neuronas espejo

Se denominan neuronas espejo, a una cierta clase de neuronas que se activan cuando un animal ejecuta una acción y cuando observa esa misma acción al ser ejecutada por otro individuo,1 especialmente un congénere. Las neuronas del individuo imitan como “reflejando” la acción de otro: así, el observador está él mismo realizando la acción del … Continue reading neuronas espejo

Se denominan neuronas espejo, a una cierta clase de neuronas que se activan cuando un animal ejecuta una acción y cuando observa esa misma acción al ser ejecutada por otro individuo,1 especialmente un congénere.

Las neuronas del individuo imitan como “reflejando” la acción de otro: así, el observador está él mismo realizando la acción del observado, de allí su nombre de “espejo”. Tales neuronas habían sido observadas en primer lugar en primates, y luego se encontraron en humanos y algunas aves. En el ser humano se las encuentra en el área de Broca y en la corteza parietal.

En las neurociencias se supone que estas neuronas desempeñan una función importante dentro de las capacidades cognitivas ligadas a la vida social, tales como la empatía (capacidad de ponerse en el lugar de otro) y la imitación. De aquí que algunos científicos consideran que la neurona espejo es uno de los descubrimientos más importantes de las neurociencias en la última década

Thermoeconomics

Thermoeconomics, also referred to as biophysical economics, is a school of heterodox economics that applies the laws of thermodynamics to economic theory.[1] The term “thermoeconomics” was coined in 1962 by American engineer Myron Tribus,[2][3][4]Thermoeconomics can be thought of as the statistical physics of economic value. Thermoeconomics is based on the proposition that the role of […]

Thermoeconomics, also referred to as biophysical economics, is a school of heterodox economics that applies the laws of thermodynamics to economic theory.[1] The term “thermoeconomics” was coined in 1962 by American engineer Myron Tribus,[2][3][4]Thermoeconomics can be thought of as the statistical physics of economic value.

Thermoeconomics is based on the proposition that the role of energy in biological evolution should be defined and understood not through the second law of thermodynamics but in terms of such economic criteria as productivity, efficiency, and especially the costs and benefits (or profitability) of the various mechanisms for capturing and utilizing available energy to build biomass and do work.[6][7]

Thermodynamics

Thermoeconomists maintain that human economic systems can be modeled as thermodynamic systems. Then, based on this premise, theoretical economic analogs of the first and second laws of thermodynamics are developed.[8] In addition, the thermodynamic quantity exergy, i.e. measure of the useful work energy of a system, is one measure of value.

System dynamics

System dynamics is a computer-aided approach to policy analysis and design. It applies to dynamic problems arising in complex social, managerial, economic, or ecological systems — literally any dynamic systems characterized by interdependence, mutual interaction, information feedback, and circular causality. The three most commonly used software packages are listed below in alphabetical order.  Additional tools […]

System dynamics is a computer-aided approach to policy analysis and design. It applies to dynamic problems arising in complex social, managerial, economic, or ecological systems — literally any dynamic systems characterized by interdependence, mutual interaction, information feedback, and circular causality.

The three most commonly used software packages are listed below in alphabetical order.  Additional tools that support model construction are noted at the end.

iThink® and STELLA® are two names for one model development platform published by isee systems. The software is available in different configurations under a commercial license for Windows and Macintosh computers. Educational licenses and a free runtime version of the software are available.

Powersim Studio is available in a number of different configurations from Powersim Software. The software is available under  commercial license and runs under Windows. Educational licenses and options for publishing standalone model packages are available. A new free version, Studio Express is now available.

Vensim® is available in a number of different configurations from Ventana Systems, Inc. The software is available under a commercial license and runs on Windows and the Macintosh. Educational licenses, including a configuration of the software that is free for educational use, and a free runtime version of the software are available.

See Also: There are a number of other products that can be used to construct models. These include: Anylogic, Goldsim, Berkely Madonna, Sysdea and SimGua under related methodologies and MyStrategy under pedagogical tools.

Simantics System Dynamics is a ready-to-use system dynamics modelling and simulation software application for understanding different organizations, markets and other complex systems and their dynamic behavior.

ASCEND is a free open-source software program for solving small to very large mathematical models. ASCEND can solve systems of non-linear equations, linear and nonlinear optimisation problems, and dynamic systems expressed in the form of differential/algebraic equations.

Albert Szent-Györgyi

Albert Szent-Györgyi de Nagyrápolt (Hungarian: nagyrápolti Szent-Györgyi Albert, pronounced [ˈnɒɟraːpolti ˈsɛnɟørɟi ˈɒlbɛrt]; September 16, 1893 – October 22, 1986) was a Hungarian American physiologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937.[1] He is credited with discovering vitamin C and the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle. He was also active in […]

Albert Szent-Györgyi de Nagyrápolt (Hungarian: nagyrápolti Szent-Györgyi Albert, pronounced [?n??ra?polti ?s?n?ør?i ??lb?rt]; September 16, 1893 – October 22, 1986) was a Hungarian American physiologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937.[1] He is credited with discovering vitamin C and the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle. He was also active in the Hungarian Resistance during World War II and entered Hungarian politics after the war.

risk perception

Risk as Analysis and Risk as Feelings: Some Thoughts about Affect, Reason, Risk, and Rationality

Paul Slovic,

Melissa L. Finucane,

Ellen Peters,

Donald G. MacGregor

Risk as Analysis and Risk as Feelings: Some Thoughts about Affect, Reason, Risk, and Rationality

  • Paul Slovic,

  • Melissa L. Finucane,

  • Ellen Peters,

  • Donald G. MacGregor

Copenhagen Accord

The concept “Anthropocene” was originally proposed as a geological epoch in which humans have become a dominant driver of Earth System change (Crutzen, 2002). In recent years, the use of the term has broadened to signify (1) the novelty of the time period in which humans find themselves as a result of this; (2) the […]

The concept “Anthropocene” was originally proposed as a geological epoch in which humans have become a dominant driver of Earth System change (Crutzen, 2002). In recent years, the use of the term has broadened to signify (1) the novelty of the time period in which humans find themselves as a result of this; (2) the novel challenges, opportunities and uncertainties that awareness of global potency brings; and (3) the new perspectives required to deal with them. In the Anthropocene, change has reached the planetary level, not only through accumulation but also through the accelerating emergence of systemic symptoms of high magnitude and notable simultaneity and synchronicity (Steffen et al., 2015a). All aspects of these changes imply risk and security issues for nearer or more distant futures, from the unexpected magnitude of some processes to unperceived connections between them, to the crossing of planetary boundaries (Rockström et al., 2009 and Steffen et al., 2015b).

Human influence on the Earth System has been ongoing for centuries (Turner et al., 1990), yet only recently has it had significant implications for the structure and functioning of the Earth System at the planetary level (Steffen et al., 2015b). In the Anthropocene, humans are doing more than simply changing local land cover, extracting resources, and degrading the air, water, and soil. They have also become key drivers and amplifiers of planetary change, influencing large-scale processes and systems, including the climate, the oceans and terrestrial ecosystems, and ultimately the functioning of the Earth System as a whole. These intertwined and more complex socio-ecological systems are likely to exhibit more unexpected, emergent behaviors, with new risks and uncertainties.

Copenhagen Accord

1. We underline that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time. We
emphasise our strong political will to urgently combat climate change in accordance with the principle ofcommon but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. To achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention to stabilize greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, we shall, recognizing the scientific view that the increase in global temperature should be below 2 degrees Celsius, on the basis of equity and in the context of sustainable development, enhance our long-term cooperative action to combat climate change. We recognize the critical impacts of climate change and the potential impacts of response measures on countries particularly vulnerable to its adverse effects and stress the need to
establish a comprehensive adaptation programme including international support.

Why did Copenhagen fail to deliver a climate deal?

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which commits its Parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets. Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of […]

The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which commits its Parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets.

Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity, the Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities.”

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. The detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol were adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh, Morocco, in 2001, and are referred to as the “Marrakesh Accords.” Its first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012.