gas and mortgage

The world population is the total number of living humans on Earth. As of 2013, it is estimated at 7.176 billion by the United States Census Bureau (USCB).[1] The USCB estimates that the world population exceeded 7 billion on March 12, 2012.[2]According to a separate estimate by the United Nations Population … Continue reading

The world population is the total number of living humans on Earth. As of 2013, it is estimated at 7.176 billion by the United States Census Bureau (USCB).[1] The USCB estimates that the world population exceeded 7 billion on March 12, 2012.[2]According to a separate estimate by the United Nations Population Fund, it reached this milestone on October 31, 2011.[3][4][5]

The world population has experienced continuous growth since the end of the Great Famine and the Black Death in 1350, when it was near 370 million.[6] The highest growth rates – global population increases above 1.8% per year – occurred briefly during the 1950s, and for longer during the 1960s and 1970s. The global growth rate peaked at 2.2% in 1963, and has declined to below 1.1% as of 2012.[7] Total annual births were highest in the late 1980s at about 138 million,[8] and are now expected to remain essentially constant at their 2011 level of 134 million, while deaths number 56 million per year, and are expected to increase to 80 million per year by 2040.[9]

Current UN projections show a continued increase in population in the near future with a steady decline in population growth rate; global population is expected to reach between 8.3 and 10.9 billion by 2050.[10][11] UN Population Division estimates for the year 2150 range between 3.2 and 24.8 billion;[12] one of many independent mathematical models supports the lower estimate.[13] Some analysts have questioned the sustainability of further world population growth, highlighting the growing pressures on the environment, global food supplies, and energy resources

While everyone in the world could fit into a small chunk of America if they all lived in the density of New York, the world wouldn’t survive at all if everyone in the world decided to consume like those New Yorkers (or any Americans). While those of us in the U.S. consume enough resources to take up 4.1 Earth’s worth of resources, the only reason we haven’t eaten through everything is that the rest of the world is balancing us out by using far more reasonable percentages of the Earth.

If the Chinese and Indians were to use as much energy per capita as Americans use, their total power consumption would be 14 times as great as that of the United States.

Even if Asians were to restrict themselves to lower European levels of energy usage they would still consume eight to nine times as much power as America does today.

Spend a week in China and you’ll see why. Here’s a Shanghai Daily headline from Sept. 7, 2012: “City Warned of Water Resource Shortage.” The article said: “Shanghai may face a shortage of water resources if the population continues to soar. … The current capacity of the city’s water supply was about 16 million tons per day, which is able to cover the demand of 26 million people. However, once the population reaches 30 million, the demand would rise to 18 million tons per day, exceeding the current capacity.” Shanghai will hit 30 million in about seven years!

“Success in the ‘American Dream,’ ” notes Peggy Liu, the founder of the Joint U.S.-China Collaboration on Clean Energy, or Juccce, “used to just mean a house, a family of four, and two cars, but now it’s escalated to conspicuous consumption as epitomized by Kim Kardashian. China simply cannot follow that path — or the planet will be stripped bare of natural resources to make all that the Chinese consumers want to consume.”

However we look at it, the world cannot expect to see its energy usage grow by such an extent. Conventional forms of power generation will produce carbon in such volumes that our planet will be condemned to unmanageable climate change, while the alternatives — even nuclear power — are simply not viable within the time frames mentioned.

Or take cars. Estimates suggest that if China, India and other developing countries reach Western levels of car ownership, there could be 3 billion cars in the world, four times the current total, within four decades. Where will the fuel come from for these vehicles, and what about their environmental impact?

Similar calculations can be made for everything from chickens to iPads. Quite simply, this world just does not have enough for two more consumption-driven Americas.

Politicians, economists and businessmen remain in denial, using the crutch of technology, free markets and finance to spin messages about innovation and hope. But hope is not a plan.

This is misleading. She didn’t say she thought Obama’s government would pay for her gas and her mortgage. She said she wouldn’t have to “worry” about them anymore, probably meaning she hoped that she’d have enough income to cover those things. And she expected an increase in income due to some grand policy she mistakenly thought Obama would institute. The guy brings her ruby slippers before they met and she would later go on to compare Obama to the Wizard of Oz. Probably a preset script.

Espionaje recíproco

Domingo 17 de agosto de 2014

Con todo y lo condenable que resultan las prácticas de espionaje, no es difícil entender las motivaciones de las efectuadas por la NSA sobre gobiernos como el brasileño, el ruso o el chino, cuyos países representan, cada cual a su manera, desafíos comerciales y estratégicos para la menguante hegemonía estadunidense en el planeta y pugnan, en el contexto de la alianza BRICS (Brasil, Rusia, India, China, Sudáfrica), por establecer un orden planetario multipolar en sustitución del que se definió tras el colapso del bloque oriental, en 1991, y que ha girado en buena medida en torno a las orientaciones procedentes de Washington. Pero que esta actividad intrínsecamente desleal se realice entre estados que supuestamente comparten visiones del mundo, intereses y orientaciones, deja al descubierto la fragilidad de la alianza occidental en razón de las desconfianzas que la corroen y explica su creciente parálisis y su cada vez mayor incapacidad para enfrentar situaciones en las que hasta hace una o dos décadas solía actuar como un solo bloque.

En otro sentido, si ese es el grado de vigilancia subrepticia que llevan a cabo entre ellos los países más desarrollados y con mayor capacidad tecnológica y económica, no se requiere de mucha suspicacia para imaginar el férreo espionaje que ejercen sobre naciones menos avanzadas, como la nuestra, ni el inmenso poderío suplementario que les otorga la información obtenida por esos medios ilegítimos.

Domingo 17 de agosto de 2014

Con todo y lo condenable que resultan las prácticas de espionaje, no es difícil entender las motivaciones de las efectuadas por la NSA sobre gobiernos como el brasileño, el ruso o el chino, cuyos países representan, cada cual a su manera, desafíos comerciales y estratégicos para la menguante hegemonía estadunidense en el planeta y pugnan, en el contexto de la alianza BRICS (Brasil, Rusia, India, China, Sudáfrica), por establecer un orden planetario multipolar en sustitución del que se definió tras el colapso del bloque oriental, en 1991, y que ha girado en buena medida en torno a las orientaciones procedentes de Washington. Pero que esta actividad intrínsecamente desleal se realice entre estados que supuestamente comparten visiones del mundo, intereses y orientaciones, deja al descubierto la fragilidad de la alianza occidental en razón de las desconfianzas que la corroen y explica su creciente parálisis y su cada vez mayor incapacidad para enfrentar situaciones en las que hasta hace una o dos décadas solía actuar como un solo bloque.

En otro sentido, si ese es el grado de vigilancia subrepticia que llevan a cabo entre ellos los países más desarrollados y con mayor capacidad tecnológica y económica, no se requiere de mucha suspicacia para imaginar el férreo espionaje que ejercen sobre naciones menos avanzadas, como la nuestra, ni el inmenso poderío suplementario que les otorga la información obtenida por esos medios ilegítimos.

Korea

Published on Aug 14, 2013
A video explaining why the country of Korea split into two different countries: North Korea and South Korea.

Published on Aug 14, 2013
A video explaining why the country of Korea split into two different countries: North Korea and South Korea.

Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita (Sanskrit: श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता, Śrīmadbhagavadgītā, Sanskrit pronunciation: [ˈbʱəɡəʋəd̪ ɡiːˈt̪aː] ( listen)), literally meaning The Song of the Bhagavan, often referred to as simply the Gita, is a 700-verse scripture that is part of the Hindu epicMahabharata. It is a sacred text of the Hindus.
The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide Lord Krishna. Facing the duty to kill his relatives, Arjuna is “exhorted by his charioteer, Kṛiṣhṇa, among others, to stop hesitating and fulfill his Kṣatriya (warrior) duty as a warrior and kill.”[1] Inserted[1] in this appeal to ksatriyadharma (heroism)[2] is “a dialogue […] between diverging attitudes concerning and methods toward the attainment of liberation (moksha).[3]
The Bhagavad Gita presents a synthesis[4][5] of the Brahmanical concept of Dharma,[4][5][6] theistic bhakti,[7][6] the yogic ideals[5] ofliberation[5] through jnana,[7] and Samkhya philosophy.[web 1][note 1]
Numerous commentaries have been written on the Bhagavad Gita with widely differing views on the essentials. Vedanta commentators read varying relations between Self and Brahman in the text: Advaita Vedanta sees the non-dualism of Atman and Brahman as its essence,[8] whereas Bhedabheda and Vishishtadvaita see Atman and Brahman as both different and non-different, and Dvaita sees them as different. The setting of the Gita in a battlefield has been interpreted as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of the human life.
The Bhagavad Gitas call for selfless action inspired many leaders of the Indian independence movement including Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who referred to the Gita as his “spiritual dictionary”

http://www.dmoz.org/Society/Religion_and_Spirituality/Hinduism/Religious_Texts/Bhagavad_Gita


  • The Bhagavad Gita – E-text of the Bhagavad Gita, and the Sanatsugatiya and Anugita. A translation from the 19th century.
    [!]
  • Bhagavad Gita – Features audio and video clips, links, discourses, practical examples and humorous anecdotes.
    [!]
  • Bhagavad Gita – conversation with God – God’s conversation with man on the way to true eternal happiness.
    [!]
  • Bhagavad Gita As It Is – Edition by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada with transliteration and meaning of the Sanskrit verses.
    [!]
  • The Bhagavad Gita: The Divine Song of God – Read the entire Bhagavad Gita online and hear the original sanskrit verses sung in traditional melodies. Audio files in MP3 format.
    [!]
  • Bhagavad-Gita – Text and audio recitations in many languages, along with a description of the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya and avataras of Krishna.
    [!]
  • Bhagvad Gita – Information about the Hindu scripture called Bhagvad Gita.
    [!]
  • Geeta Saar – A translation of the scripture.
    [!]
  • The Gita Space – Verses and teachings of Gita. Includes comments by various acharyas and a list of books.
    [!]
  • Shree Bhagwad Gita – Articles about the Hindu text Bhagwad Gita (“Song of the Lord”), written circa 3000 B.C.

The Bhagavad Gita (Sanskrit: ????????????????, ?r?madbhagavadg?t?, Sanskrit pronunciation: [?b??????d? ?i??t?a?] ( )), literally meaning The Song of the Bhagavan, often referred to as simply the Gita, is a 700-verse scripture that is part of the Hindu epicMahabharata. It is a sacred text of the Hindus.
The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide Lord Krishna. Facing the duty to kill his relatives, Arjuna is “exhorted by his charioteer, K?i?h?a, among others, to stop hesitating and fulfill his K?atriya (warrior) duty as a warrior and kill.”[1] Inserted[1] in this appeal to ksatriyadharma (heroism)[2] is “a dialogue […] between diverging attitudes concerning and methods toward the attainment of liberation (moksha).[3]
The Bhagavad Gita presents a synthesis[4][5] of the Brahmanical concept of Dharma,[4][5][6] theistic bhakti,[7][6] the yogic ideals[5] ofliberation[5] through jnana,[7] and Samkhya philosophy.[web 1][note 1]
Numerous commentaries have been written on the Bhagavad Gita with widely differing views on the essentials. Vedanta commentators read varying relations between Self and Brahman in the text: Advaita Vedanta sees the non-dualism of Atman and Brahman as its essence,[8] whereas Bhedabheda and Vishishtadvaita see Atman and Brahman as both different and non-different, and Dvaita sees them as different. The setting of the Gita in a battlefield has been interpreted as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of the human life.
The Bhagavad Gitas call for selfless action inspired many leaders of the Indian independence movement including Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who referred to the Gita as his “spiritual dictionary”

http://www.dmoz.org/Society/Religion_and_Spirituality/Hinduism/Religious_Texts/Bhagavad_Gita


  • The Bhagavad Gita – E-text of the Bhagavad Gita, and the Sanatsugatiya and Anugita. A translation from the 19th century.
    [!]
  • Bhagavad Gita – Features audio and video clips, links, discourses, practical examples and humorous anecdotes.
    [!]
  • Bhagavad Gita – conversation with God – God’s conversation with man on the way to true eternal happiness.
    [!]
  • Bhagavad Gita As It Is – Edition by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada with transliteration and meaning of the Sanskrit verses.
    [!]
  • The Bhagavad Gita: The Divine Song of God – Read the entire Bhagavad Gita online and hear the original sanskrit verses sung in traditional melodies. Audio files in MP3 format.
    [!]
  • Bhagavad-Gita – Text and audio recitations in many languages, along with a description of the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya and avataras of Krishna.
    [!]
  • Bhagvad Gita – Information about the Hindu scripture called Bhagvad Gita.
    [!]
  • Geeta Saar – A translation of the scripture.
    [!]
  • The Gita Space – Verses and teachings of Gita. Includes comments by various acharyas and a list of books.
    [!]
  • Shree Bhagwad Gita – Articles about the Hindu text Bhagwad Gita (“Song of the Lord”), written circa 3000 B.C.

Dhammapada

The Dhammapada (Pāli; Prakrit: धम्मपद Dhammapada;[1] Sanskrit: धर्मपद Dharmapada) is a collection of sayings of the Buddha in verse form and one of the most widely read and best known Buddhist scriptures.[2] The original version of the Dhammapada is in the Khuddaka Nikaya, a division of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism.
The Buddhist scholar and commentator Buddhaghosa explains that each saying recorded in the collection was made on a different occasion in response to a unique situation that had arisen in the life of the Buddha and his monastic community. His commentary, the Dhammapada Atthakatha, presents the details of these events and is a rich source of legend for the life and times of the Buddha.[3]
According to tradition, the Dhammapada’s verses were spoken by the Buddha on various occasions.[8] “By distilling the complex models, theories, rhetorical style and sheer volume of the Buddha’s teachings into concise, crystalline verses, the Dhammapada makes the Buddhist way of life available to anyone…In fact, it is possible that the very source of the Dhammapada in the third century B.C.E. is traceable to the need of the early Buddhist communities in India to laicize the ascetic impetus of the Buddha’s original words.”[9] The text is part of the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka, although over half of the verses exist in other parts of the Pali Canon.[10] A 4th or 5th century CE commentary attributed to Buddhaghosa includes 305 stories which give context to the verses.

 

Although the Pāli edition is the best-known, a number of other versions are known:[11]
Comparing the Pali Dhammapada, the Gandhari Dharmapada and the Udanavarga, Brough (2001) identifies that the texts have in common 330 to 340 verses, 16 chapter headings and an underlying structure. He suggests that the three texts have a “common ancestor” but underlines that there is no evidence that any one of these three texts might have been the “primitive Dharmapada” from which the other two evolved.[20]
The Dhammapada is considered one of the most popular pieces of Theravada literature.[2] A critical edition of the Dhammapada was produced by Danish scholar Viggo Fausbøll in 1855, becoming the first Pali text to receive this kind of examination by the European academic community.[21]

Readings in Pali

3. Readings in Pali Texts
VandanaGatha 1 – namaskara (namaskaara) Gatha 2 – tisarana (tisara.na) Gatha 3 – buddhaguna (buddhagu.na) Gatha 4 – dhammaguna (dhammagu.na) Gatha 5 – sanghaguna (sa^nghagu.na) Gatha 6 – blessing
Dhammapada 

Chapter 1:
The Pairs

  • Dhammapada 1
  • Dhammapada 2
  • Dhammapada 3
  • Dhammapada 4
  • Dhammapada 5
  • Dhammapada 6
  • Dhammapada 7
  • Dhammapada 8
  • Dhammapada 9
  • Dhammapada 10
  • Dhammapada 11
  • Dhammapada 12
  • Dhammapada 13
  • Dhammapada 14
  • Dhammapada 15
  • Dhammapada 16
  • Dhammapada 17
  • Dhammapada 18
  • Dhammapada 19
  • Dhammapada 20
  • Chapter 2:
    Conscientiousness

  • Dhammapada 21
  • Dhammapada 22
  • Dhammapada 23
  • Dhammapada 24
  • Dhammapada 25
  • Dhammapada 26
  • Dhammapada 27
  • Dhammapada 28
  • Dhammapada 29
  • Dhammapada 30
  • Dhammapada 31
  • Dhammapada 32
  • Chapter 3:
    The Mind

  • Dhammapada 33
  • Dhammapada 34
  • Dhammapada 35
  • Dhammapada 36
  • Dhammapada 37
  • Dhammapada 38
  • Dhammapada 39
  • Dhammapada 40
  • Dhammapada 41
  • Dhammapada 42
  • Dhammapada 43
  • Chapter 4:
    The Flower

  • Dhammapada 44
  • Dhammapada 45
  • Dhammapada 46
  • Dhammapada 47
  • Dhammapada 48
  • Dhammapada 49
  • Dhammapada 50
  • Dhammapada 51
  • Dhammapada 52
  • Dhammapada 53
  • Dhammapada 54
  • Dhammapada 55
  • Dhammapada 56
  • Dhammapada 57
  • Dhammapada 58
  • Dhammapada 59
  • Chapter 5: 
    The Fool

  • Dhammapada 60
  • Dhammapada 61
  • Dhammapada 62
  • Dhammapada 63
  • Dhammapada 64
  • Dhammapada 65
  • Dhammapada 66
  • Dhammapada 67
  • Dhammapada 68
  • Dhammapada 69
  • Dhammapada 70
  • Dhammapada 71
  • Dhammapada 72
  • Dhammapada 73
  • Dhammapada 74
  • Dhammapada 75
  • Chapter 6: 
    The Wise

  • Dhammapada 76
  • Dhammapada 77
  • Dhammapada 78
  • Dhammapada 79
  • Dhammapada 80
  • Dhammapada 81
  • Dhammapada 82
  • Dhammapada 83
  • Dhammapada 84
  • Dhammapada 85
  • Dhammapada 86
  • Dhammapada 87
  • Dhammapada 88
  • Dhammapada 89
  • Chapter 7: 
    The Arahant

  • Dhammapada 90
  • Dhammapada 91
  • Dhammapada 92
  • Dhammapada 93
  • Dhammapada 94
  • Dhammapada 95
  • Dhammapada 96
  • Dhammapada 97
  • Dhammapada 98
  • Dhammapada 99
  • Chapter 8: 
    The Thousand

  • Dhammapada 100
  • Dhammapada 101
  • Dhammapada 102
  • Dhammapada 103
  • Dhammapada 104
  • Dhammapada 105
  • Dhammapada 106
  • Dhammapada 107
  • Dhammapada 108
  • Dhammapada 109
  • Dhammapada 110
  • Dhammapada 111
  • Dhammapada 112
  • Dhammapada 113
  • Dhammapada 114
  • Dhammapada 115
  • Chapter 9:
    The Evil

  • Dhammapada 116
  • Dhammapada 117
  • Dhammapada 118
  • Dhammapada 119
  • Dhammapada 120
  • Dhammapada 121
  • Dhammapada 122
  • Dhammapada 123
  • Dhammapada 124
  • Dhammapada 125
  • Dhammapada 126
  • Dhammapada 127
  • Dhammapada 128
  • Chapter 11: 
    The Old Age

  • Dhammapada 146
  • Dhammapada 147
  • Dhammapada 148
  • Dhammapada 149
  • Dhammapada 150
  • Dhammapada 151
  • Dhammapada 152
  • Dhammapada 153
  • Dhammapada 154
  • Dhammapada 155
  • Dhammapada 156
  • Chapter 12: 
    The Self

  • Dhammapada 157
  • Dhammapada 158
  • Dhammapada 159
  • Dhammapada 160
  • Dhammapada 161
  • Dhammapada 162
  • Dhammapada 163
  • Dhammapada 164
  • Dhammapada 165
  • Dhammapada 166
  • Chapter 13: 
    The World

  • Dhammapada 167
  • Dhammapada 168
  • Dhammapada 169
  • Dhammapada 170
  • Dhammapada 171
  • Dhammapada 172
  • Dhammapada 173
  • Dhammapada 174
  • Dhammapada 175
  • Dhammapada 176
  • Dhammapada 177
  • Dhammapada 178
  • Chapter 14: 
    The Buddha

  • Dhammapada 179
  • Dhammapada 180
  • Dhammapada 181
  • Dhammapada 182
  • Dhammapada 183
  • Dhammapada 184
  • Dhammapada 185
  • Dhammapada 186
  • Dhammapada 187
  • Dhammapada 188
  • Dhammapada 189
  • Dhammapada 190
  • Dhammapada 191
  • Dhammapada 192
  • Dhammapada 193
  • Dhammapada 194
  • Dhammapada 195
  • Dhammapada 196
  • Chapter 15: 
    The Happiness

  • Dhammapada 197
  • Dhammapada 198
  • Dhammapada 199
  • Dhammapada 200
  • Dhammapada 201
  • Dhammapada 202
  • Dhammapada 203
  • Dhammapada 204
  • Dhammapada 205
  • Dhammapada 206
  • Dhammapada 207
  • Dhammapada 208
  • Chapter 16: 
    Affection

  • Dhammapada 209
  • Dhammapada 210
  • Dhammapada 211
  • Dhammapada 212
  • Dhammapada 213
  • Dhammapada 214
  • Dhammapada 215
  • Dhammapada 216
  • Dhammapada 217
  • Dhammapada 218
  • Dhammapada 219
  • Dhammapada 220
  • Dhammapada 221
  • Chapter 17: 
    Anger

  • Dhammapada 222
  • Dhammapada 223
  • Dhammapada 224
  • Dhammapada 225
  • Dhammapada 226
  • Dhammapada 227
  • Dhammapada 228
  • Dhammapada 229
  • Dhammapada 230
  • Dhammapada 231
  • Dhammapada 232
  • Dhammapada 233
  • Dhammapada 234
  • Chapter 18: 
    Taint

  • Dhammapada 235
  • Dhammapada 236
  • Dhammapada 237
  • Dhammapada 238
  • Dhammapada 239
  • Dhammapada 240
  • Dhammapada 241
  • Dhammapada 242
  • Dhammapada 243
  • Dhammapada 244
  • Dhammapada 245
  • Dhammapada 246
  • Dhammapada 247
  • Dhammapada 248
  • Dhammapada 249
  • Dhammapada 250
  • Dhammapada 251
  • Dhammapada 252
  • Dhammapada 253
  • Dhammapada 254
  • Dhammapada 255
  • Chapter 19: 
    The Righteous

  • Dhammapada 256
  • Dhammapada 257
  • Dhammapada 258
  • Dhammapada 259
  • Dhammapada 260
  • Dhammapada 261
  • Dhammapada 262
  • Dhammapada 263
  • Dhammapada 264
  • Dhammapada 265
  • Dhammapada 266
  • Dhammapada 267
  • Dhammapada 268
  • Dhammapada 269
  • Dhammapada 270
  • Dhammapada 271
  • Dhammapada 272
  • Chapter 20: 
    The Path

  • Dhammapada 273
  • Dhammapada 274
  • Dhammapada 275
  • Dhammapada 276
  • Dhammapada 277
  • Dhammapada 278
  • Dhammapada 279
  • Dhammapada 280
  • Dhammapada 281
  • Dhammapada 282
  • Dhammapada 283
  • Dhammapada 284
  • Dhammapada 285
  • Dhammapada 286
  • Dhammapada 287
  • Dhammapada 288
  • Dhammapada 289
  • Chapter 21: 
    Miscellaneous

  • Dhammapada 290
  • Dhammapada 291
  • Dhammapada 292
  • Dhammapada 293
  • Dhammapada 294
  • Dhammapada 295
  • Dhammapada 296
  • Dhammapada 297
  • Dhammapada 298
  • Dhammapada 299
  • Dhammapada 300
  • Dhammapada 301
  • Dhammapada 302
  • Dhammapada 303
  • Dhammapada 304
  • Dhammapada 305
  • Chapter 22: 
    The Hell

  • Dhammapada 306
  • Dhammapada 307
  • Dhammapada 308
  • Dhammapada 309
  • Dhammapada 310
  • Dhammapada 311
  • Dhammapada 312
  • Dhammapada 313
  • Dhammapada 314
  • Dhammapada 315
  • Dhammapada 316
  • Dhammapada 317
  • Dhammapada 318
  • Dhammapada 319
  • Chapter 23: 
    The Elephant

  • Dhammapada 320
  • Dhammapada 321
  • Dhammapada 322
  • Dhammapada 323
  • Dhammapada 324
  • Dhammapada 325
  • Dhammapada 326
  • Dhammapada 327
  • Dhammapada 328
  • Dhammapada 329
  • Dhammapada 330
  • Dhammapada 331
  • Dhammapada 332
  • Dhammapada 333
  • Chapter 24:
    The Thirst

  • Dhammapada 334
  • Dhammapada 335
  • Dhammapada 336
  • Dhammapada 337
  • Dhammapada 338
  • Dhammapada 339
  • Dhammapada 340
  • Dhammapada 341
  • Dhammapada 342
  • Dhammapada 343
  • Dhammapada 344
  • Dhammapada 345
  • Dhammapada 346
  • Dhammapada 347
  • Dhammapada 348
  • Dhammapada 349
  • Dhammapada 350
  • Dhammapada 351
  • Dhammapada 352
  • Dhammapada 353
  • Dhammapada 354
  • Dhammapada 355
  • Dhammapada 356
  • Dhammapada 357
  • Dhammapada 358
  • Dhammapada 359
  • Chapter 25: 
    The Monk

  • Dhammapada 360
  • Dhammapada 361
  • Dhammapada 362
  • Dhammapada 363
  • Dhammapada 364
  • Dhammapada 365
  • Dhammapada 366
  • Dhammapada 367
  • Dhammapada 368
  • Dhammapada 369
  • Dhammapada 370
  • Dhammapada 371
  • Dhammapada 372
  • Dhammapada 373
  • Dhammapada 374
  • Dhammapada 375
  • Dhammapada 376
  • Dhammapada 377
  • Dhammapada 378
  • Dhammapada 379
  • Dhammapada 380
  • The Dhammapada (P?li; Prakrit: ?????? Dhammapada;[1] Sanskrit: ?????? Dharmapada) is a collection of sayings of the Buddha in verse form and one of the most widely read and best known Buddhist scriptures.[2] The original version of the Dhammapada is in the Khuddaka Nikaya, a division of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism.
    The Buddhist scholar and commentator Buddhaghosa explains that each saying recorded in the collection was made on a different occasion in response to a unique situation that had arisen in the life of the Buddha and his monastic community. His commentary, the Dhammapada Atthakatha, presents the details of these events and is a rich source of legend for the life and times of the Buddha.[3]
    According to tradition, the Dhammapada’s verses were spoken by the Buddha on various occasions.[8] “By distilling the complex models, theories, rhetorical style and sheer volume of the Buddha’s teachings into concise, crystalline verses, the Dhammapada makes the Buddhist way of life available to anyone…In fact, it is possible that the very source of the Dhammapada in the third century B.C.E. is traceable to the need of the early Buddhist communities in India to laicize the ascetic impetus of the Buddha’s original words.”[9] The text is part of the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka, although over half of the verses exist in other parts of the Pali Canon.[10] A 4th or 5th century CE commentary attributed to Buddhaghosa includes 305 stories which give context to the verses.

     

    Although the P?li edition is the best-known, a number of other versions are known:[11]
    Comparing the Pali Dhammapada, the Gandhari Dharmapada and the Udanavarga, Brough (2001) identifies that the texts have in common 330 to 340 verses, 16 chapter headings and an underlying structure. He suggests that the three texts have a “common ancestor” but underlines that there is no evidence that any one of these three texts might have been the “primitive Dharmapada” from which the other two evolved.[20]
    The Dhammapada is considered one of the most popular pieces of Theravada literature.[2] A critical edition of the Dhammapada was produced by Danish scholar Viggo Fausbøll in 1855, becoming the first Pali text to receive this kind of examination by the European academic community.[21]

    Readings in Pali

    3. Readings in Pali Texts
    VandanaGatha 1 – namaskara (namaskaara) Gatha 2 – tisarana (tisara.na) Gatha 3 – buddhaguna (buddhagu.na) Gatha 4 – dhammaguna (dhammagu.na) Gatha 5 – sanghaguna (sa^nghagu.na) Gatha 6 – blessing
    Dhammapada 

    Chapter 1:
    The Pairs

  • Dhammapada 1
  • Dhammapada 2
  • Dhammapada 3
  • Dhammapada 4
  • Dhammapada 5
  • Dhammapada 6
  • Dhammapada 7
  • Dhammapada 8
  • Dhammapada 9
  • Dhammapada 10
  • Dhammapada 11
  • Dhammapada 12
  • Dhammapada 13
  • Dhammapada 14
  • Dhammapada 15
  • Dhammapada 16
  • Dhammapada 17
  • Dhammapada 18
  • Dhammapada 19
  • Dhammapada 20
  • Chapter 2:
    Conscientiousness

  • Dhammapada 21
  • Dhammapada 22
  • Dhammapada 23
  • Dhammapada 24
  • Dhammapada 25
  • Dhammapada 26
  • Dhammapada 27
  • Dhammapada 28
  • Dhammapada 29
  • Dhammapada 30
  • Dhammapada 31
  • Dhammapada 32
  • Chapter 3:
    The Mind

  • Dhammapada 33
  • Dhammapada 34
  • Dhammapada 35
  • Dhammapada 36
  • Dhammapada 37
  • Dhammapada 38
  • Dhammapada 39
  • Dhammapada 40
  • Dhammapada 41
  • Dhammapada 42
  • Dhammapada 43
  • Chapter 4:
    The Flower

  • Dhammapada 44
  • Dhammapada 45
  • Dhammapada 46
  • Dhammapada 47
  • Dhammapada 48
  • Dhammapada 49
  • Dhammapada 50
  • Dhammapada 51
  • Dhammapada 52
  • Dhammapada 53
  • Dhammapada 54
  • Dhammapada 55
  • Dhammapada 56
  • Dhammapada 57
  • Dhammapada 58
  • Dhammapada 59
  • Chapter 5: 
    The Fool

  • Dhammapada 60
  • Dhammapada 61
  • Dhammapada 62
  • Dhammapada 63
  • Dhammapada 64
  • Dhammapada 65
  • Dhammapada 66
  • Dhammapada 67
  • Dhammapada 68
  • Dhammapada 69
  • Dhammapada 70
  • Dhammapada 71
  • Dhammapada 72
  • Dhammapada 73
  • Dhammapada 74
  • Dhammapada 75
  • Chapter 6: 
    The Wise

  • Dhammapada 76
  • Dhammapada 77
  • Dhammapada 78
  • Dhammapada 79
  • Dhammapada 80
  • Dhammapada 81
  • Dhammapada 82
  • Dhammapada 83
  • Dhammapada 84
  • Dhammapada 85
  • Dhammapada 86
  • Dhammapada 87
  • Dhammapada 88
  • Dhammapada 89
  • Chapter 7: 
    The Arahant

  • Dhammapada 90
  • Dhammapada 91
  • Dhammapada 92
  • Dhammapada 93
  • Dhammapada 94
  • Dhammapada 95
  • Dhammapada 96
  • Dhammapada 97
  • Dhammapada 98
  • Dhammapada 99
  • Chapter 8: 
    The Thousand

  • Dhammapada 100
  • Dhammapada 101
  • Dhammapada 102
  • Dhammapada 103
  • Dhammapada 104
  • Dhammapada 105
  • Dhammapada 106
  • Dhammapada 107
  • Dhammapada 108
  • Dhammapada 109
  • Dhammapada 110
  • Dhammapada 111
  • Dhammapada 112
  • Dhammapada 113
  • Dhammapada 114
  • Dhammapada 115
  • Chapter 9:
    The Evil

  • Dhammapada 116
  • Dhammapada 117
  • Dhammapada 118
  • Dhammapada 119
  • Dhammapada 120
  • Dhammapada 121
  • Dhammapada 122
  • Dhammapada 123
  • Dhammapada 124
  • Dhammapada 125
  • Dhammapada 126
  • Dhammapada 127
  • Dhammapada 128
  • Chapter 11: 
    The Old Age

  • Dhammapada 146
  • Dhammapada 147
  • Dhammapada 148
  • Dhammapada 149
  • Dhammapada 150
  • Dhammapada 151
  • Dhammapada 152
  • Dhammapada 153
  • Dhammapada 154
  • Dhammapada 155
  • Dhammapada 156
  • Chapter 12: 
    The Self

  • Dhammapada 157
  • Dhammapada 158
  • Dhammapada 159
  • Dhammapada 160
  • Dhammapada 161
  • Dhammapada 162
  • Dhammapada 163
  • Dhammapada 164
  • Dhammapada 165
  • Dhammapada 166
  • Chapter 13: 
    The World

  • Dhammapada 167
  • Dhammapada 168
  • Dhammapada 169
  • Dhammapada 170
  • Dhammapada 171
  • Dhammapada 172
  • Dhammapada 173
  • Dhammapada 174
  • Dhammapada 175
  • Dhammapada 176
  • Dhammapada 177
  • Dhammapada 178
  • Chapter 14: 
    The Buddha

  • Dhammapada 179
  • Dhammapada 180
  • Dhammapada 181
  • Dhammapada 182
  • Dhammapada 183
  • Dhammapada 184
  • Dhammapada 185
  • Dhammapada 186
  • Dhammapada 187
  • Dhammapada 188
  • Dhammapada 189
  • Dhammapada 190
  • Dhammapada 191
  • Dhammapada 192
  • Dhammapada 193
  • Dhammapada 194
  • Dhammapada 195
  • Dhammapada 196
  • Chapter 15: 
    The Happiness

  • Dhammapada 197
  • Dhammapada 198
  • Dhammapada 199
  • Dhammapada 200
  • Dhammapada 201
  • Dhammapada 202
  • Dhammapada 203
  • Dhammapada 204
  • Dhammapada 205
  • Dhammapada 206
  • Dhammapada 207
  • Dhammapada 208
  • Chapter 16: 
    Affection

  • Dhammapada 209
  • Dhammapada 210
  • Dhammapada 211
  • Dhammapada 212
  • Dhammapada 213
  • Dhammapada 214
  • Dhammapada 215
  • Dhammapada 216
  • Dhammapada 217
  • Dhammapada 218
  • Dhammapada 219
  • Dhammapada 220
  • Dhammapada 221
  • Chapter 17: 
    Anger

  • Dhammapada 222
  • Dhammapada 223
  • Dhammapada 224
  • Dhammapada 225
  • Dhammapada 226
  • Dhammapada 227
  • Dhammapada 228
  • Dhammapada 229
  • Dhammapada 230
  • Dhammapada 231
  • Dhammapada 232
  • Dhammapada 233
  • Dhammapada 234
  • Chapter 18: 
    Taint

  • Dhammapada 235
  • Dhammapada 236
  • Dhammapada 237
  • Dhammapada 238
  • Dhammapada 239
  • Dhammapada 240
  • Dhammapada 241
  • Dhammapada 242
  • Dhammapada 243
  • Dhammapada 244
  • Dhammapada 245
  • Dhammapada 246
  • Dhammapada 247
  • Dhammapada 248
  • Dhammapada 249
  • Dhammapada 250
  • Dhammapada 251
  • Dhammapada 252
  • Dhammapada 253
  • Dhammapada 254
  • Dhammapada 255
  • Chapter 19: 
    The Righteous

  • Dhammapada 256
  • Dhammapada 257
  • Dhammapada 258
  • Dhammapada 259
  • Dhammapada 260
  • Dhammapada 261
  • Dhammapada 262
  • Dhammapada 263
  • Dhammapada 264
  • Dhammapada 265
  • Dhammapada 266
  • Dhammapada 267
  • Dhammapada 268
  • Dhammapada 269
  • Dhammapada 270
  • Dhammapada 271
  • Dhammapada 272
  • Chapter 20: 
    The Path

  • Dhammapada 273
  • Dhammapada 274
  • Dhammapada 275
  • Dhammapada 276
  • Dhammapada 277
  • Dhammapada 278
  • Dhammapada 279
  • Dhammapada 280
  • Dhammapada 281
  • Dhammapada 282
  • Dhammapada 283
  • Dhammapada 284
  • Dhammapada 285
  • Dhammapada 286
  • Dhammapada 287
  • Dhammapada 288
  • Dhammapada 289
  • Chapter 21: 
    Miscellaneous

  • Dhammapada 290
  • Dhammapada 291
  • Dhammapada 292
  • Dhammapada 293
  • Dhammapada 294
  • Dhammapada 295
  • Dhammapada 296
  • Dhammapada 297
  • Dhammapada 298
  • Dhammapada 299
  • Dhammapada 300
  • Dhammapada 301
  • Dhammapada 302
  • Dhammapada 303
  • Dhammapada 304
  • Dhammapada 305
  • Chapter 22: 
    The Hell

  • Dhammapada 306
  • Dhammapada 307
  • Dhammapada 308
  • Dhammapada 309
  • Dhammapada 310
  • Dhammapada 311
  • Dhammapada 312
  • Dhammapada 313
  • Dhammapada 314
  • Dhammapada 315
  • Dhammapada 316
  • Dhammapada 317
  • Dhammapada 318
  • Dhammapada 319
  • Chapter 23: 
    The Elephant

  • Dhammapada 320
  • Dhammapada 321
  • Dhammapada 322
  • Dhammapada 323
  • Dhammapada 324
  • Dhammapada 325
  • Dhammapada 326
  • Dhammapada 327
  • Dhammapada 328
  • Dhammapada 329
  • Dhammapada 330
  • Dhammapada 331
  • Dhammapada 332
  • Dhammapada 333
  • Chapter 24:
    The Thirst

  • Dhammapada 334
  • Dhammapada 335
  • Dhammapada 336
  • Dhammapada 337
  • Dhammapada 338
  • Dhammapada 339
  • Dhammapada 340
  • Dhammapada 341
  • Dhammapada 342
  • Dhammapada 343
  • Dhammapada 344
  • Dhammapada 345
  • Dhammapada 346
  • Dhammapada 347
  • Dhammapada 348
  • Dhammapada 349
  • Dhammapada 350
  • Dhammapada 351
  • Dhammapada 352
  • Dhammapada 353
  • Dhammapada 354
  • Dhammapada 355
  • Dhammapada 356
  • Dhammapada 357
  • Dhammapada 358
  • Dhammapada 359
  • Chapter 25: 
    The Monk

  • Dhammapada 360
  • Dhammapada 361
  • Dhammapada 362
  • Dhammapada 363
  • Dhammapada 364
  • Dhammapada 365
  • Dhammapada 366
  • Dhammapada 367
  • Dhammapada 368
  • Dhammapada 369
  • Dhammapada 370
  • Dhammapada 371
  • Dhammapada 372
  • Dhammapada 373
  • Dhammapada 374
  • Dhammapada 375
  • Dhammapada 376
  • Dhammapada 377
  • Dhammapada 378
  • Dhammapada 379
  • Dhammapada 380
  • Dhammapada 381
  • Dhammapada 382
  • Chapter 26: 
    The Brahmin

  • Dhammapada 383
  • Dhammapada 384
  • Dhammapada 385
  • Dhammapada 386
  • Dhammapada 387
  • Dhammapada 388
  • Dhammapada 389
  • Dhammapada 390
  • Dhammapada 391
  • Dhammapada 392
  • Dhammapada 393
  • Dhammapada 394
  • Dhammapada 395
  • Dhammapada 396
  • Dhammapada 397
  • Dhammapada 398
  • Dhammapada 399
  • Dhammapada 400
  • Dhammapada 401
  • Dhammapada 402
  • Dhammapada 403
  • Dhammapada 404
  • Dhammapada 405
  • Dhammapada 406
  • Dhammapada 407
  • Dhammapada 408
  • Dhammapada 409
  • Dhammapada 410
  • Dhammapada 411
  • Dhammapada 412
  • Dhammapada 413
  • Dhammapada 414
  • Dhammapada 415
  • Dhammapada 416
  • Dhammapada 417
  • Dhammapada 418
  • Dhammapada 419
  • Dhammapada 420
  • Dhammapada 421
  • Dhammapada 422
  • Dhammapada 423
  • Selected Pali Texts1. aaditta-pariyaaya-sutta (sa.myutta-nikaaya, sabbaka-vagga, sa.laayatana-sa.myutta, 28) 
    2. anattaa-lakkha.na-sutta (sa.myutta-nikaaya, khandha-vagga, khandha-sa.myutta, 59) 
    3. dhamma-cakka-ppavattana-sutta (sa.myutta-nikaaya, mahaa-vagga, sacca-sa.myutta, 11) 
    4. dhaniya-sutta (sutta-nipaata, uraga-vagga, 2) 
    5. kaalaama-sutta (a^nguttara-nikaaya, tika-nipaata, mahaa-vagga, 65) 
    6. khagga-visaa.na-sutta (sutta-nipaata, uraga-vagga, 3) 
    7. kara.niiya-mettaa-sutta (khuddaka-nikaaya, khuddaka-paa.tha, 9) 
    8. mahaa-parinibbaa.na-sutta (diigha-nikaaya) 
    9. uraga-sutta (sutta-nipaata, uraga-vagga, 1)

    Suttas.net

    The Suttas: Original Teachings of the Buddha

    Dhammapada in Versetranslated by Bhante Varado
    and Samanera Bodhesako
    The Atthakavagga (small pdf)translated by Ven. Paññobhāsa Bhikkhu
    The Suttas: Original Teachings of the Buddha

    Dhammapada in Versetranslated by Bhante Varado
    and Samanera Bodhesako
    The Atthakavagga (small pdf)translated by Ven. Paññobh?sa Bhikkhu

    Door of Faith

    Published on Jul 21, 2013 Producer: Rick Rubin Originally Released: 2003 On this unusual recording, a departure from the call-and-response (kirtan) style, the deep longing to connect with his guru that comes through makes one feel as if you are … Continue reading


    Published on Jul 21, 2013

    Producer: Rick Rubin

    Originally Released: 2003

    On this unusual recording, a departure from the call-and-response (kirtan) style, the deep longing to connect with his guru that comes through makes one feel as if you are listening in on Krishna Das’s personal puja offerings.

    Like Breath of the Heart, Door of Faith was produced by the legendary Rick Rubin, this time in his home studio. Known not only for his seminal rap and rock recordings, but also for his recent definitive work with Neil Diamond and the late Johnny Cash, Rubin is deservedly famous for his ability to capture the essence of an artist’s expression: there is nothing extraneous on these tracks. Mostly, it’s Krishna Das’ weathered, sonorous voice and his harmonium, joined here and there by instrumental tracings-western strings, horns, and keyboards, and Benjy Wertheimer’s eastern esraj. Other veterans of KD’s previous recordings include Lili Haydn, John McDowell and Benmont Tench. A duet with daughter, Janaki on “Mere Gurudev” is a most tender invocation.

    TRACKS
    Puja (7:26)
    Sita’s Prayer / Hey Mata Durga (10:50)
    Mere Gurudev (5:27)
    Rudrashtakam (Shiva Stuti) (8:29)
    Jai Jagadisha Hare (Arti) (10:09)
    Sri Hanuman Chaleesa / Gate of Sweet Nectar (10:10)
    God is Real / Hare Ram (9:00)

    Door of Faith is an enhanced CD, featuring a 7-minute film that includes footage of the recording process, a conversation with Ram Dass and commentary by Krishna Das.

    You Can Also Buy CD’s on:
    http://www.krishnadasmusic.com/door_o…

    Published on Nov 10, 2013
    Krishna Das Concert in India Dharamshala Himachal Pradesh April 2013


    Fluoride toxicity

    The Food & Drug Administration now requires that all fluoride toothpastes sold in the United States bear the following poison warning: “WARNING: Keep out of reach of children under 6 years of age. If you accidentally swallow more than used for brushing, seek professional help or contact a poison control center immediately.” The FDA warning is necessary because […]

    The Food & Drug Administration now requires that all fluoride toothpastes sold in the United States bear the following poison warning:

    “WARNING: Keep out of reach of children under 6 years of age. If you accidentally swallow more than used for brushing, seek professional help or contact a poison control center immediately.”

    The FDA warning is necessary because relatively small doses of fluoride can induce symptoms of acute fluoride toxicity (i.e., poisoning). Early symptoms of fluoride poisoning include gastrointestinal pain, nausea, vomiting, and headaches. The minimum dose that can produce these symptoms is estimated to be 0.1 to 0.3 mg/kg of fluoride (i.e., 0.1 to 0.3 milligrams of fluoride for every kilogram of bodyweight). A child weighing 10 kilograms, therefore, can suffer symptoms of acute toxicity by ingesting just 1 to 3 milligrams of fluoride in a single sitting.

    The practice of water fluoridation has been controversial from day one. It was first introduced in the U.S. in the 1940s, when Grand Rapids, Mich. added fluoride to its public water supply in the wake of wide evidence that fluoride helps strengthen teeth and supports oral health. Many of us use toothpaste with fluoride in it for this purpose, and organizations like the American Dental Association and the International Dental Federation believe that drinking water with added fluoride can help our teeth in much the same way that toothpaste does. After the World Health Organization’s 1969 endorsement, countries throughout the world began fluoridating their drinking water.
    However, in the 1970s through the1990s, some European countries reversed their stance. Countries like Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands and Finland discontinued fluoridation, while France never even started. The exact reasons for the policy change depend on who you ask.

    In high concentrations, soluble fluoride salts are toxic and skin or eye contact with high concentrations of many fluoride salts is dangerous. Referring to a common salt of fluoride, sodium fluoride (NaF), the lethal dose for most adult humans is estimated at 5 to 10 g (which is equivalent to 32 to 64 mg/kg elemental fluoride/kg body weight).[1][2][3] Ingestion of fluoride can produce gastrointestinal discomfort at doses at least 15 to 20 times lower (0.2–0.3 mg/kg) than lethal doses.[4] Although helpful for dental health in low dosage, chronic exposure to fluoride in large amounts interferes with bone formation. In this way, the greatest examples of fluoride poisoning arise from fluoride-rich ground water

    In India an estimated 60 million people have been poisoned by well water contaminated by excessive fluoride, which is dissolved from the granite rocks. The effects are particularly evident in the bone deformations of children. Similar or larger problems are anticipated in other countries including China, Uzbekistan, and Ethiopia.[5]

    Historically, most cases of acute fluoride toxicity have followed accidental ingestion of sodium fluoride based insecticides or rodenticides.[9] Currently, in advanced countries, most cases of fluoride exposure are due to the ingestion of dental fluoride products.[10] Although exposure to these products does not often cause toxicity, in one study 30% of children exposed to fluoride dental products developed mild symptoms.[10] Other sources include glass-etching or chrome-cleaning agents likeammonium bifluoride or hydrofluoric acid,[11][12] industrial exposure to fluxes used to promote the flow of a molten metal on a solid surface, volcanic ejecta (for example, in cattle grazing after an 1845–1846 eruption of Hekla and the 1783–1784 flood basalt eruption of Laki), and metal cleaners. Malfunction of water fluoridation equipment has happened several times, including a notable incident in Alaska.

    Children may experience gastrointestinal distress upon ingesting sufficient amounts of flavored toothpaste. Between 1990 and 1994, over 628 people, mostly children, were treated after ingesting too much fluoride-containing toothpaste. “While the outcomes were generally not serious,” gastrointestinal symptoms appear to be the most common problem reported

    A meta analysis conducted on epidemiological studies conducted in China concluded that exposure to “high” levels of fluoride (variously defined) in childhood was associated with a reduction in IQ of about 7 points.[14][15] The authors of the meta analysis noted that this research is not applicable to the safety of artificial water fluoridation because the adverse effects on IQ was found with fluoride levels that were much higher than typically found in artificially fluoridated water.[16] The meta analysis has been criticized for failing to account for confounding factors. For example, in some of the studies fluoride exposure came from the burning of high fluoride content coal, and used a control group from an area in which wood was used as fuel.

    Danish researcher Kaj Roholm published Fluorine Intoxication in 1937, which was praised in a 1938 review by dental researcher H. Trendley Dean as “probably the outstanding contribution to the literature of fluorine”.[31] Since that time, the fluoridation of public water has been widely implemented and has been hailed as one of the top medical achievements of the 20th Century.[32] The effects of fluoride-rich ground water became recognized in the 1990s.

    Nakusa

    Jan. 26, 2014 9:12 AM EST

    NEW DELHI (AP) — In the hours after her 6-year-old daughter was kidnapped, screaming in terror as she was dragged away from home, Rimaila Awungshi appealed for help from the most powerful authority she knew — the council of elders in her rural Indian village.

    In her anguish, Awungshi told the village leaders what happened. She was a single mother to a beloved little girl named Yinring, whose name translates as “living in God’s shelter.” Her ex-boyfriend had refused to marry her or care for their child. But as the years passed and he never found a wife, his family demanded custody.

    “But I am poor, and I have no brothers, and the village authority doesn’t care,” Awungshi said in a telephone interview from her home in remote northeast India.

    Across much of rural India, these powerful and deeply conservative local councils are the law of the land. They serve as judge and jury, dictating everything from custody cases to how women should dress to whether young lovers deserve to live or die.

    They often enforce strict social norms about marriage and gender roles.

    These unelected and unregulated courts now are coming under fresh scrutiny after police say a council of elders in West Bengal ordered the gang rape of a 20-year-old woman as punishment for falling in love with the man from a different community.

    “We are going back to the 16th century,” Pradip Bhattacharya, a politician in West Bengal, said this week as news of the gang rape began to spread in a country already reeling from a string of high-profile cases of sexual violence against women.

    Village councils are common in India with vast rural communities, serving as the only practical means of delivering justice in areas where local governments are either too far away or too ineffective to mediate disputes. Often, the elders try to halt the march of the modern world, enforcing strict social norms about marriage and gender roles.

    In some of the most extreme cases, the councils have sanctioned so-called honor killings, usually against women suspected of out-of-wedlock sex. Known as khap panchayats in northern India, the councils act with impunity because villagers risk being ostracized if they flout the rulings.

    The courts can be especially harsh toward women, enforcing the most conservative aspects a patriarchal system that is deeply entrenched in Indian society.


    5 January 2013 Last updated at 01:07 GMT

    Violence against women is deeply entrenched in the feudal, patriarchal Indian society, where for the rapist, every woman is fair game.

    In 2003, the country was shamed when a 28-year-old Swiss diplomat was forced into her own car by two men in south Delhi’s posh Siri Fort area and raped by one of them. The rapist, whom she described as being fluent in English, spoke to her about Switzerland and is believed to have even lectured her on Indian culture.

    Ms Jaisingh says that just drafting a better law will not be enough, it is society which has to change.

    “There is no magic formula to deal with the problem of rape. There’s a bias that operates in the mind of decision makers – stereotyping women, blaming the victim, trying to find out if she invited the rape.”

    But every once in a while, an incident happens which ignites a spark.

    The first such incident in India occurred in 1972 when Mathura, a 16-year-old tribal girl, was raped by two policemen inside a police station.

    The courts set free the accused – they said she did not raise an alarm, she was not injured, and since she was sexually active, she would have “voluntarily” consented to sex.

    Howls of angry protests from activists led to the government amending the anti-rape law in 1983 to accommodate the provision that if a victim says that she did not consent to sex, the court will believe her.

    The outpouring of anger and grief after the recent Delhi incident has also given rise to hopes that things are about to change in India.

    The government has formed a committee under retired Supreme Court Justice JS Verma to take a fresh look at the anti-rape law.

    Justice Verma has invited suggestion from the public and his inbox is reported to be full of demands for the death penalty and chemical castration for rapists. Many are also calling for longer jail sentences of up to 30 years or even life in jail.

    But campaigners say laws alone may not be able to solve the problem in a society which treats its women as “second-class citizens” and regards them inferior to men.

    They say until social attitudes change and women are respected and treated as equals, the gains from the protests will be shortlived.


    She was 23, with dreams of being a doctor. But two weeks ago, she was gang raped by six men, savagely beaten and thrown out of a moving bus in Delhi. The still unnamed woman who has become “India’s daughter” just died of her injuries in hospital. 
    Namita Bhandare knows the constant fear that goes with living in Delhi, nicknamed India’s “rape capital”. Like others, she long believed that nothing would change. But the outpouring of anger and sadness now hasconvinced her that this could be a turning point for women like her.
    The tragedy has sparked vigils and protests, and over 100,000 Indians have already signed Namita’s petition to the Prime Minister. As the story reverberates around the world, being covered by every major news outlet, there’s a chance for Americans to help show the Indian Prime Minister that their international reputation is on the line if they fail to act.
    The story of “India’s daughter” has sparked deep grief and fury across India. Grief for her horrifying ordeal, and fury that politicians have ignored the huge problem of rape and sexual violence against women for so long. 
    According to crime statistics, a woman is raped every 22 minutes, and most rapists are never prosecuted. Women are often blamed for their own rapes, police refuse to hear reports from victims, and some women report being harassed by the very authorities they hope will protect them. 
    Politicians are being faced with some uncomfortable truths. But Namita says that unless people seize this moment of national consciousness, the chance to change anything will slip away. That’s why she’s asking for global support to show the world is watching.
    Thanks for being a part of this,
    Kristiane and the Change.org team


    Prawesh Lama & Bhuvan Bagga

    Read more at: http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/a-woman-is-raped-every-18-hrs-in-delhi/1/125779.html

    This is what you feared but hoped was not true – crime-prone Delhi has turned against women, making them the target of assault each day. There are hard facts to prove this.

    New figures released by the Delhi Police reveal that a woman is raped every 18 hours or molested every 14 hours in the Capital. Shockingly, the majority of the attackers are below 25 years.
    The crime graph is heading north. Expect it to rise further in 2011, says Delhi Police commissioner Brijesh Kumar Gupta.

    Girl molested every 14 hrs in Delhi.
    A girl is molested every 14 hours in Delhi.

    The number of rape cases in the city increased in 2010 over the previous year. In 2009 there were 459 cases of rape reported across the city, while in 2010 the figure was 489. This roughly translates to one rape case every 18 hours.

    Provocation for murders.
    Provocation for murders.

    The cases of molestation of women have also increased in 2010. While there were 528 cases of molestation in 2009, such cases went up to 585 in 2010 – or once every 14 hours. Police investigations have established that the attackers were overwhelmingly from within the circle of family and acquaintances of the victims. Of the persons arrested for rape, only 4 per cent were strangers and 96 per cent were known to victim or her family.
    A staggering 56 per cent accused in rape cases were below the age of 25. Similarly in molestation cases, 92 per cent accused were known to the victims. Of the 765 accused arrested, 58 per cent were below the age of 25, the police figures show.
    Police chief Gupta said the rise in crime figures in the coming months will also be the result of higher registration of cases to make sure that criminals are pursued and caught.
    Acknowledging how the non-registration of cases has played a key role in suppressing the crime rate in the city, the police commissioner felt this also allowed criminals to go scot free.
    “The Delhi Police have a detection rate of 87.86 per cent in heinous crimes,” Gupta said, adding that the registration of cases will mean that the police would have to investigate and bring criminals to task. This would go a long way in making Delhi a safer place for women.


    29 December 2012 Last updated at 12:39 GMT

    Thousands of people have joined peaceful protests in India’s capital, Delhi, following the death of a woman who was gang-raped in the city.

    The 23-year old woman, who has not been identified, died of her injuries on Saturday in Singapore, where she had been taken for specialist treatment.

    Six men arrested in connection with the rape have now been charged with murder.

    The attack on 16 December triggered violent public protests over attitudes towards women in India.

    Two police officers have already been suspended.

    There has also been an angry reaction in the Indian media, with one editorial in the Times of India calling for wider changes in society and an awareness that as well as attacks on the street, there are “a thousand unheard voices” of women who face sexual violence at home.

    Our correspondent says that over the past two weeks, the anonymous woman has became a symbol of a much larger cause than her own, with protesters focusing on the wider issue of how women are treated in India.

    Even after her funeral, the sentiment will continue, he adds, with the public pushing the government to take steps to make people feel more confident about the way women are treated.

    Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said he was “very saddened” by the woman’s death, and that the angry public reaction was “perfectly understandable”.

    “It would be a true homage to her memory if we are able to channel these emotions and energies into a constructive course of action,” he said in a statement.

    He called on politicians and the public to set aside “narrow sectional interest” and work together to make India “a demonstrably better and safer place for women to live in”.

    The woman – a medical student – and her friend had been to see a film when they boarded the bus in the Munirka area of Delhi, intending to travel to Dwarka in the south-west of the city.

    Police said she was raped for nearly an hour, and both she and her companion were beaten with iron bars, then thrown out of the moving bus into the street.

    The assault sparked angry protests about the general conditions for women in India, and about what is seen as an inadequate police response to rape allegations.


    MUMBAI, India (AP) — More than 200 Indian girls whose names mean “unwanted” in Hindi have chosen new names for a fresh start in life.
    A central Indian district held a renaming ceremony Saturday that it hopes will give the girls new dignity and help fight widespreadgender discrimination that gives India a skewed gender ratio, with far more boys than girls.
    The 285 girls — wearing their best outfits with barrettes, braids and bows in their hair — lined up to receive certificates with their new names along with small flower bouquets from Satara district officials in Maharashtra state.
    In shedding names like “Nakusa” or “Nakushi,” which mean “unwanted” in Hindi, some girls chose to name themselves after Bollywood stars such as “Aishwarya” or Hindu goddesses like “Savitri.” Some just wanted traditional names with happier meanings, such as “Vaishali,” or “prosperous, beautiful and good.”
    “Now in school, my classmates and friends will be calling me this new name, and that makes me very happy,” said a 15-year-old girl who had been named Nakusa by a grandfather disappointed by her birth. She chose the new name “Ashmita,” which means “very tough” or “rock hard” in Hindi.
    The plight of girls in India came to a focus after this year’s census showed the nation’s sex ratio had dropped over the past decade from 927 girls for every 1,000 boys under the age of 6 to 914.
    Maharashtra state’s ratio is well below that, with just 883 girls for every 1,000 boys — down from 913 a decade ago. In the district of Satara, it is even lower, at 881.
    Such ratios are the result of abortions of female fetuses, or just sheer neglect leading to a higher death rate among girls. The problem is so serious in India that hospitals are legally banned from revealing the gender of an unborn fetus in order to prevent sex-selective abortions, though evidence suggests the information gets out.
    Part of the reason Indians favor sons is the enormous expense of marrying off girls. Families often go into debt arranging marriages and paying for elaborate dowries. A boy, on the other hand, will one day bring home a bride and dowry. Hindu custom also dictates that only sons can light their parents’ funeral pyres.
    Over the years, and again now, efforts have been made to fight the discrimination.
    “Nakusa is a very negative name as far as female discrimination is concerned,” said Satara district health officer Dr. Bhagwan Pawar, who came up with the idea for the renaming ceremony.
    Other incentives, announced by federal or state governments every few years, include free meals and free education to encourage people to take care of their girls, and even cash bonuses for families with girls who graduate from high school.
    Activists say the name “unwanted,” which is widely given to girls across India, gives them the feeling they are worthless and a burden.
    “When the child thinks about it, you know, ‘My mom, my dad, and all my relatives and society call me unwanted,’ she will feel very bad and depressed,” said Sudha Kankaria of the organization Save the Girl Child. But giving these girls new names is only the beginning, she said.
    “We have to take care of the girls, their education and even financial and social security, or again the cycle is going to repeat,” she said.

    Jan. 26, 2014 9:12 AM EST

    NEW DELHI (AP) — In the hours after her 6-year-old daughter was kidnapped, screaming in terror as she was dragged away from home, Rimaila Awungshi appealed for help from the most powerful authority she knew — the council of elders in her rural Indian village.

    In her anguish, Awungshi told the village leaders what happened. She was a single mother to a beloved little girl named Yinring, whose name translates as “living in God’s shelter.” Her ex-boyfriend had refused to marry her or care for their child. But as the years passed and he never found a wife, his family demanded custody.

    “But I am poor, and I have no brothers, and the village authority doesn’t care,” Awungshi said in a telephone interview from her home in remote northeast India.

    Across much of rural India, these powerful and deeply conservative local councils are the law of the land. They serve as judge and jury, dictating everything from custody cases to how women should dress to whether young lovers deserve to live or die.

    They often enforce strict social norms about marriage and gender roles.

    These unelected and unregulated courts now are coming under fresh scrutiny after police say a council of elders in West Bengal ordered the gang rape of a 20-year-old woman as punishment for falling in love with the man from a different community.

    “We are going back to the 16th century,” Pradip Bhattacharya, a politician in West Bengal, said this week as news of the gang rape began to spread in a country already reeling from a string of high-profile cases of sexual violence against women.

    Village councils are common in India with vast rural communities, serving as the only practical means of delivering justice in areas where local governments are either too far away or too ineffective to mediate disputes. Often, the elders try to halt the march of the modern world, enforcing strict social norms about marriage and gender roles.

    In some of the most extreme cases, the councils have sanctioned so-called honor killings, usually against women suspected of out-of-wedlock sex. Known as khap panchayats in northern India, the councils act with impunity because villagers risk being ostracized if they flout the rulings.

    The courts can be especially harsh toward women, enforcing the most conservative aspects a patriarchal system that is deeply entrenched in Indian society.


    5 January 2013 Last updated at 01:07 GMT

    Violence against women is deeply entrenched in the feudal, patriarchal Indian society, where for the rapist, every woman is fair game.

    In 2003, the country was shamed when a 28-year-old Swiss diplomat was forced into her own car by two men in south Delhi’s posh Siri Fort area and raped by one of them. The rapist, whom she described as being fluent in English, spoke to her about Switzerland and is believed to have even lectured her on Indian culture.

    Ms Jaisingh says that just drafting a better law will not be enough, it is society which has to change.

    “There is no magic formula to deal with the problem of rape. There’s a bias that operates in the mind of decision makers – stereotyping women, blaming the victim, trying to find out if she invited the rape.”

    But every once in a while, an incident happens which ignites a spark.

    The first such incident in India occurred in 1972 when Mathura, a 16-year-old tribal girl, was raped by two policemen inside a police station.

    The courts set free the accused – they said she did not raise an alarm, she was not injured, and since she was sexually active, she would have “voluntarily” consented to sex.

    Howls of angry protests from activists led to the government amending the anti-rape law in 1983 to accommodate the provision that if a victim says that she did not consent to sex, the court will believe her.

    The outpouring of anger and grief after the recent Delhi incident has also given rise to hopes that things are about to change in India.

    The government has formed a committee under retired Supreme Court Justice JS Verma to take a fresh look at the anti-rape law.

    Justice Verma has invited suggestion from the public and his inbox is reported to be full of demands for the death penalty and chemical castration for rapists. Many are also calling for longer jail sentences of up to 30 years or even life in jail.

    But campaigners say laws alone may not be able to solve the problem in a society which treats its women as “second-class citizens” and regards them inferior to men.

    They say until social attitudes change and women are respected and treated as equals, the gains from the protests will be shortlived.


    She was 23, with dreams of being a doctor. But two weeks ago, she was gang raped by six men, savagely beaten and thrown out of a moving bus in Delhi. The still unnamed woman who has become “India’s daughter” just died of her injuries in hospital. 
    Namita Bhandare knows the constant fear that goes with living in Delhi, nicknamed India’s “rape capital”. Like others, she long believed that nothing would change. But the outpouring of anger and sadness now hasconvinced her that this could be a turning point for women like her.
    The tragedy has sparked vigils and protests, and over 100,000 Indians have already signed Namita’s petition to the Prime Minister. As the story reverberates around the world, being covered by every major news outlet, there’s a chance for Americans to help show the Indian Prime Minister that their international reputation is on the line if they fail to act.
    The story of “India’s daughter” has sparked deep grief and fury across India. Grief for her horrifying ordeal, and fury that politicians have ignored the huge problem of rape and sexual violence against women for so long. 
    According to crime statistics, a woman is raped every 22 minutes, and most rapists are never prosecuted. Women are often blamed for their own rapes, police refuse to hear reports from victims, and some women report being harassed by the very authorities they hope will protect them. 
    Politicians are being faced with some uncomfortable truths. But Namita says that unless people seize this moment of national consciousness, the chance to change anything will slip away. That’s why she’s asking for global support to show the world is watching.
    Thanks for being a part of this,
    Kristiane and the Change.org team


    Prawesh Lama & Bhuvan Bagga

    Read more at: http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/a-woman-is-raped-every-18-hrs-in-delhi/1/125779.html

    This is what you feared but hoped was not true – crime-prone Delhi has turned against women, making them the target of assault each day. There are hard facts to prove this.

    New figures released by the Delhi Police reveal that a woman is raped every 18 hours or molested every 14 hours in the Capital. Shockingly, the majority of the attackers are below 25 years.
    The crime graph is heading north. Expect it to rise further in 2011, says Delhi Police commissioner Brijesh Kumar Gupta.

    Girl molested every 14 hrs in Delhi.
    A girl is molested every 14 hours in Delhi.

    The number of rape cases in the city increased in 2010 over the previous year. In 2009 there were 459 cases of rape reported across the city, while in 2010 the figure was 489. This roughly translates to one rape case every 18 hours.

    Provocation for murders.
    Provocation for murders.

    The cases of molestation of women have also increased in 2010. While there were 528 cases of molestation in 2009, such cases went up to 585 in 2010 – or once every 14 hours. Police investigations have established that the attackers were overwhelmingly from within the circle of family and acquaintances of the victims. Of the persons arrested for rape, only 4 per cent were strangers and 96 per cent were known to victim or her family.
    A staggering 56 per cent accused in rape cases were below the age of 25. Similarly in molestation cases, 92 per cent accused were known to the victims. Of the 765 accused arrested, 58 per cent were below the age of 25, the police figures show.
    Police chief Gupta said the rise in crime figures in the coming months will also be the result of higher registration of cases to make sure that criminals are pursued and caught.
    Acknowledging how the non-registration of cases has played a key role in suppressing the crime rate in the city, the police commissioner felt this also allowed criminals to go scot free.
    “The Delhi Police have a detection rate of 87.86 per cent in heinous crimes,” Gupta said, adding that the registration of cases will mean that the police would have to investigate and bring criminals to task. This would go a long way in making Delhi a safer place for women.


    29 December 2012 Last updated at 12:39 GMT

    Thousands of people have joined peaceful protests in India’s capital, Delhi, following the death of a woman who was gang-raped in the city.

    The 23-year old woman, who has not been identified, died of her injuries on Saturday in Singapore, where she had been taken for specialist treatment.

    Six men arrested in connection with the rape have now been charged with murder.

    The attack on 16 December triggered violent public protests over attitudes towards women in India.

    Two police officers have already been suspended.

    There has also been an angry reaction in the Indian media, with one editorial in the Times of India calling for wider changes in society and an awareness that as well as attacks on the street, there are “a thousand unheard voices” of women who face sexual violence at home.

    Our correspondent says that over the past two weeks, the anonymous woman has became a symbol of a much larger cause than her own, with protesters focusing on the wider issue of how women are treated in India.

    Even after her funeral, the sentiment will continue, he adds, with the public pushing the government to take steps to make people feel more confident about the way women are treated.

    Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said he was “very saddened” by the woman’s death, and that the angry public reaction was “perfectly understandable”.

    “It would be a true homage to her memory if we are able to channel these emotions and energies into a constructive course of action,” he said in a statement.

    He called on politicians and the public to set aside “narrow sectional interest” and work together to make India “a demonstrably better and safer place for women to live in”.

    The woman – a medical student – and her friend had been to see a film when they boarded the bus in the Munirka area of Delhi, intending to travel to Dwarka in the south-west of the city.

    Police said she was raped for nearly an hour, and both she and her companion were beaten with iron bars, then thrown out of the moving bus into the street.

    The assault sparked angry protests about the general conditions for women in India, and about what is seen as an inadequate police response to rape allegations.


    MUMBAI, India (AP) — More than 200 Indian girls whose names mean “unwanted” in Hindi have chosen new names for a fresh start in life.
    A central Indian district held a renaming ceremony Saturday that it hopes will give the girls new dignity and help fight widespreadgender discrimination that gives India a skewed gender ratio, with far more boys than girls.
    The 285 girls — wearing their best outfits with barrettes, braids and bows in their hair — lined up to receive certificates with their new names along with small flower bouquets from Satara district officials in Maharashtra state.
    In shedding names like “Nakusa” or “Nakushi,” which mean “unwanted” in Hindi, some girls chose to name themselves after Bollywood stars such as “Aishwarya” or Hindu goddesses like “Savitri.” Some just wanted traditional names with happier meanings, such as “Vaishali,” or “prosperous, beautiful and good.”
    “Now in school, my classmates and friends will be calling me this new name, and that makes me very happy,” said a 15-year-old girl who had been named Nakusa by a grandfather disappointed by her birth. She chose the new name “Ashmita,” which means “very tough” or “rock hard” in Hindi.
    The plight of girls in India came to a focus after this year’s census showed the nation’s sex ratio had dropped over the past decade from 927 girls for every 1,000 boys under the age of 6 to 914.
    Maharashtra state’s ratio is well below that, with just 883 girls for every 1,000 boys — down from 913 a decade ago. In the district of Satara, it is even lower, at 881.
    Such ratios are the result of abortions of female fetuses, or just sheer neglect leading to a higher death rate among girls. The problem is so serious in India that hospitals are legally banned from revealing the gender of an unborn fetus in order to prevent sex-selective abortions, though evidence suggests the information gets out.
    Part of the reason Indians favor sons is the enormous expense of marrying off girls. Families often go into debt arranging marriages and paying for elaborate dowries. A boy, on the other hand, will one day bring home a bride and dowry. Hindu custom also dictates that only sons can light their parents’ funeral pyres.
    Over the years, and again now, efforts have been made to fight the discrimination.
    “Nakusa is a very negative name as far as female discrimination is concerned,” said Satara district health officer Dr. Bhagwan Pawar, who came up with the idea for the renaming ceremony.
    Other incentives, announced by federal or state governments every few years, include free meals and free education to encourage people to take care of their girls, and even cash bonuses for families with girls who graduate from high school.
    Activists say the name “unwanted,” which is widely given to girls across India, gives them the feeling they are worthless and a burden.
    “When the child thinks about it, you know, ‘My mom, my dad, and all my relatives and society call me unwanted,’ she will feel very bad and depressed,” said Sudha Kankaria of the organization Save the Girl Child. But giving these girls new names is only the beginning, she said.
    “We have to take care of the girls, their education and even financial and social security, or again the cycle is going to repeat,” she said.