind of qi, he recorded how some people performed a kind of prognostication by observing the qi(clouds) in the sky.[15]
In the Analects of Confucius, compiled from the notes of his students sometime after his death in 479 B.C., qi could mean “breath”,[16] and combining it with the Chinese word for blood (making ??, xueqi, blood and breath), the concept could be used to account for motivational characteristics.
The [morally] noble man guards himself against 3 things. When he is young, his xueqi has not yet stabilized, so he guards himself against sexual passion. When he reaches his prime, his xueqi is not easily subdued, so he guards himself against combativeness. When he reaches old age, his xueqi is already depleted, so he guards himself against acquisitiveness.
—Confucius, Analects, 16:7
Mencius described a kind of qi that might be characterized as an individual’s vital energies. This qi was necessary to activity, and it could be controlled by a well-integrated willpower.[17] When properly nurtured, this qi was said to be capable of extending beyond the human body to reach throughout theuniverse.[17] It could also be augmented by means of careful exercise of one’s moral capacities.[17] On the other hand, the qi of an individual could be degraded by adverse external forces that succeed in operating on that individual.[18]
Not only human beings and animals were believed to have qiZhuangzi indicated that wind is the qi of the Earth.[19] Moreover, cosmic yin and yang “are the greatest of qi.”[20] He described qi as “issuing forth” and creating profound effects.[21] He said “Human beings are born [because of] the accumulation of qi. When it accumulates there is life. When it dissipates there is death… There is one qi that connects and pervades everything in the world.”[22]
Another passage traces life to intercourse between Heaven and Earth: “The highest Yin is the most restrained. The highest Yang is the most exuberant. The restrained comes forth from Heaven. The exuberant issues forth from Earth. The two intertwine and penetrate forming a harmony, and [as a result] things are born.”[23]
“The Guanzi essay Neiye ?? (Inward training) is the oldest received writing on the subject of the cultivation of vapor [qi] and meditation techniques. The essay was probably composed at the Jixia Academy in Qi in the late fourth century B.C.”[24]
Xun Zi, another Confucian scholar of the Jixia Academy, followed in later years. At 9:69/127, Xun Zi says, “Fire and water have qi but do not have life. Grasses and trees have life but do not have perceptivity. Fowl and beasts have perceptivity but do not have yi (sense of right and wrong, duty, justice). Men have qi, life, perceptivity, and yi.” Chinese people at such an early time had no concept of radiant energy, but they were aware that one can be heated by a campfire from a distance away from the fire. They accounted for this phenomenon by claiming “qi” radiated from fire. At 18:62/122, he also uses “qi” to refer to the vital forces of the body that decline with advanced age.
Among the animals, the gibbon and the crane were considered experts at inhaling the qi. The Confucian scholar Dong Zhongshu (ca. 150 BC) wrote in Luxuriant Dew of the Spring and Autumn Annals:[25] “The gibbon resembles a macaque, but he is larger, and his color is black. His forearms being long, he lives eight hundred years, because he is expert in controlling his breathing.” (“???????????????????????”)
Later, the syncretic text assembled under the direction of Liu An, the Huai Nan Zi, or “Masters of Huainan”, has a passage that presages most of what is given greater detail by the Neo-Confucians:
Heaven (seen here as the ultimate source of all being) falls (duo ?, i.e., descends into proto-immanence) as the formless. Fleeting, fluttering, penetrating, amorphous it is, and so it is called the Supreme Luminary. The dao begins in the Void Brightening. The Void Brightening produces the universe (yuzhou). The universe produces qiQi has bounds. The clear, yang [qi] was ethereal and so formed heaven. The heavy, turbid [qi] was congealed and impeded and so formed earth. The conjunction of the clear, yang [qi] was fluid and easy. The conjunction of the heavy, turbid [qi] was strained and difficult. So heaven was formed first and earth was made fast later. The pervading essence (xijing) of heaven and earth becomes yin and yang. The concentrated (zhuan) essences of yin and yang become the four seasons. The dispersed (san) essences of the four seasons become the myriad creatures. The hot qi of yang in accumulating produces fire. The essence (jing) of the fire-qi becomes the sun. The cold qi of yin in accumulating produces water. The essence of the water-qibecomes the moon. The essences produced by coitus (yin) of the sun and moon become the stars and celestial markpoints (chen, planets).
—Huai-nan-zi, 3:1a/19

There have been a number of studies of qi, especially in the sense used by traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. These studies have often been problematic and hard to compare to each other due to lack of common nomenclature.[33] Some studies claim to have been able to measure qi, or the effects of manipulating qi (such as through acupuncture),[citation needed] but the proposed existence of qi has also been questioned within the scientific community.[citation needed]

United States National Institutes of Health consensus statement on acupuncture in 1997 noted that concepts such as qi “are difficult to reconcile with contemporary biomedical information.”[34]In 2007 “Network”, a newsletter published by the MD Anderson Cancer Center at the University of Texas to discuss “topics of interest to cancer patients”, published an article covering the concepts where qi is believed to be effective and research into possible benefits for cancer patients.[35] A review of clinical trials investigating the use of internal qigong for pain management found no convincing evidence that it was effective.

Qìg?ng (?? or ??) is a practice involving coordinated breathing, movement, and awareness, traditionally viewed as a practice to cultivate and balance qi. With roots in traditional Chinesemedicinephilosophy, and martial artsqigong is now practiced worldwide for exercise, healing, meditation, and training for martial arts. Typically a qigong practice involves rhythmic breathing coordinated with slow stylized movement, a calm mindful state, and visualization of guiding qi

Qi is a didactic concept in many ChineseKorean and Japanese martial arts. Martial qigong is a feature of both internal and external training systems in China[41] and other East Asiancultures.[42] The most notable of the qi-focused “internal” force (jin) martial arts are BaguazhangXing Yi QuanT’ai Chi Ch’uanSnake Kung FuSouthern Dragon Kung FuAikidoAikijujutsu,Ky?d?Hapkidojian and katana swordplay, Luohan QuanShaolin Kung FuLiu He Ba FaBuddhist Style, and some forms of KarateTae Kwon Do and Silat.

Demonstrations of qi or ki are popular in some martial arts and may include the immovable body, the unraisable body, the unbendable arm and other feats of power. All, or some, of these feats can alternatively be explained using biomechanics and physics.

?

Etymology

Ideogrammic compound ( 會意 ): + 𩠐

Simplified to

道 道 道 道
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

道 (radical 162 +9, 12 strokescangjie input 卜廿竹山 (YTHU), four-corner 38306composition )

  1. pathroadstreet
  2. methodway
  3. say

道 (hiragana みちromaji michi)

  1. way; a street; a road; an alley; a pass for local traffic
  2. way of doing something

道 (hiragana  どう romaji )

  1. The Way: taoTaoism
  2. (chiefly historical) A region of Japan consisting of multiple provinces or prefectures. Feudal Japan was divided into several ; the only remaining  is Hokkaidō.

Dao is written with the Chinese character  in both Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese. It typifies the most common Chinese character classification of “radical-phonetic” or “phono-semantic” graphs, which compound a “radical” or “signific” (roughly providing semantic information) with a “phonetic” (suggesting ancient pronunciation).

Dao 道 graphically combines the chuo  (or ) “go” radical and shou  “head” phonetic. Furthermore, dao 道 is the phonetic element in dao “guide; lead” (with the cun  “thumb; hand” radical) and dao  “a tree name” (with the mu  “tree; wood” radical).

The traditional interpretation of the 道 character, dating back to the (121 CE) Shuowen Jiezi dictionary, was a rare huiyi 會意 “compound ideogram” or “ideogrammic compound“. The combination of chuo 辶 “go” and shou 首 “head” (numbers 162 and 185 in the Kangxi radicals) signified a “head going” or “to lead the way”.

Dao is graphically distinguished between its earliest nominal meaning of dao 道 “way; road; path;” and the later verbal sense of “say”. It should also be contrasted with dao 導 “lead the way; guide; conduct; direct; “. The Simplified character  for dao 導 has si  “6th of the 12 Earthly Branches” in place of dao 道.

The earliest written forms of dao are bronzeware script and seal script characters from Zhou Dynasty (1045–256 BCE) bronzes and writings. These ancient dao characters more clearly depict the shou 首 “head” element as hair above a face. Some variants interchange the chuo 辵 “go; advance” radical with the xing 行 “go; road” radical, with the original bronze “crossroads” depiction written in the seal character with two 彳 and 亍 “footprints”.

Bronze scripts for dao 道 occasionally include an element of shou 手 “hand” or cun 寸 “thumb; hand”, which occurs in dao 導 “lead”. The linguist Peter A. Boodberg explained,

This “dao with the hand element” is usually identified with the modern character導 dao < d’ôg, “to lead,” “guide,” “conduct,” and considered to be a derivative or verbal cognate of the noun dao, “way,” “path.” The evidence just summarized would indicate rather that “dao with the hand” is but a variant of the basic dao and that the word itself combined both nominal and verbal aspects of the etymon. This is supported by textual examples of the use of the primary dao in the verbal sense “to lead” (e. g., Analects 1.5; 2.8) and seriously undermines the unspoken assumption implied in the common translation of Dao as “way” that the concept is essentially a nominal one. Dao would seem, then, to be etymologically a more dynamic concept than we have made it translation-wise. It would be more appropriately rendered by “lead way” and “lode” (“way,” “course,” “journey,” “leading,” “guidance”; cf. “lodestone” and “lodestar”), the somewhat obsolescent deverbal noun from “to lead.”[26]

These Confucian Analects citations of dao verbally meaning “to guide; to lead” are: “The Master said, ‘In guiding a state of a thousand chariots, approach your duties with reverence and be trustworthy in what you say” and “The Master said, ‘Guide them by edicts, keep them in line with punishments, and the common people will stay out of trouble but will have no sense of shame.”

Tao or Dao ( / t / / d / Chinese: pinyin About this sound Dào ( help · Info)) is a Chinese word meaning ‘way’, ‘path’, ‘route’, or sometimes more loosely, ‘doctrine’ or ‘principle’, or as a verb, speak. Within the context of traditional Chinese philosophy and religion, Tao is a metaphysical concept originating withLaozi that gave rise to a religion (Wade–GilesTao ChiaoPinyinDaojiao) and philosophy (Wade–Giles, Tao chia; Pinyin, Daojia) referred to in English with the single term Taoism. The concept of Tao was later adopted in ConfucianismChán and Zen Buddhism and more broadly throughout East Asian philosophy and religion in general. Within these contexts Tao signifies the primordial essence or fundamental nature of the universe. In the foundational text of Taoism, the Tao Te ChingLaozi explains that Tao is not a ‘name’ for a ‘thing’ but the underlying natural order of the universe whose ultimate essence is difficult to circumscribe. Tao is thus “eternally nameless” (Dao De Jing-32. Laozi) and to be distinguished from the countless ‘named’ things which are considered to be its manifestations.

In Taoism, Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism, the object of spiritual practice is to ‘become one with the tao’ (Tao Te Ching) or to harmonise one’s will with Nature (cf. Stoicism) in order to achieve ‘effortless action’ (Wu wei). This involves meditative and moral practices. Important in this respect is the Taoist concept of De (德; virtue).

In all its uses, Tao is considered to have ineffable qualities that prevent it from being defined or expressed in words. It can, however, be known orexperienced, and its principles (which can be discerned by observing Nature) can be followed or practiced. Much of East Asian philosophical writing focuses on the value of adhering to the principles of Tao and the various consequences of failing to do so. In Confucianism and religious forms of Taoism these are often explicitly moral/ethical arguments about proper behavior, while Buddhism and more philosophical forms of Taoism usually refer to the natural and mercurial outcomes of action (comparable to karma). Tao is intrinsically related to the concepts yin and yang (pinyinyīnyáng), where every action creates counter-actions as unavoidable movements within manifestations of the Tao, and proper practice variously involves accepting, conforming to, or working with these natural developments.

The concept of Tao differs from conventional (western) ontology : it is an active and holistic conception of Nature, rather than a static, atomistic one. It is worth comparing to the original Logos of Heraclitus, c. 500 BC< The word “Dao” (道) has a variety of meanings in both ancient and modern Chinese language. Aside from its purely prosaic use to mean road, channel, path, doctrine, or similar,[1] the word has acquired a variety of differing and often confusing metaphorical, philosophical and religious uses. In most belief systems, Dao is used symbolically in its sense of ‘way’ as the ‘right’ or ‘proper’ way of existence, or in the context of ongoing practices of attainment or of the full coming into being, or the state of enlightenment or spiritual perfection that is the outcome of such practices.[2] Some scholars make sharp distinctions between moral or ethical usage of the word Dao that is prominent in Confucianism and religious Daoism and the more metaphysical usage of the term used in philosophical Daoism and most forms of Mahayana Buddhism;[3] others maintain that these are not separate usages or meanings, seeing them as mutually inclusive and compatible approaches to defining the concept.[4] The original use of the term was as a form of praxis rather than theory – a term used as a convention to refer to something that otherwise cannot be discussed in words – and early writings such as the Dao De Jing and the I Ching make pains to distinguish between conceptions of Dao (sometimes referred to as “named Dao”) and the Dao itself (the “unnamed Dao”), which cannot be expressed or understood in language.[notes 1][notes 2][5] Liu Da asserts that Dao is properly understood as an experiential and evolving concept, and that there are not only cultural and religious differences in the interpretation of Dao, but personal differences that reflect the character of individual practitioners.[6]

Dao can be roughly thought of as the flow of the universe, or as some essence or pattern behind the natural world that keeps the universe balanced and ordered.[7] It is related to the idea of qi, the essential energy of action and existence. Dao is a non-dual concept – it is the greater whole from which all the individual elements of the universe derive. Keller considers it similar to the negative theology of Western scholars,[8] but Dao is rarely an object of direct worship, being treated more like the Hindu concepts of karma or dharma than as a divine object.[9] Dao is more commonly expressed in the relationship between wu (void or emptiness, in the sense of wuji) and yinyang (the natural dynamic balance between opposites), leading to its central principle of wu wei (non-action, or action without force).

Dao is usually described in terms of elements of nature, and in particular as similar to water. Like water it is undifferentiated, endlessly self-replenishing, soft and quiet but immensely powerful, and impassively generous.[10] Much of Daoist philosophy centers on the cyclical continuity of the natural world, and its contrast to the linear, goal-oriented actions of human beings.

The forms and variations of religious Daoism are incredibly diverse. They integrate a broad spectrum of academic, ritualistic, supernatural, devotional, literary, and folk practices with a multitude of results. Buddhism and Confucianism particularly affected the way many sects of Daoism framed, approached, and perceived the Dao. The multitudinous branches of religious Daoism accordingly regard the Dao, and interpret writings about it, in innumerable ways. Thus, outside of a few broad similarities, it is difficult to provide an accurate yet clear summary of their interpretation of Dao.[16]

A central tenet within most varieties of religious Daoism is that the Dao is ever-present, but must be manifested, cultivated, and/or perfected in order to be realized. It is the source of the universe and the seed of its primordial purity resides in all things. The manifestation of Dao is De, which rectifies and invigorates the world with the Dao’s radiance.[14]

Alternatively, philosophical Daoism regards the Dao as a non-religious concept; it is not a deity to be worshiped, nor is it a mystical Absolute in the religious sense of the Hindu Brahman. Joseph Wu remarked of this conception of Dao, “Dao is not religiously available; nor is it even religiously relevant.” The writings of Lao Tzu and Chang Tzu are tinged with esoteric tones and approach humanism and naturalism as paradoxes.[17] In contrast to the esotericism typically found in religious systems, the Dao is not transcendent to the self nor is mystical attainment an escape from the world in philosophical Daoism. The self steeped in Dao is the self grounded in its place within the natural universe. A person dwelling within the Dao excels in themselves and their activities.[18]

However, this distinction is complicated by hermeneutic (interpretive) difficulties in the categorization of Daoist schools, sects and movements.[19] Some scholars believe that there is no distinction between Daojia and Daojiao.[20] According to Kirkland, “most scholars who have seriously studied Daoism, both in Asia and the West, have finally abandoned the simplistic dichotomy of Dàojiā and Dàojiào, ‘philosophical Daoism’ and ‘religious Daoism.'”

Buddhism first started to spread in China during the first century AD and was experiencing a golden age of growth and maturation by the fourth century AD. Hundreds of collections of Pali andSanskrit texts were translated into Chinese by Buddhist monks within a short period of time. Dhyana was translated as ch’an (and later as zen), giving Zen Buddhism its name. The use of Chinese concepts, such as Dao, that were close to Buddhist ideas and terms helped spread the religion and make it more amenable to the Chinese people. However, the differences between the Sanskrit and Chinese terminology lead to some initial misunderstandings and the eventual development of East Asian Buddhism as a distinct entity. As part of this process, many Chinese words introduced their rich semantic and philosophical associations into Buddhism, including the use of ‘Dao’ for central concepts and tenets of Buddhism.[23]

Pai-chang Huai-hai told a student who was grappling with difficult portions of suttas, “Take up words in order to manifest meaning and you’ll obtain ‘meaning’. Cut off words and meaning is emptiness. Emptiness is the Dao. The Dao is cutting off words and speech.” Ch’an (Zen) Buddhists regard the Dao as synonymous with both the Buddhist Path (marga) and the results of it; theEightfold Path and Buddhist enlightenment (satori). Pai-chang’s statement plays upon this usage in the context of the fluid and varied Chinese usage of ‘Dao’. Words and meaning are used to refer to rituals and practice. The ‘emptiness’ refers to the Buddhist concept of sunyata. Finding the Dao and Buddha-nature is not simply a matter of formulations, but an active response to the Four Noble Truths that cannot be fully expressed or conveyed in words and concrete associations. The use of ‘Dao’ in this context refers to the literal ‘way’ of Buddhism, the return to the universal source, dharma, proper meditation, and nirvana, among other associations. ‘Dao’ is commonly used in this fashion by Chinese Buddhists, heavy with associations and nuanced meanings.

Noted Christian author C.S. Lewis used the word Tao to describe “the doctrine of objective value, the belief that certain attitudes are really true, and others really false, the kind of thing the universe is and the kind of things we are.”[25] He asserted that every religion and philosophy contains foundations of universal ethics as an attempt to line up with the Tao—the way mankind was designed to be. In Lewis’ thinking, God created the Tao and fully displayed it through the person of Jesus Christ. Christianity, then, would be the path that lines human beings up with the Tao most effectively.

Also the Greek word used in N.T. for the Way is ὁδός (hodos). Here the Way refers to the path of righteousness and salvation as revealed through Christ.

In Chinese translations of the New Testament, λόγος (logos) is translated with the Chinese word dao (道) (eg John 1:1), indicating that the translators considered the concept of Tao to be somewhat equivalent to logos in Greek philosophy.

Etymology

Ideogrammic compound ( ?? ): ? + ????

Simplified to ? ?

? ? ? ?
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

? (radical 162 ?+9, 12 strokescangjie input ???? (YTHU), four-corner 38306composition ??)

  1. pathroadstreet
  2. methodway
  3. say

? (hiragana ??romaji michi)

  1. way; a street; a road; an alley; a pass for local traffic
  2. way of doing something

? (hiragana  ?? romaji d?)

  1. The Way: taoTaoism
  2. (chiefly historical) A region of Japan consisting of multiple provinces or prefectures. Feudal Japan was divided into several d?; the only remaining d? is Hokkaid?.

Dao is written with the Chinese character ? in both Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese. It typifies the most common Chinese character classification of “radical-phonetic” or “phono-semantic” graphs, which compound a “radical” or “signific” (roughly providing semantic information) with a “phonetic” (suggesting ancient pronunciation).

Dao ? graphically combines the chuo ? (or ?) “go” radical and shou ? “head” phonetic. Furthermore, dao ? is the phonetic element in dao ?“guide; lead” (with the cun ? “thumb; hand” radical) and dao ? “a tree name” (with the mu ? “tree; wood” radical).

The traditional interpretation of the ? character, dating back to the (121 CE) Shuowen Jiezi dictionary, was a rare huiyi ?? “compound ideogram” or “ideogrammic compound“. The combination of chuo ? “go” and shou ? “head” (numbers 162 and 185 in the Kangxi radicals) signified a “head going” or “to lead the way”.

Dao is graphically distinguished between its earliest nominal meaning of dao ? “way; road; path;” and the later verbal sense of “say”. It should also be contrasted with dao ? “lead the way; guide; conduct; direct; “. The Simplified character ? for dao ? has si ? “6th of the 12 Earthly Branches” in place of dao ?.

The earliest written forms of dao are bronzeware script and seal script characters from Zhou Dynasty (1045–256 BCE) bronzes and writings. These ancient dao characters more clearly depict the shou ? “head” element as hair above a face. Some variants interchange the chuo ? “go; advance” radical with the xing ? “go; road” radical, with the original bronze “crossroads” depiction written in the seal character with two ? and ? “footprints”.

Bronze scripts for dao ? occasionally include an element of shou ? “hand” or cun ? “thumb; hand”, which occurs in dao ? “lead”. The linguist Peter A. Boodberg explained,

This “dao with the hand element” is usually identified with the modern character? dao < d’ôg, “to lead,” “guide,” “conduct,” and considered to be a derivative or verbal cognate of the noun dao, “way,” “path.” The evidence just summarized would indicate rather that “dao with the hand” is but a variant of the basic dao and that the word itself combined both nominal and verbal aspects of the etymon. This is supported by textual examples of the use of the primary dao in the verbal sense “to lead” (e. g., Analects 1.5; 2.8) and seriously undermines the unspoken assumption implied in the common translation of Dao as “way” that the concept is essentially a nominal one. Dao would seem, then, to be etymologically a more dynamic concept than we have made it translation-wise. It would be more appropriately rendered by “lead way” and “lode” (“way,” “course,” “journey,” “leading,” “guidance”; cf. “lodestone” and “lodestar”), the somewhat obsolescent deverbal noun from “to lead.”[26]

These Confucian Analects citations of dao verbally meaning “to guide; to lead” are: “The Master said, ‘In guiding a state of a thousand chariots, approach your duties with reverence and be trustworthy in what you say” and “The Master said, ‘Guide them by edicts, keep them in line with punishments, and the common people will stay out of trouble but will have no sense of shame.”

Tao or Dao ( / t a? / / d a? / Chinese: ? pinyin About this sound Dào) is a Chinese word meaning ‘way’, ‘path’, ‘route’, or sometimes more loosely, ‘doctrine’ or ‘principle’, or as a verb, speak. Within the context of traditional Chinese philosophy and religion, Tao is a metaphysical concept originating withLaozi that gave rise to a religion (Wade–GilesTao ChiaoPinyinDaojiao) and philosophy (Wade–Giles, Tao chia; Pinyin, Daojia) referred to in English with the single term Taoism. The concept of Tao was later adopted in ConfucianismChán and Zen Buddhism and more broadly throughout East Asian philosophy and religion in general. Within these contexts Tao signifies the primordial essence or fundamental nature of the universe. In the foundational text of Taoism, the Tao Te ChingLaozi explains that Tao is not a ‘name’ for a ‘thing’ but the underlying natural order of the universe whose ultimate essence is difficult to circumscribe. Tao is thus “eternally nameless” (Dao De Jing-32. Laozi) and to be distinguished from the countless ‘named’ things which are considered to be its manifestations.

In Taoism, Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism, the object of spiritual practice is to ‘become one with the tao’ (Tao Te Ching) or to harmonise one’s will with Nature (cf. Stoicism) in order to achieve ‘effortless action’ (Wu wei). This involves meditative and moral practices. Important in this respect is the Taoist concept of De (?; virtue).

In all its uses, Tao is considered to have ineffable qualities that prevent it from being defined or expressed in words. It can, however, be known orexperienced, and its principles (which can be discerned by observing Nature) can be followed or practiced. Much of East Asian philosophical writing focuses on the value of adhering to the principles of Tao and the various consequences of failing to do so. In Confucianism and religious forms of Taoism these are often explicitly moral/ethical arguments about proper behavior, while Buddhism and more philosophical forms of Taoism usually refer to the natural and mercurial outcomes of action (comparable to karma). Tao is intrinsically related to the concepts yin and yang (pinyiny?nyáng), where every action creates counter-actions as unavoidable movements within manifestations of the Tao, and proper practice variously involves accepting, conforming to, or working with these natural developments.

The concept of Tao differs from conventional (western) ontology : it is an active and holistic conception of Nature, rather than a static, atomistic one. It is worth comparing to the original Logos of Heraclitus, c. 500 BC< The word “Dao” (?) has a variety of meanings in both ancient and modern Chinese language. Aside from its purely prosaic use to mean road, channel, path, doctrine, or similar,[1] the word has acquired a variety of differing and often confusing metaphorical, philosophical and religious uses. In most belief systems, Dao is used symbolically in its sense of ‘way’ as the ‘right’ or ‘proper’ way of existence, or in the context of ongoing practices of attainment or of the full coming into being, or the state of enlightenment or spiritual perfection that is the outcome of such practices.[2] Some scholars make sharp distinctions between moral or ethical usage of the word Dao that is prominent in Confucianism and religious Daoism and the more metaphysical usage of the term used in philosophical Daoism and most forms of Mahayana Buddhism;[3] others maintain that these are not separate usages or meanings, seeing them as mutually inclusive and compatible approaches to defining the concept.[4] The original use of the term was as a form of praxis rather than theory – a term used as a convention to refer to something that otherwise cannot be discussed in words – and early writings such as the Dao De Jing and the I Ching make pains to distinguish between conceptions of Dao (sometimes referred to as “named Dao”) and the Dao itself (the “unnamed Dao”), which cannot be expressed or understood in language.[notes 1][notes 2][5] Liu Da asserts that Dao is properly understood as an experiential and evolving concept, and that there are not only cultural and religious differences in the interpretation of Dao, but personal differences that reflect the character of individual practitioners.[6]

Dao can be roughly thought of as the flow of the universe, or as some essence or pattern behind the natural world that keeps the universe balanced and ordered.[7] It is related to the idea of qi, the essential energy of action and existence. Dao is a non-dual concept – it is the greater whole from which all the individual elements of the universe derive. Keller considers it similar to the negative theology of Western scholars,[8] but Dao is rarely an object of direct worship, being treated more like the Hindu concepts of karma or dharma than as a divine object.[9] Dao is more commonly expressed in the relationship between wu (void or emptiness, in the sense of wuji) and yinyang (the natural dynamic balance between opposites), leading to its central principle of wu wei (non-action, or action without force).

Dao is usually described in terms of elements of nature, and in particular as similar to water. Like water it is undifferentiated, endlessly self-replenishing, soft and quiet but immensely powerful, and impassively generous.[10] Much of Daoist philosophy centers on the cyclical continuity of the natural world, and its contrast to the linear, goal-oriented actions of human beings.

The forms and variations of religious Daoism are incredibly diverse. They integrate a broad spectrum of academic, ritualistic, supernatural, devotional, literary, and folk practices with a multitude of results. Buddhism and Confucianism particularly affected the way many sects of Daoism framed, approached, and perceived the Dao. The multitudinous branches of religious Daoism accordingly regard the Dao, and interpret writings about it, in innumerable ways. Thus, outside of a few broad similarities, it is difficult to provide an accurate yet clear summary of their interpretation of Dao.[16]

A central tenet within most varieties of religious Daoism is that the Dao is ever-present, but must be manifested, cultivated, and/or perfected in order to be realized. It is the source of the universe and the seed of its primordial purity resides in all things. The manifestation of Dao is De, which rectifies and invigorates the world with the Dao’s radiance.[14]

Alternatively, philosophical Daoism regards the Dao as a non-religious concept; it is not a deity to be worshiped, nor is it a mystical Absolute in the religious sense of the Hindu Brahman. Joseph Wu remarked of this conception of Dao, “Dao is not religiously available; nor is it even religiously relevant.” The writings of Lao Tzu and Chang Tzu are tinged with esoteric tones and approach humanism and naturalism as paradoxes.[17] In contrast to the esotericism typically found in religious systems, the Dao is not transcendent to the self nor is mystical attainment an escape from the world in philosophical Daoism. The self steeped in Dao is the self grounded in its place within the natural universe. A person dwelling within the Dao excels in themselves and their activities.[18]

However, this distinction is complicated by hermeneutic (interpretive) difficulties in the categorization of Daoist schools, sects and movements.[19] Some scholars believe that there is no distinction between Daojia and Daojiao.[20] According to Kirkland, “most scholars who have seriously studied Daoism, both in Asia and the West, have finally abandoned the simplistic dichotomy of Dàoji? and Dàojiào, ‘philosophical Daoism’ and ‘religious Daoism.'”

Buddhism first started to spread in China during the first century AD and was experiencing a golden age of growth and maturation by the fourth century AD. Hundreds of collections of Pali andSanskrit texts were translated into Chinese by Buddhist monks within a short period of time. Dhyana was translated as ch’an (and later as zen), giving Zen Buddhism its name. The use of Chinese concepts, such as Dao, that were close to Buddhist ideas and terms helped spread the religion and make it more amenable to the Chinese people. However, the differences between the Sanskrit and Chinese terminology lead to some initial misunderstandings and the eventual development of East Asian Buddhism as a distinct entity. As part of this process, many Chinese words introduced their rich semantic and philosophical associations into Buddhism, including the use of ‘Dao’ for central concepts and tenets of Buddhism.[23]

Pai-chang Huai-hai told a student who was grappling with difficult portions of suttas, “Take up words in order to manifest meaning and you’ll obtain ‘meaning’. Cut off words and meaning is emptiness. Emptiness is the Dao. The Dao is cutting off words and speech.” Ch’an (Zen) Buddhists regard the Dao as synonymous with both the Buddhist Path (marga) and the results of it; theEightfold Path and Buddhist enlightenment (satori). Pai-chang’s statement plays upon this usage in the context of the fluid and varied Chinese usage of ‘Dao’. Words and meaning are used to refer to rituals and practice. The ‘emptiness’ refers to the Buddhist concept of sunyata. Finding the Dao and Buddha-nature is not simply a matter of formulations, but an active response to the Four Noble Truths that cannot be fully expressed or conveyed in words and concrete associations. The use of ‘Dao’ in this context refers to the literal ‘way’ of Buddhism, the return to the universal source, dharma, proper meditation, and nirvana, among other associations. ‘Dao’ is commonly used in this fashion by Chinese Buddhists, heavy with associations and nuanced meanings.

Noted Christian author C.S. Lewis used the word Tao to describe “the doctrine of objective value, the belief that certain attitudes are really true, and others really false, the kind of thing the universe is and the kind of things we are.”[25] He asserted that every religion and philosophy contains foundations of universal ethics as an attempt to line up with the Tao—the way mankind was designed to be. In Lewis’ thinking, God created the Tao and fully displayed it through the person of Jesus Christ. Christianity, then, would be the path that lines human beings up with the Tao most effectively.

Also the Greek word used in N.T. for the Way is ???? (hodos). Here the Way refers to the path of righteousness and salvation as revealed through Christ.

In Chinese translations of the New Testament, ????? (logos) is translated with the Chinese word dao (?) (eg John 1:1), indicating that the translators considered the concept of Tao to be somewhat equivalent to logos in Greek philosophy.

?

 (radical 60 +12, 15 strokescangjie input 竹人十田心 (HOJWP), four-corner 24236)<

  1. Noun:ethicsmoralitypower[1]virtue

Virtue“, translated from Chinese de (), is also an important concept in Chinese philosophy, particularly DaoismDe (ChinesepinyinWade–Gileste) originally meant normative “virtue” in the sense of “personal character; inner strength; integrity”, but semantically changed to moral “virtue; kindness; morality”. Note the semantic parallel for English virtue, with an archaic meaning of “inner potency; divine power” (as in “by virtue of”) and a modern one of “moral excellence; goodness”.

Confucian moral manifestations of “virtue” include ren (“humanity“), xiao (“filial piety“), and li (“proper behavior, performance of rituals“). In Confucianism, the notion of ren – according to Simon Leys – means “humanity” and “goodness”. Ren originally had the archaic meaning in the Confucian Book of Poems of “virility”, but progressively took on shades of ethical meaning. (On the origins and transformations of this concept see Lin Yu-sheng: “The evolution of the pre-Confucian meaning of jen and the Confucian concept of moral autonomy,” Monumenta Serica, vol.31, 1974-75.)

The Daoist concept of De, however, is more subtle, pertaining to the “virtue” or ability that an individual realizes by following the Dao (“the Way”). One important normative value in much of Chinese thinking is that one’s social status should result from the amount of virtue that one demonstrates, rather than from one’s birth. In the AnalectsConfucius explains de as follows: “He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it.”[

? (radical 60 ?+12, 15 strokescangjie input ????? (HOJWP), four-corner 24236)<

  1. Noun:ethicsmoralitypower[1]virtue

Virtue“, translated from Chinese de (?), is also an important concept in Chinese philosophy, particularly DaoismDe (Chinese?pinyinWade–Gileste) originally meant normative “virtue” in the sense of “personal character; inner strength; integrity”, but semantically changed to moral “virtue; kindness; morality”. Note the semantic parallel for English virtue, with an archaic meaning of “inner potency; divine power” (as in “by virtue of”) and a modern one of “moral excellence; goodness”.

Confucian moral manifestations of “virtue” include ren (“humanity“), xiao (“filial piety“), and li (“proper behavior, performance of rituals“). In Confucianism, the notion of ren – according to Simon Leys – means “humanity” and “goodness”. Ren originally had the archaic meaning in the Confucian Book of Poems of “virility”, but progressively took on shades of ethical meaning. (On the origins and transformations of this concept see Lin Yu-sheng: “The evolution of the pre-Confucian meaning of jen and the Confucian concept of moral autonomy,” Monumenta Serica, vol.31, 1974-75.)

The Daoist concept of De, however, is more subtle, pertaining to the “virtue” or ability that an individual realizes by following the Dao (“the Way”). One important normative value in much of Chinese thinking is that one’s social status should result from the amount of virtue that one demonstrates, rather than from one’s birth. In the AnalectsConfucius explains de as follows: “He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it.”[

? ?

Hun (Chinese: 魂; pinyin: hún; Wade–Giles: hun; literally “cloud-soul”) and po (Chinese: 魄; pinyin: pò; Wade–Giles: p’o; literally “white-soul”) are types of souls in Chinese philosophy and religion. Within this ancient soul dualism tradition, every living human has both a hun spiritual, ethereal, yang soul which leaves the body after death, and also a po corporeal, substantive, yin soul which remains with the corpse of the deceased. Some controversy exists over the number of souls in a person; for instance, one of the traditions within Daoism proposes a soul structure of sanhunqipo 三魂七魄; that is, “three hun and seven po”. The historian Yü Ying-shih describes hun and po as “two pivotal concepts that have been, and remain today, the key to understanding Chinese views of the human soul and the afterlife.”

The Chinese characters 魂 and 魄 for hun and po typify the most common character classification of “radical-phonetic” or “phono-semantic” graphs, which combine a “radical” or “signific” (recurring graphic elements that roughly provide semantic information) with a “phonetic” (suggesting ancient pronunciation). Hun 魂 (or 䰟) and po 魄 have the “ghost radical” gui 鬼 “ghost; devil” and phonetics of yun 云 “cloud; cloudy” and bai 白 “white; clear; pure”.
Besides the common meaning of “a soul”, po 魄 was a variant Chinese character for po 霸 “a lunar phase” and po 粕 “dregs”. The Shujing “Book of History” used po 魄 as a graphic variant for po 霸 “dark aspect of the moon” – this character usually means ba 霸 “overlord; hegemon”. For example, “On the third month, when (the growth phase, 生魄) of the moon began to wane, the duke of Chow [i.e., Duke of Zhou] commenced the foundations, and proceeded to build the new great city of Lǒ” (tr. Legge 1865:434). The Zhuangzi “[Writings of] Master Zhuang” wrote zaopo 糟粕 (lit. “rotten dregs”) “worthless; unwanted; waste matter” with a po 魄 variant. A wheelwright sees Duke Huan of Qi with books by dead sages and says, “what you are reading there is nothing but the [糟魄] chaff and dregs of the men of old!” (tr. Watson 1968:152).
In the history of Chinese writing, characters for po 魄/霸 “lunar brightness” appeared before those for hun 魂 “soul; spirit”. The spiritual hun 魂 and po 魄 “dual souls” are first recorded in Warring States Period (475–221 BCE) Seal Script characters. The lunar po 魄 or 霸 “moon’s brightness” appears in both Zhou Dynasty (1045–256 BCE) Bronzeware script and Oracle bone script, but not in Shang Dynasty (ca. 1600–1046 BCE) oracle inscriptions. The earliest form of this “lunar brightness” character was found on a (ca. 11th century BCE) Zhou oracle bone inscription (Yü 1987:370).

The po soul’s etymology is better understood than the hun soul’s. Schuessler (2007:290, 417) reconstructs hun 魂 “‘spiritual soul’ which makes a human personality” and po 魄 “vegetative or animal soul … which accounts for growth and physiological functions” as Middle Chinese γuən and pʰak from Old Chinese *wûn and *phrâk.
The (ca. 80 CE) Baihu Tang 白虎堂 gave pseudo-etymologies for hun and po through Chinese character puns. It explains hun 魂 with zhuan 傳 “deliver; pass on; impart; spread” and yun 芸 “rue (used to keep insects out of books); to weed”, and po 魄 with po 迫 ” compel; force; coerce; urgent” and bai 白 “white; bright”.
What do the words hun and [po] mean? Hun expresses the idea of continuous propagation ([zhuan] 傳), unresting flight; it is the qi of the Lesser Yang, working in man in an external direction, and it governs the nature (or the instincts, [xing] 性). [Po] expresses the idea of a continuous pressing urge ([po] 迫) on man; it is the [qi] of the Lesser Yin, and works in him, governing the emotions ([qing] 情). Hun is connected with the idea of weeding ([yun] 芸), for with the instincts the evil weeds (in man’s nature) are removed. [Po] is connected with the idea of brightening ([bai] 白), for with the emotions the interior (of the personality) is governed. (tr. Needham and Lu 1974:87)
Etymologically, Schuessler says pò 魄 “animal soul” “is the same word as” pò 霸 “a lunar phase”. He cites the Zuozhuan (534 BCE, see below) using the lunar jishengpo 既生魄 to mean “With the first development of a fetus grows the vegetative soul”.
Pò, the soul responsible for growth, is the same as pò the waxing and waning of the moon”. The meaning ‘soul’ has probably been transferred from the moon since men must have been aware of lunar phases long before they had developed theories on the soul. This is supported by the etymology ‘bright’, and by the inverted word order which can only have originated with meteorological expressions … The association with the moon explains perhaps why the pò soul is classified as Yin … in spite of the etymology ‘bright’ (which should be Yang), hun’s Yang classificiation may be due to the association with clouds and by extension sky, even though the word invokes ‘dark’. ‘Soul’ and ‘moon’ are related in other cultures, by cognation or convergence, as in Tibeto-Burman and Proto-Lolo–Burmese *s/ʼ-la “moon; soul; spirit”, Written Tibetan cognates bla “soul” and zla “moon”, and Proto-Miao–Yao *bla “spirit; soul; moon”. (2007:417)
Lunar associations of po are evident in the Classical Chinese terms chanpo 蟾魄 “the moon” (with “toad; toad in the moon; moon”) and haopo 皓魄 “moon; moonlight” (with “white; bright; luminous”).
The semantics of po 魄 “white soul” probably originated with 霸 “lunar whiteness”. Zhou bronze inscriptions commonly recorded lunar phases with the terms jishengpo 既生魄 “after the brightness has grown” and jisipo 既死魄 “after the brightness has died”, which Schuessler explains as “second quarter of the lunar month” and “last quarter of the lunar month”. Chinese scholars have variously interpreted these two terms as lunar quarters or fixed days, and (Shaughnessy 1992:136–145) Wang Guowei’s lunar-quarter analysis the most likely. Thus, jishengpo is from the 7th/8th to the 14th/15th days of the lunar month and jisipo is from the 23rd/24th to the end of the month. Yü (1987:370) translates them as “after the birth of the crescent” and “after the death of the crescent”. Etymologically, lunar and spiritual po The etymology of hun Since pò is the ‘bright’ soul, hún is the ‘dark’ soul and therefore cognate to yún 雲 ‘cloud’ [Carr 1985:62], perhaps in the sense of ‘shadowy’ because some believe that the hún soul will live after death in a world of shadows [Eberhard 1967:17]. (2007:290)

Based on Zuozhuan usages of hun and po in four historical contexts, Yü (1987:370) extrapolates that po was the original name for a human soul, and the dualistic conception of hun and po “began to gain currency in the middle of the sixth century” BCE.
Two earlier 6th century contexts used the po soul alone. Both describe Tian 天 “heaven; god” duo 奪 “seizing; taking away” a person’s po, which resulted in a loss of mental faculties. In 593 BCE (Duke Xuan 15th year, tr. Legge 1872:329), after Zhao Tong 趙同 behaved inappropriately at the Zhou court, an observer predicted: “In less than ten years [Zhao Tong] will be sure to meet with great calamity. Heaven has taken his [魄] wits away from him.” In 543 BCE (Duke Xiang 29th year, tr. Legge 1872:551), Boyou 伯有 from Zheng (state) acted irrationally, which an official interpreted as: “Heaven is destroying [Boyou], and has taken away his [魄] reason.” Boyou’s political enemies subsequently arranged to take away his hereditary position and assassinate him.
Two later 6th century Zuozhuan contexts used po together with the hun soul. In 534 BCE (Duke Zhao 7th year, tr. Legge 1872:618), the ghost of Boyou 伯有 (above) was seeking revenge on his murderers, and terrifying the people of Zheng. The philosopher and statesman Zi Chan, realizing that Boyou’s loss of hereditary office had caused his spirit to be deprived of sacrifices, reinstated his son to the family position, and the ghost disappeared. When a friend asked Zi Chan to explain ghosts, he gave what Yu (1972:372) calls “the locus classicus on the subject of the human soul in the Chinese tradition.”
When a man is born, (we see) in his first movements what is called the [魄] animal soul. [既生魄] After this has been produced, it is developed into what is called the [魂] spirit. By the use of things the subtle elements are multiplied, and the [魂魄] soul and spirit become strong. They go on in this way, growing in etherealness and brightness, till they become (thoroughly) spiritual and intelligent. When an ordinary man or woman dies a violent death, the [魂魄] soul and spirit are still able to keep hanging about men in the shape of an evil apparition; how much more might this be expected in the case of [Boyou]. … Belonging to a family which had held for three generations the handle of government, his use of things had been extensive, the subtle essences which he had imbibed had been many. His clan also was a great one, and his connexions [sic] were distinguished. Is it not entirely reasonable that, having died a violent death, he should be a [鬼] ghost?
Compare the translation of Needham and Lu (1974:86), who interpret this as an early Chinese discourse on embryology.
When a foetus begins to develop, it is (due to) the [po]. (When this soul has given it a form) then comes the Yang part, called hun. The essences ([qing] 情) of many things (wu 物) then give strength to these (two souls), and so they acquire the vitality, animation and good cheer (shuang 爽) of these essences. Thus eventually there arises spirituality and intelligence (shen ming 神明).”
In 516 BCE (Duke Zhao 20th year, tr. Legge 1872:708), the Duke of Song (state) and a guest named Shusun 叔孫 were both seen weeping during a supposedly joyful gathering. Yue Qi 樂祁, a Song court official, said: “This year both our ruler and [Shusun] are likely to die. I have heard that joy in the midst of grief and grief in the midst of joy are signs of a loss of [xin 心] mind. The essential vigor and brightness of the mind is what we call the [hun] and the [po]. When these leave it, how can the man continue long?” Hun and po souls, explains Yu (1987:371), “are regarded as the very essence of the mind, the source of knowledge and intelligence. Death is thought to follow inevitably when the hun and the p’o leave the body. We have reason to believe that around this time the idea of hun was still relatively new.”

Hun (Chinese: ?; pinyin: hún; Wade–Giles: hun; literally “cloud-soul”) and po (Chinese: ?; pinyin: pò; Wade–Giles: p’o; literally “white-soul”) are types of souls in Chinese philosophy and religion. Within this ancient soul dualism tradition, every living human has both a hun spiritual, ethereal, yang soul which leaves the body after death, and also a po corporeal, substantive, yin soul which remains with the corpse of the deceased. Some controversy exists over the number of souls in a person; for instance, one of the traditions within Daoism proposes a soul structure of sanhunqipo ????; that is, “three hun and seven po”. The historian Yü Ying-shih describes hun and po as “two pivotal concepts that have been, and remain today, the key to understanding Chinese views of the human soul and the afterlife.”

The Chinese characters ? and ? for hun and po typify the most common character classification of “radical-phonetic” or “phono-semantic” graphs, which combine a “radical” or “signific” (recurring graphic elements that roughly provide semantic information) with a “phonetic” (suggesting ancient pronunciation). Hun ? (or ?) and po ? have the “ghost radical” gui ? “ghost; devil” and phonetics of yun ? “cloud; cloudy” and bai ? “white; clear; pure”.
Besides the common meaning of “a soul”, po ? was a variant Chinese character for po ? “a lunar phase” and po ? “dregs”. The Shujing “Book of History” used po ? as a graphic variant for po ? “dark aspect of the moon” – this character usually means ba ? “overlord; hegemon”. For example, “On the third month, when (the growth phase, ??) of the moon began to wane, the duke of Chow [i.e., Duke of Zhou] commenced the foundations, and proceeded to build the new great city of L?” (tr. Legge 1865:434). The Zhuangzi “[Writings of] Master Zhuang” wrote zaopo ?? (lit. “rotten dregs”) “worthless; unwanted; waste matter” with a po ? variant. A wheelwright sees Duke Huan of Qi with books by dead sages and says, “what you are reading there is nothing but the [??] chaff and dregs of the men of old!” (tr. Watson 1968:152).
In the history of Chinese writing, characters for po ?/? “lunar brightness” appeared before those for hun ? “soul; spirit”. The spiritual hun ? and po ? “dual souls” are first recorded in Warring States Period (475–221 BCE) Seal Script characters. The lunar po ? or ? “moon’s brightness” appears in both Zhou Dynasty (1045–256 BCE) Bronzeware script and Oracle bone script, but not in Shang Dynasty (ca. 1600–1046 BCE) oracle inscriptions. The earliest form of this “lunar brightness” character was found on a (ca. 11th century BCE) Zhou oracle bone inscription (Yü 1987:370).

The po soul’s etymology is better understood than the hun soul’s. Schuessler (2007:290, 417) reconstructs hun ? “‘spiritual soul’ which makes a human personality” and po ? “vegetative or animal soul … which accounts for growth and physiological functions” as Middle Chinese ?u?n and p?ak from Old Chinese *wûn and *phrâk.
The (ca. 80 CE) Baihu Tang ??? gave pseudo-etymologies for hun and po through Chinese character puns. It explains hun ? with zhuan ? “deliver; pass on; impart; spread” and yun ? “rue (used to keep insects out of books); to weed”, and po ? with po ? ” compel; force; coerce; urgent” and bai ? “white; bright”.
What do the words hun and [po] mean? Hun expresses the idea of continuous propagation ([zhuan] ?), unresting flight; it is the qi of the Lesser Yang, working in man in an external direction, and it governs the nature (or the instincts, [xing] ?). [Po] expresses the idea of a continuous pressing urge ([po] ?) on man; it is the [qi] of the Lesser Yin, and works in him, governing the emotions ([qing] ?). Hun is connected with the idea of weeding ([yun] ?), for with the instincts the evil weeds (in man’s nature) are removed. [Po] is connected with the idea of brightening ([bai] ?), for with the emotions the interior (of the personality) is governed. (tr. Needham and Lu 1974:87)
Etymologically, Schuessler says pò ? “animal soul” “is the same word as” pò ? “a lunar phase”. He cites the Zuozhuan (534 BCE, see below) using the lunar jishengpo ??? to mean “With the first development of a fetus grows the vegetative soul”.
Pò, the soul responsible for growth, is the same as pò the waxing and waning of the moon”. The meaning ‘soul’ has probably been transferred from the moon since men must have been aware of lunar phases long before they had developed theories on the soul. This is supported by the etymology ‘bright’, and by the inverted word order which can only have originated with meteorological expressions … The association with the moon explains perhaps why the pò soul is classified as Yin … in spite of the etymology ‘bright’ (which should be Yang), hun’s Yang classificiation may be due to the association with clouds and by extension sky, even though the word invokes ‘dark’. ‘Soul’ and ‘moon’ are related in other cultures, by cognation or convergence, as in Tibeto-Burman and Proto-Lolo–Burmese *s/?-la “moon; soul; spirit”, Written Tibetan cognates bla “soul” and zla “moon”, and Proto-Miao–Yao *bla “spirit; soul; moon”. (2007:417)
Lunar associations of po are evident in the Classical Chinese terms chanpo ?? “the moon” (with “toad; toad in the moon; moon”) and haopo ?? “moon; moonlight” (with “white; bright; luminous”).
The semantics of po ? “white soul” probably originated with ? “lunar whiteness”. Zhou bronze inscriptions commonly recorded lunar phases with the terms jishengpo ??? “after the brightness has grown” and jisipo ??? “after the brightness has died”, which Schuessler explains as “second quarter of the lunar month” and “last quarter of the lunar month”. Chinese scholars have variously interpreted these two terms as lunar quarters or fixed days, and (Shaughnessy 1992:136–145) Wang Guowei’s lunar-quarter analysis the most likely. Thus, jishengpo is from the 7th/8th to the 14th/15th days of the lunar month and jisipo is from the 23rd/24th to the end of the month. Yü (1987:370) translates them as “after the birth of the crescent” and “after the death of the crescent”. Etymologically, lunar and spiritual po < p?ak < *phrâk ? are cognate with bai < b?k < *brâk ? "white" (Matisoff 1980, Yü 1981, Carr 1985). According to Hu Shih (1946:30), po etymologically means "white, whiteness, and bright light"; "The primitive Chinese seem to have regarded the changing phases of the moon as periodic birth and death of its [po], its 'white light' or soul." Yü (1981:83) says this ancient association between the po soul and the "growing light of the new moon is of tremendous importance to our understanding of certain myths related to the seventh day of the months." Two celebrated examples in Chinese mythology are Xi Wangmu and Emperor Wu meeting on the seventh day of the first lunar month and The Princess and the Cowherd or Qixi Festival held on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month.
The etymology of hun < ?u?n < *wûn ? is comparatively less certain. Hu (1946:31) said, "The word hun is etymologically the same as the word yun, meaning "clouds." The clouds float about and seem more free and more active than the cold, white-lighted portion of the growing and waning moon." Schuessler cites two possibilities.
Since pò is the ‘bright’ soul, hún is the ‘dark’ soul and therefore cognate to yún ? ‘cloud’ [Carr 1985:62], perhaps in the sense of ‘shadowy’ because some believe that the hún soul will live after death in a world of shadows [Eberhard 1967:17]. (2007:290)

Based on Zuozhuan usages of hun and po in four historical contexts, Yü (1987:370) extrapolates that po was the original name for a human soul, and the dualistic conception of hun and po “began to gain currency in the middle of the sixth century” BCE.
Two earlier 6th century contexts used the po soul alone. Both describe Tian ? “heaven; god” duo ? “seizing; taking away” a person’s po, which resulted in a loss of mental faculties. In 593 BCE (Duke Xuan 15th year, tr. Legge 1872:329), after Zhao Tong ?? behaved inappropriately at the Zhou court, an observer predicted: “In less than ten years [Zhao Tong] will be sure to meet with great calamity. Heaven has taken his [?] wits away from him.” In 543 BCE (Duke Xiang 29th year, tr. Legge 1872:551), Boyou ?? from Zheng (state) acted irrationally, which an official interpreted as: “Heaven is destroying [Boyou], and has taken away his [?] reason.” Boyou’s political enemies subsequently arranged to take away his hereditary position and assassinate him.
Two later 6th century Zuozhuan contexts used po together with the hun soul. In 534 BCE (Duke Zhao 7th year, tr. Legge 1872:618), the ghost of Boyou ?? (above) was seeking revenge on his murderers, and terrifying the people of Zheng. The philosopher and statesman Zi Chan, realizing that Boyou’s loss of hereditary office had caused his spirit to be deprived of sacrifices, reinstated his son to the family position, and the ghost disappeared. When a friend asked Zi Chan to explain ghosts, he gave what Yu (1972:372) calls “the locus classicus on the subject of the human soul in the Chinese tradition.”
When a man is born, (we see) in his first movements what is called the [?] animal soul. [???] After this has been produced, it is developed into what is called the [?] spirit. By the use of things the subtle elements are multiplied, and the [??] soul and spirit become strong. They go on in this way, growing in etherealness and brightness, till they become (thoroughly) spiritual and intelligent. When an ordinary man or woman dies a violent death, the [??] soul and spirit are still able to keep hanging about men in the shape of an evil apparition; how much more might this be expected in the case of [Boyou]. … Belonging to a family which had held for three generations the handle of government, his use of things had been extensive, the subtle essences which he had imbibed had been many. His clan also was a great one, and his connexions [sic] were distinguished. Is it not entirely reasonable that, having died a violent death, he should be a [?] ghost?
Compare the translation of Needham and Lu (1974:86), who interpret this as an early Chinese discourse on embryology.
When a foetus begins to develop, it is (due to) the [po]. (When this soul has given it a form) then comes the Yang part, called hun. The essences ([qing] ?) of many things (wu ?) then give strength to these (two souls), and so they acquire the vitality, animation and good cheer (shuang ?) of these essences. Thus eventually there arises spirituality and intelligence (shen ming ??).”
In 516 BCE (Duke Zhao 20th year, tr. Legge 1872:708), the Duke of Song (state) and a guest named Shusun ?? were both seen weeping during a supposedly joyful gathering. Yue Qi ??, a Song court official, said: “This year both our ruler and [Shusun] are likely to die. I have heard that joy in the midst of grief and grief in the midst of joy are signs of a loss of [xin ?] mind. The essential vigor and brightness of the mind is what we call the [hun] and the [po]. When these leave it, how can the man continue long?” Hun and po souls, explains Yu (1987:371), “are regarded as the very essence of the mind, the source of knowledge and intelligence. Death is thought to follow inevitably when the hun and the p’o leave the body. We have reason to believe that around this time the idea of hun was still relatively new.”

?

A top line representing the level above a man with outstretched arms (大).

天 (radical 37 大+1, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一大 (MK), four-corner 10430, composition ⿱一大)
sky, heaven, celestial
god, godly, Deva
day
Note: The top line can be either longer or shorter than the arms.

Descendants

天 (hiragana てん, romaji ten):
heaven; the sky
Buddhist term, literally meaning: “heaven”, referring to one of the six realms of reincarnation in Buddhist cosmology.

On: てん (ten)
Kun: あめ (ame), そら (sora)

tian, ( Chinese: “heaven” or “sky”) Wade-Giles romanization t’ien, in indigenous Chinese religion, the supreme power reigning over lesser gods and human beings. The term tian may refer to a deity, to impersonal nature, or to both.

As a god, tian is sometimes perceived to be an impersonal power in contrast to Shangdi (“Supreme Ruler”), but the two are closely identified and the terms frequently used synonymously. Evidence suggests that tian originally referred to the sky while Shangdi referred to the Supreme Ancestor who resided there. The first mention of tian seems to have occurred early in the Zhou dynasty (1046–256 bce), and it is thought that tian assimilated Shangdi, the supreme god of the preceding Shang dynasty (c. mid-16th century–mid-11th century bce). The importance of both tian and Shangdi to the ancient Chinese lay in their assumed influence over the fertility of the clan and its crops; sacrifices were offered to these powers solely by the king and, later, by the emperor.

Chinese rulers were traditionally referred to as Son of Heaven (tianzi), and their authority was believed to emanate from tian. Beginning in the Zhou dynasty, sovereignty was explained by the concept of the mandate of heaven (tianming). This was a grant of authority that depended not on divine right but on virtue. Indeed, this authority was revocable if the ruler did not attend to his virtue. Since the ruler’s virtue was believed to be reflected in the harmony of the empire, social and political unrest were traditionally considered signs that the mandate had been revoked and would soon be transferred to a succeeding dynasty.

Although in the early Zhou tian was conceived as an anthropomorphic, all-powerful deity, in later references tian is often no longer personalized. In this sense, tian can be likened to nature or to fate. In many cases, it is unclear which meaning of tian is being used. This ambiguity can be explained by the fact that Chinese philosophy was concerned less with defining the character of tian than with defining its relationship to humanity. Scholars generally agreed that tian was the source of moral law, but for centuries they debated whether tian responded to human pleas and rewarded and punished human actions or whether events merely followed the order and principles established by tian.

Shangdi, ( Chinese: “Lord-on-High”) Wade-Giles romanization Shang-ti, also called Di, ancient Chinese deity, the greatest ancestor and deity who controlled victory in battle, harvest, the fate of the capital, and the weather. He had no cultic following, however, and was probably considered too distant and inscrutable to be influenced by mortals. Shangdi was considered to be the supreme deity during the Shang dynasty (1600–1046 century bce), but during the Zhou dynasty (1046–256 bce) he was gradually supplanted by heaven (tian).

A top line representing the level above a man with outstretched arms (?).

? (radical 37 ?+1, 4 strokes, cangjie input ?? (MK), four-corner 10430, composition ???)
sky, heaven, celestial
god, godly, Deva
day
Note: The top line can be either longer or shorter than the arms.

Descendants
?
?

? (hiragana ??, romaji ten):
heaven; the sky
Buddhist term, literally meaning: “heaven”, referring to one of the six realms of reincarnation in Buddhist cosmology.

On: ?? (ten)
Kun: ?? (ame), ?? (sora)

tian, ( Chinese: “heaven” or “sky”) Wade-Giles romanization t’ien, in indigenous Chinese religion, the supreme power reigning over lesser gods and human beings. The term tian may refer to a deity, to impersonal nature, or to both.

As a god, tian is sometimes perceived to be an impersonal power in contrast to Shangdi (“Supreme Ruler”), but the two are closely identified and the terms frequently used synonymously. Evidence suggests that tian originally referred to the sky while Shangdi referred to the Supreme Ancestor who resided there. The first mention of tian seems to have occurred early in the Zhou dynasty (1046–256 bce), and it is thought that tian assimilated Shangdi, the supreme god of the preceding Shang dynasty (c. mid-16th century–mid-11th century bce). The importance of both tian and Shangdi to the ancient Chinese lay in their assumed influence over the fertility of the clan and its crops; sacrifices were offered to these powers solely by the king and, later, by the emperor.

Chinese rulers were traditionally referred to as Son of Heaven (tianzi), and their authority was believed to emanate from tian. Beginning in the Zhou dynasty, sovereignty was explained by the concept of the mandate of heaven (tianming). This was a grant of authority that depended not on divine right but on virtue. Indeed, this authority was revocable if the ruler did not attend to his virtue. Since the ruler’s virtue was believed to be reflected in the harmony of the empire, social and political unrest were traditionally considered signs that the mandate had been revoked and would soon be transferred to a succeeding dynasty.

Although in the early Zhou tian was conceived as an anthropomorphic, all-powerful deity, in later references tian is often no longer personalized. In this sense, tian can be likened to nature or to fate. In many cases, it is unclear which meaning of tian is being used. This ambiguity can be explained by the fact that Chinese philosophy was concerned less with defining the character of tian than with defining its relationship to humanity. Scholars generally agreed that tian was the source of moral law, but for centuries they debated whether tian responded to human pleas and rewarded and punished human actions or whether events merely followed the order and principles established by tian.

Shangdi, ( Chinese: “Lord-on-High”) Wade-Giles romanization Shang-ti, also called Di, ancient Chinese deity, the greatest ancestor and deity who controlled victory in battle, harvest, the fate of the capital, and the weather. He had no cultic following, however, and was probably considered too distant and inscrutable to be influenced by mortals. Shangdi was considered to be the supreme deity during the Shang dynasty (1600–1046 century bce), but during the Zhou dynasty (1046–256 bce) he was gradually supplanted by heaven (tian).

??

Sheng Yen (聖嚴; Pinyin: Shèngyán, birth name Zhang Baokang, 張保康) (December 4, 1930 – February 3, 2009) was a Buddhist monk, a religious scholar, and one of the mainstream teachers of Chinese Chan Buddhism. He was the 57th generational descendant of Linji Yixuan in the Linji school(Japanese: Rinzai) and a 3rd generational descendant of Master Hsu Yun. In the Caodong (Japanese: Sōtō) lineage, Sheng Yen was the 52nd generational descendant of Master Dongshan (807-869), and the direct descendant of Master Dongchu (1908–1977).[1]
Sheng Yen was the founder of the Dharma Drum Mountain, a Buddhist organization based in Taiwan. During his time in Taiwan, Sheng Yen was well known as one of the progressive Buddhist teachers who sought to teach Buddhism in a modern and Western-influenced world. In Taiwan, he was one of four prominent modern Buddhist masters, along with Masters Hsing YunCheng Yen and Wei Chueh. In 2000 he was one of the keynote speakers in the Millennium World Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders held in the United Nations

Sheng Yen (??; Pinyin: Shèngyán, birth name Zhang Baokang, ???) (December 4, 1930 – February 3, 2009) was a Buddhist monk, a religious scholar, and one of the mainstream teachers of Chinese Chan Buddhism. He was the 57th generational descendant of Linji Yixuan in the Linji school(Japanese: Rinzai) and a 3rd generational descendant of Master Hsu Yun. In the Caodong (Japanese: S?t?) lineage, Sheng Yen was the 52nd generational descendant of Master Dongshan (807-869), and the direct descendant of Master Dongchu (1908–1977).[1]
Sheng Yen was the founder of the Dharma Drum Mountain, a Buddhist organization based in Taiwan. During his time in Taiwan, Sheng Yen was well known as one of the progressive Buddhist teachers who sought to teach Buddhism in a modern and Western-influenced world. In Taiwan, he was one of four prominent modern Buddhist masters, along with Masters Hsing YunCheng Yen and Wei Chueh. In 2000 he was one of the keynote speakers in the Millennium World Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders held in the United Nations

??

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic 耳 (“ear”) + phonetic 呈

聖 (radical 128 耳+7, 13 strokes, cangjie input 尸口竹土 (SRHG), four-corner 16104)
holy, sacred, consecration
sage, saint, saintly

聖 (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)
holy, sacred

On: せい (sei), しょう (shō)
Kun: ひじり (hijiri), ひじり-だつ (hijiri-datsu), ひじ-る (hiji-ru), きよい (kiyoi)
Nanori: きよ (kiyo), きよし (kiyoshi)

Compound of 日 (hi, “day, light, the sun”) +‎ 知り (shiri, “knowing”). The shiri changes to jiri due to rendaku (連濁).

聖 (hiragana ひじり, romaji hijiri)
a very virtuous or godly person; a saint
(honorific) the emperor
a sage
an expert; someone distinguished in their field
a virtuous or high-ranking Buddhist priest or monk
a Buddhist priest or monk in general
a monk who has gone into seclusion for purposes of asceticism and spiritual enlightenment
a monk who has adopted an itinerant lifestyle for purposes of asceticism andspiritual enlightenment, supporting themselves by gathering alms and food contributions; by extension, an itinerant preacher monk from Mount Kōya
(euphemistic) alternate name for 清酒 (seishu) (“refined sake”)
a textile peddler (from the resemblance to itinerant 高野聖 (Kōya hijiri) Buddhist preachers who would carry everything on their backs)

(saint): 聖人 (せいじん, seijin)
(emperor): 天皇 (てんのう, tennō)
(sage): 仙人 (せんにん, sennnin)
(expert): 達人 (たつじん, tatsujin)
(virtuous monk): 聖僧 (せいそう, seisō), 大徳 (だいとく, daitoku)
(monk or priest in general): 僧侶 (そうりょう, sōryo), 法師 (ほうし, hōshi)
(ascetic in seclusion): 修験者 (しゅげんしゃ, shugensha)
(itinerant ascetic, textile peddler): 聖方 (ひじりかた, hijirikata)
(itinerant preacher monk): 高野聖 (こうやひじり, Kōya hijiri)

聖人 (traditional, Pinyin shèngrén, simplified 圣人)
a saint; a sage

人 (radical 9 人+0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 人 (O), four-corner 80000)
person
people
humanity
someone else

Pictogram (象形) – resembles the legs of a human being. The ancient version of this character depicted a man with arms and legs. Compare 大.

In print, 人 may have symmetric legs. However in handwriting, to distinguish from 入, the right leg will be shorter, the shape looking like a ʎ; in 入 the left leg is shorter.

Go’on: にん (nin)
Kan’on: じん (jin)
Kun: ひと (hito)
Nanori: じ (ji), と (to), ね (ne), ひこ (hiko), ふみ (fumi)

http://www.thetao.info/tao/big5.htm

Etymologically 聖 means the duty to listen and to repeat what’s learned.

According to R.B. Blakney, “Sheng Jen” refers to a wise man or sage. Wise men never describe themselves as wise. An anecdote describes an encounter between a traveler and a wise man. The traveler asks, “Are you a wise man?” The wise man replies, “If I say I am a wise man, then obviously I am not; but if I say I’m not a wise man, I am not telling the truth.” The term “wise man” may have been a euphemism for “king,” and poems describing the wise man may have been intended as open letters to political leaders.

Read more: The Main Ideas of the Tao Te Ching | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/info_8249619_main-ideas-tao-te-ching.html#ixzz2GpAEbpYj

Anticipate things that are difficult while they are easy, and do things that would become great while they are small. All difficult things in the world are sure to arise from a previous state in which they were easy, and all great things from one in which they were small.

六 十 三 章

為 無 為 , 事 無 事 , 味 無 味 。
大 小 多 少 , 報 怨 以 德 。
○ 難 於 易 , 為 大 於 細 。
天 下 難 事 , 必 作 於 易 ;
天 下 大 事 , 必 作 於 細 。
是 以 聖 人 終 不 為 大 , 故 能 成 其 大 。
夫 輕 諾 必 寡 信 , 多 易 必 多 難 , 是 以 聖 人 猶 難 之 , 故 終無 難 。


(Chorus)
Carry on my wayward son
There’ll be peace when you are done
Lay your weary head to rest
Don’t you cry no more

Once I rose above the noise and confusion
Just to get a glimpse beyond this illusion
I was soaring ever higher
But I flew too high

Though my eyes could see I still was a blind man
Though my mind could think I still was a mad man
I hear the voices when I’m dreaming
I can hear them say

(Chorus)

Masquerading as a man with a reason
My charade is the event of the season
And if I claim to be a wise man, well
It surely means that I don’t know

On a stormy sea of moving emotion
Tossed about, I’m like a ship on the ocean
I set a course for winds of fortune
But I hear the voices say

(Chorus)
No! (Instrumental break)

Carry on, you will always remember
Carry on, nothing equals the splendor
Now your life’s no longer empty
Surely heaven waits for you

Carry on my wayward son
There’ll be peace when you are done
Lay your weary head to rest
Don’t you cry, don’t you cry no more… no more

Phono-semantic compound (??): semantic ? (“ear”) + phonetic ?

? (radical 128 ?+7, 13 strokes, cangjie input ???? (SRHG), four-corner 16104)
holy, sacred, consecration
sage, saint, saintly

? (grade 6 “Ky?iku” kanji)
holy, sacred

On: ?? (sei), ??? (sh?)
Kun: ??? (hijiri), ???-?? (hijiri-datsu), ??-? (hiji-ru), ??? (kiyoi)
Nanori: ?? (kiyo), ??? (kiyoshi)

Compound of ? (hi, “day, light, the sun”) +? ?? (shiri, “knowing”). The shiri changes to jiri due to rendaku (??).

? (hiragana ???, romaji hijiri)
a very virtuous or godly person; a saint
(honorific) the emperor
a sage
an expert; someone distinguished in their field
a virtuous or high-ranking Buddhist priest or monk
a Buddhist priest or monk in general
a monk who has gone into seclusion for purposes of asceticism and spiritual enlightenment
a monk who has adopted an itinerant lifestyle for purposes of asceticism andspiritual enlightenment, supporting themselves by gathering alms and food contributions; by extension, an itinerant preacher monk from Mount K?ya
(euphemistic) alternate name for ?? (seishu) (“refined sake”)
a textile peddler (from the resemblance to itinerant ??? (K?ya hijiri) Buddhist preachers who would carry everything on their backs)

(saint): ?? (????, seijin)
(emperor): ?? (????, tenn?)
(sage): ?? (????, sennnin)
(expert): ?? (????, tatsujin)
(virtuous monk): ?? (????, seis?), ?? (????, daitoku)
(monk or priest in general): ?? (?????, s?ryo), ?? (???, h?shi)
(ascetic in seclusion): ??? (??????, shugensha)
(itinerant ascetic, textile peddler): ?? (?????, hijirikata)
(itinerant preacher monk): ??? (??????, K?ya hijiri)

?? (traditional, Pinyin shèngrén, simplified ??)
a saint; a sage

? (radical 9 ?+0, 2 strokes, cangjie input ? (O), four-corner 80000)
person
people
humanity
someone else

Pictogram (??) – resembles the legs of a human being. The ancient version of this character depicted a man with arms and legs. Compare ?.

In print, ? may have symmetric legs. However in handwriting, to distinguish from ?, the right leg will be shorter, the shape looking like a ?; in ? the left leg is shorter.

Go’on: ?? (nin)
Kan’on: ?? (jin)
Kun: ?? (hito)
Nanori: ? (ji), ? (to), ? (ne), ?? (hiko), ?? (fumi)

http://www.thetao.info/tao/big5.htm

Etymologically ? means the duty to listen and to repeat what’s learned.

According to R.B. Blakney, “Sheng Jen” refers to a wise man or sage. Wise men never describe themselves as wise. An anecdote describes an encounter between a traveler and a wise man. The traveler asks, “Are you a wise man?” The wise man replies, “If I say I am a wise man, then obviously I am not; but if I say I’m not a wise man, I am not telling the truth.” The term “wise man” may have been a euphemism for “king,” and poems describing the wise man may have been intended as open letters to political leaders.

Read more: The Main Ideas of the Tao Te Ching | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/info_8249619_main-ideas-tao-te-ching.html#ixzz2GpAEbpYj

Anticipate things that are difficult while they are easy, and do things that would become great while they are small. All difficult things in the world are sure to arise from a previous state in which they were easy, and all great things from one in which they were small.

? ? ? ?

? ? ? , ? ? ? , ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ;
? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? ? , ? ?? ? ?


(Chorus)
Carry on my wayward son
There’ll be peace when you are done
Lay your weary head to rest
Don’t you cry no more

Once I rose above the noise and confusion
Just to get a glimpse beyond this illusion
I was soaring ever higher
But I flew too high

Though my eyes could see I still was a blind man
Though my mind could think I still was a mad man
I hear the voices when I’m dreaming
I can hear them say

(Chorus)

Masquerading as a man with a reason
My charade is the event of the season
And if I claim to be a wise man, well
It surely means that I don’t know

On a stormy sea of moving emotion
Tossed about, I’m like a ship on the ocean
I set a course for winds of fortune
But I hear the voices say

(Chorus)
No! (Instrumental break)

Carry on, you will always remember
Carry on, nothing equals the splendor
Now your life’s no longer empty
Surely heaven waits for you

Carry on my wayward son
There’ll be peace when you are done
Lay your weary head to rest
Don’t you cry, don’t you cry no more… no more