Kleiber’s law

The relationship between body mass and field metabolic rate among individual birds and mammals Lawrence N Hudson,1,1 Nick J B Isaac,2 Daniel C Reuman,1,1,3 and Daniel Ardia Allometry is the study of the relationship of body size to shape,[1] anatomy, physiology and finally behaviour,[2] first outlined by Otto Snell in 1892,[3] D’Arcy Thompson in 1917 […]

The relationship between body mass and field metabolic rate among individual birds and mammals

Allometry is the study of the relationship of body size to shape,[1] anatomy, physiology and finally behaviour,[2] first outlined by Otto Snell in 1892,[3] D’Arcy Thompson in 1917 in On Growth and Form[4] and Julian Huxley in 1932.[5] Allometry is a well-known study, particularly in statistical shape analysis for its theoretical developments, as well as in biology for practical applications to the differential growth rates of the parts of a living organism’s body. One application is in the study of variousinsect species (e.g., the Hercules Beetle), where a small change in overall body size can lead to an enormous and disproportionate increase in the dimensions of appendages such as legs, antennae, or horns. The relationship between the two measured quantities is often expressed as a power law:

y = kx^{a} ,! or in a logarithmic form: log y = a log x + log k,!

where a is the scaling exponent of the law. Methods for estimating this exponent from data use type 2 regressions such asmajor axis regression or reduced major axis regression as these account for the variation in both variables, contrary to least squares regression, which does not account for error variance in the independent variable (e.g., log body mass). Other methods include measurement error models and a particular kind of principal component analysis.

Allometry often studies shape differences in terms of ratios of the objects’ dimensions. Two objects of different size but common shape will have their dimensions in the same ratio. Take, for example, a biological object that grows as it matures. Its size changes with age but the shapes are similar. Studies of ontogenetic allometry often use lizards or snakes as model organisms because they lack parental care after birth or hatching and because they exhibit a large range of body size between the juvenile and adult stage. Lizards often exhibit allometric changes during their ontogeny.[6]

In addition to studies that focus on growth, allometry also examines shape variation among individuals of a given age (and sex), which is referred to as static allometry. Comparisons of species are used to examine interspecific or evolutionary allometry (see also Phylogenetic comparative methods).

Kleiber’s law,[1] named after Max Kleiber‘s biological work in the early 1930s, is the observation that, for the vast majority of animals, an animal’s metabolic rate scales to the ¾ power of the animal’s mass. Symbolically: if q0 is the animal’s metabolic rate, and M the animal’s mass, then Kleiber’s law states that q0 ~ M¾. Thus a cat, having a mass 100 times that of a mouse, will have a metabolism roughly 32 times greater than that of a mouse. In plants, the exponent is close to 1.

The exponent for Kleiber’s law, which is called a power law, was a matter of dispute for many decades. It is still contested by a diminishing number as being ? rather than the more widely accepted ¾. Because the law concerned the capture, use, and loss of energy by a biological system, the system’s metabolic rate was, at first, taken to be ?, because energy was thought of mostly in terms of heat energy. Metabolic rate was expressed in energy per unit time, specifically calories per second. Two thirds expressed the relation of the square of the radius to the cube of the radius of a sphere, with the volume of the sphere increasing faster than the surface area, with increases in radius. This was purportedly the reason large creatures lived longer than small ones – that is, as they got bigger they lost less energy per unit volume through the surface, as radiated heat.

The problem with ? as an exponent was that it did not agree with a lot of the data. There were many exceptions, and the concept of metabolic rate itself was poorly defined and difficult to measure. It seemed to concern more than rate of heat generation and loss. Since what was being considered was not necessarily Euclidean geometry, the appropriateness of ? as an exponent was questioned. Kleiber himself came to favor ¾, and that is the number favored today by the foremost proponents of the law, despite that ¾ also does not agree with much of the data, and is also troubled with exceptions. Theoretical models presented by Geoffrey West, Brian Enquist, and James Brown,[6] – known as the WBE model – purport to show how the ¾ observation can emerge from the constraint of how resources are distributed through hierarchical branching networks. Their understanding of an organism’s metabolic/respiratory chain is based entirely on blood-flow considerations. Their claims have been repeatedly criticized as mistaken, given that the role of fractal capillary branching is not demonstrated as fundamental to the exponent ¾; and that blood-flow claims severely limit the relevance of the equation to organisms greater than e?6 (? .0025) grams when the simultaneous claim is made that the equation is relevant over 27 orders of magnitude, extending from bacteria, which do not have hearts, to whales or forests.

The Anthropocene

IGBP synthesis (Steffen et al., 2004) the 24 graphs – 12 socio-economic and 12 Earth system trends from 1750 to present– are strong evidence that the Earth system has moved to a new state. Global Change and the Earth System (2004) The Anthropocene: From Global Change to Planetary Stewardship Will Steffen,1,2 Åsa Persson,2,3 Lisa Deutsch,2 […]

IGBP synthesis (Steffen et al., 2004) the 24 graphs – 12 socio-economic and 12 Earth system trends from 1750 to present– are strong evidence that the Earth system has moved to a new state.

Global Change and the Earth System (2004)

Abstract

Over the past century, the total material wealth of humanity has been enhanced. However, in the twenty-first century, we face scarcity in critical resources, the degradation of ecosystem services, and the erosion of the planet’s capability to absorb our wastes. Equity issues remain stubbornly difficult to solve. This situation is novel in its speed, its global scale and its threat to the resilience of the Earth System. The advent of the Anthropence, the time interval in which human activities now rival global geophysical processes, suggests that we need to fundamentally alter our relationship with the planet we inhabit. Many approaches could be adopted, ranging from geo-engineering solutions that purposefully manipulate parts of the Earth System to becoming active stewards of our own life support system. The Anthropocene is a reminder that the Holocene, during which complex human societies have developed, has been a stable, accommodating environment and is the only state of the Earth System that we know for sure can support contemporary society. The need to achieve effective planetary stewardship is urgent. As we go further into the Anthropocene, we risk driving the Earth System onto a trajectory toward more hostile states from which we cannot easily return.

Keywords: Earth System, Anthropocence, Planetary stewardship, Ecosystem services, Resilience

Phylogenetics

Phylogenetics /ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, –lə–/[1][2] (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon = tribe, clan, race + γενετικός – genetikós = origin, source, birth)[3] – in biology – is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms(e.g. species, or populations). These relationships are discovered through phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observedheritable traits, […]

Phylogenetics /?fa?lo?d???n?t?ks, l?/[1][2] (Greek: ????, ????? – phylé, phylon = tribe, clan, race + ????????? – genetikós = origin, source, birth)[3] – in biology – is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms(e.g. species, or populations). These relationships are discovered through phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observedheritable traits, such as DNA sequences or morphology under a model of evolution of these traits. The result of these analyses is aphylogeny (also known as a phylogenetic tree) – a hypothesis about the history of evolutionary relationships.[4] The tips of a phylogenetic tree can be living organisms or fossils. Phylogenetic analyses have become central to understanding biodiversity, evolution, ecology, and genomes.

Taxonomy is the classification, identification and naming of organisms. It is usually richly informed by phylogenetics, but remains a methodologically and logically distinct discipline.[5] The degree to which taxonomies depend on phylogenies (or classification depends on evolutionary development) differs depending on the school of taxonomy: phenetics ignores phylogeny altogether, trying to represent the similarity between organisms instead; cladistics (phylogenetic systematics) tries to reproduce phylogeny in its classification without loss of information; evolutionary taxonomy tries to find a compromise between them.

Punctuated equilibrium

Punctuated equilibrium (also called punctuated equilibria) is a theory in evolutionary biology which proposes that once species appear in the fossil record they will become stable, showing little net evolutionary change for most of their geological history. This state is calledstasis. When significant evolutionary change occurs, the theory proposes that it is generally restricted to […]

Punctuated equilibrium (also called punctuated equilibria) is a theory in evolutionary biology which proposes that once species appear in the fossil record they will become stable, showing little net evolutionary change for most of their geological history. This state is calledstasis. When significant evolutionary change occurs, the theory proposes that it is generally restricted to rare and geologically rapid events of branching speciation called cladogenesis. Cladogenesis is the process by which a species splits into two distinct species, rather than one species gradually transforming into another.[1] Punctuated equilibrium is commonly contrasted against phyletic gradualism, the belief that evolution generally occurs uniformly and by the steady and gradual transformation of whole lineages (called anagenesis). In this view, evolution is seen as generally smooth and continuous.

In 1972, paleontologists Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould published a landmark paper developing their theory and called it punctuated equilibria.[2] Their paper built upon Ernst Mayr‘s model of geographic speciation,[3] I. Michael Lerner‘s theories of developmental and genetic homeostasis,[4] as well as their own empirical research.[5][6] Eldredge and Gould proposed that the degree of gradualism commonly attributed to Charles Darwin is virtually nonexistent in the fossil record, and that stasis dominates the history of mostfossil species.

Stephen Jay Gould (/?u?ld/; September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. He was also one of the most influential and widely read writers of popular science of his generation.[1] Gould spent most of his career teaching at Harvard University and working at theAmerican Museum of Natural History in New York. In the later years of his life, Gould also taught biology and evolution at New York University.

Gould’s most significant contribution to evolutionary biology was the theory of punctuated equilibrium, which he developed with Niles Eldredge in 1972.[2] The theory proposes that most evolution is marked by long periods of evolutionary stability, which is punctuated by rare instances of branching evolution. The theory was contrasted against phyletic gradualism, the idea that evolutionary change is marked by a pattern of smooth and continuous change in the fossil record.

Most of Gould’s empirical research was based on the land snail genera Poecilozonites and Cerion. He also contributed to evolutionary developmental biology, and has received wide praise for his book Ontogeny and Phylogeny. In evolutionary theory he opposed strict selectionism, sociobiology as applied to humans, andevolutionary psychology. He campaigned against creationism and proposed that science and religion should be considered two distinct fields (or “magisteria“) whose authorities do not overlap.[3]

Gould was known by the general public mainly from his 300 popular essays in the magazine Natural History,[4] and his books written for a non-specialist audience. In April 2000, the US Library of Congress named him a “Living Legend“.[5]

Major Carbon Monoxide Explosion

Links: 1) http://www.natureasia.com/en/nindia/a… 2) http://beforeitsnews.com/alternative/… 3) http://beforeitsnews.com/alternative/… 4) Thumbnail image – Wikimedia commons images. San Francisco California https://www.google.gr/search?q=Califo… Published on Feb 27, 2016 Major Carbon Monoxide Explosion !!! http://earth.nullschool.net/#current/…


Links:
1) http://www.natureasia.com/en/nindia/a
2) http://beforeitsnews.com/alternative/
3) http://beforeitsnews.com/alternative/
4) Thumbnail image – Wikimedia commons images.
San Francisco California
https://www.google.gr/search?q=Califo

Published on Feb 27, 2016

Major Carbon Monoxide Explosion !!!
http://earth.nullschool.net/#current/…

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Al Jazeera America to close down Unsustainable business model cited in decision to close as global network announces a new digital drive in US market January 13, 2016 2:11PM ET by Al Jazeera Staff Al Jazeera (Arabic: الجزيرة‎ al-ǧazīrah IPA: [æl dʒæˈziːrɐ], literally “The Island”, … Continue reading

Al Jazeera America to close down
Unsustainable business model cited in decision to close as global network announces a new digital drive in US market
January 13, 2016 2:11PM ET
by Al Jazeera Staff

Al Jazeera (Arabic: ???????? al-?az?rah IPA: [æl d?æ?zi?r?], literally “The Island”, abbreviating “The [Arabian] Peninsula“)[note] (also Aljazeera or JSC[Jazeera Satellite Channel]) is an independent[1][2] broadcaster owned by the state of Qatar through the Qatar Media Corporation and headquartered inDohaQatar. Initially launched as an Arabic news and current affairs satellite TV channel, Al Jazeera has since expanded into a network with several outlets, including the Internet and specialty TV channels in multiple languages. Al Jazeera is accessible in several world regions.

The original Al Jazeera channel’s willingness to broadcast dissenting views, for example on call-in shows, created controversies in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. The station gained worldwide attention following the September 11, 2001 attacks, when it was the only channel to cover the war in Afghanistan live from its office there.[3] It has also recently been acclaimed for its in-depth coverage of the Arab Spring protests and revolutions.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al_Jazeera

cheap oil

Links: 1) http://www.xe.com/currencyconverter/c… 2) http://www.oil-price.net/ 3) http://beforeitsnews.com/opinion-cons… 4) Thumbnail imaage – Alberta Oil Sands – by Howl Arts Collective https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi… 5) Music – Youtube Audio Library “Ambient Ambulance” https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/…




Links:
1) http://www.xe.com/currencyconverter/c…
2) http://www.oil-price.net/
3) http://beforeitsnews.com/opinion-cons…
4) Thumbnail imaage – Alberta Oil Sands – by Howl Arts Collective
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi…
5) Music – Youtube Audio Library
“Ambient Ambulance”
https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/…


China Uncensored

1 in 4 US Companies are leaving China. That’s according to the latest survey by the American Chamber of Commerce in China. Why? Is it pollution, IP theft, corruption, or a slowing economy? Published on Nov 16, 2015 Is the … Continue reading


1 in 4 US Companies are leaving China. That’s according to the latest survey by the American Chamber of Commerce in China. Why? Is it pollution, IP theft, corruption, or a slowing economy?

Published on Nov 16, 2015
Is the world’s largest economy really all it’s cracked up to be? The Chinese Communist Party likes to brag it’s an economic powerhouse with GDP and growth the rest of the world envies. But it turns out, China’s economy really isn’t what you think. Watch this episode of China Uncensored to find out why!

2015 was the hottest year ever recorded

Dear friend, It’s official: this week NASA confirmed that 2015 was the hottest year ever recorded. And it’s not just warmer weather that people have been feeling. The impacts of a climate being cooked by a reckless fossil fuel industry … Continue reading

Dear friend,

It’s official: this week NASA confirmed that 2015 was the hottest year ever recorded. And it’s not just warmer weather that people have been feeling. The impacts of a climate being cooked by a reckless fossil fuel industry are being felt right around the world. From devastating flooding to seemingly endless drought, the message each disaster sends is clear — the time for procrastination is long gone, and the need for action has never been more urgent.

With a global climate deal in Paris done, the world has a choice: This could be a time we look back on as the moment the curtain came down on the fossil fuel age, and we began to build the 100% clean energy future that we need. Or it could be the aftermath of another failed global agreement — a missed opportunity, sabotaged by the fossil fuel industry and their political allies.

To make sure that the Paris deal results in real climate action, people are beginning to organise a historic wave of nonviolent actions around the world in May of this year. This wave of actions is called Break Free from Fossil Fuels, and it’s how the people are going to make sure that this moment is remembered as a turning point.

Actions are being planned at locations in 12 countries, and plans are coming together quickly — click here to be a part of it from the very beginning.

The Paris agreement leaves a lot of work to be done: the timeline for action is far too long, and there is no plan for how countries will reduce their emissions at the scale and rate necessary. There is a gap between the target that governments have set themselves and what their commitments will lead to. It is up to us to do the work that will close that gap.

There is no way to reach the 1.5 degree target that governments aspire to while continuing to dig coal, oil and gas out of the ground.But governments around the world are still continuing to approve new fossil fuel projects, which will commit us to years more warming.

Break Free from Fossil Fuels is different from anything we’ve been a part of before: dozens of major actions around the globe, non-violently escalating the fight against the worst fossil fuel projects on earth, coordinated to show that we are united against the fossil fuel industry’s power.

We’ve marched, we’ve signed petitions, and we’ve demonstrated for climate action. But this is the critical moment, and climate action is even more urgent than ever before. That’s why in May 2016 we will be joining with partners around the world to take things to the next level. We will directly confront those who are responsible for climate change, put our bodies in the way of business as usual, and take bold action in support of a 100% renewable energy future.

It’s up to us to close the gap between rhetoric and reality.

We’re ready. Are you? Click here to find out more and sign up to be a part of this historic moment.

Onward,

Will on behalf of the Break Free coordinating team