Sanskrit

Sanskrit (/ˈsænskrɪt/; संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam [səmskr̩t̪əm], originally संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, “refined speech”) is a standardized dialect of Old-Indo-Aryan, the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, philosophical language in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and a scholarly literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in the Indian cultural zone. Originating as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and ultimately to Proto-Indo-European, today it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India[3] and is an official language of the state ofUttarakhand.[4] Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies.

The corpus of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and dharma texts. Sanskrit continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the forms of hymns and mantras. Spoken Sanskrit has been revived in some villages with traditional institutions, and there are attempts at further popularisation.


Sanskrit grammar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The grammar of the Sanskrit language has a complex verbal system, rich nominal declension, and extensive use of compound nouns. It was studied and codified by Sanskrit grammariansfrom the later Vedic period (roughly 8th century BC), culminating in the Pāṇinian grammar of the 4th century BC.


Sanskrit (/ˈsænskrɪt/; संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam [səmskr̩t̪əm], originally संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, “refined speech”) is a standardized dialect of Old-Indo-Aryan, the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, philosophical language in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and a scholarly literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in the Indian cultural zone. Originating as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and ultimately to Proto-Indo-European, today it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India[3] and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand.[4] Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies.
The corpus of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and dharma texts. Sanskrit continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the forms of hymns and mantras. Spoken Sanskrit has been revived in some villages with traditional institutions, and there are attempts at further popularisation.


Sanskrit is the classical language of Indian and the liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. It is also one of the 22 official languages of India. The name Sanskrit means “refined”, “consecrated” and “sanctified”. It has always been regarded as the ‘high’ language and used mainly for religious and scientific discourse.
Vedic Sanskrit, the pre-Classical form of the language and the liturgical language of the Vedic religion, is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family. The oldest known text in Sanskrit, the Rigveda, a collection of over a thousand Hindu hymns, composed during the 2nd millenium BC.
Today Sanskrit is used mainly in Hindu religious rituals as a ceremonial language for hymns and mantras. Efforts are also being made to revive Sanskrit as an everyday spoken language in the village of Mattur near Shimoga in Karnataka. A modern form of Sanskrit is one of the 17 official home languages in India.
Since the late 19th century, Sanskrit has been written mostly with the Devanāgarī alphabet. However it has also been written with all the other alphabets of India, except Gurmukhi and Tamil, and with other alphabets such as Thai and Tibetan. The Grantha, Sharda and Siddham alphabets are used only for Sanskrit.
Since the late 18th century, Sanskrit has also been written with the Latin alphabet. The most commonly used system is the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST), which was been the standard for academic work since 1912.

Devanāgarī alphabet for Sanskrit

Vowels and vowel diacritics (घोष / ghoṣa)

Sanskrit vowels and vowel diacritics

Consonants (व्यञ्जन / vyajjana)

Sanskrit consonants

Conjunct consonants (संयोग / saṅyoga)

There are about a thousand conjunct consonants, most of which combine two or three consonants. There are also some with four-consonant conjuncts and at least one well-known conjunct with five consonants. Here’s a selection of commonly-used conjuncts:
A selection of Sanskrit conjunct consonants
You can find a full list of conjunct consonants used for Sanskrit at:
http://sanskrit.gde.to/learning_tutorial_wikner/P058.html

Numerals (संख्या / saṇkhyā)

Sanskrit numerals and numbers from 0-10

Sample text in Sanskrit

सर्वे मानवाः स्वतन्त्राः समुत्पन्नाः वर्तन्ते अपि च, गौरवदृशा अधिकारदृशा च समानाः एव वर्तन्ते। एते सर्वे चेतना-तर्क-शक्तिभ्यां सुसम्पन्नाः सन्ति। अपि च, सर्वेऽपि बन्धुत्व-भावनया परस्परं व्यवहरन्तु।
Translated into Sanskrit by Arvind Iyengar
Transliteration
Sarvē mānavāḥ svatantrāḥ samutpannāḥ vartantē api ca, gauravadr̥śā adhikāradr̥śā ca samānāḥ ēva vartantē. Ētē sarvē cētanā-tarka-śaktibhyāṁ susampannāḥ santi. Api ca, sarvē’pi bandhutva-bhāvanayā parasparaṁ vyavaharantu.
A recording of this text by Muralikrishnan Ramasamy

Another version of this text

सर्वे मानवाः जन्मना स्वतन्त्राः वैयक्तिकगौरवेण अधिकारेण च तुल्याः एव । सर्वेषां विवेकः आत्मसाक्षी च वर्तते । सर्वे परस्परं भ्रातृभावेन व्यवहरेयुः ॥
Transliteration (by Stefán Steinsson)
Sarvē mānavāḥ janmanā svatantrāḥ vaiyaktikagauravēṇa adhikārēṇa ca tulyāḥ ēva, sarvēṣāṃ vivēkaḥ ātmasākṣī ca vartatē, sarvē parasparaṃ bhrātṛbhāvēna vyavaharēyuḥ.
A recording of this text
Translation and recording by Shriramana Sharma

Translation

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Links

Information about the Sanskrit language
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrit
http://www.sanskrit-sanscrito.com.ar
http://sanskritroots.com
http://omkarananda-ashram.org/Sanskrit/Itranslt.html
http://www.samskrtam.org/
http://www.americansanskrit.com
http://www.sanskritstudies.org
Online Sanskrit lessons
http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/DBLM/olcourse/sanskrit.htm
http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/vedol-0-X.html
http://www.elportaldelaindia.com/El_Portal_de_la_India_Antigua/Sánscrito.html
Sanskrit phrases
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Sanskrit/Everyday_Phrases
http://or.girgit.chitthajagat.in/samskrit.wordpress.com/
Sanskrit dictionaries
http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/indologie/tamil/cap_search.html
http://aa2411s.aa.tufs.ac.jp/~tjun/sktdic
http://pauillac.inria.fr/~huet/SKT/DICO/index.html
http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/DBLM/olcourse/sanskrit.htm
http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/vedol-0-X.html
http://www.elportaldelaindia.com/El_Portal_de_la_India_Antigua/Sánscrito.html
http://sourceforge.net/projects/dhatu-patha/
Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon
http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/tamil/
Devanagari fonts and keyboards
http://www.wazu.jp/gallery/Fonts_Devanagari.html
http://www.kiranfont.com
http://www.devanagarifonts.net
http://www.sanskritweb.net/cakram/
Sanskrit Library – contains digitized Sanskrit texts and various tools to analyse them
http://sanskritlibrary.org/
Samskrita Bharati – an organisation established as an experiment in 1981 in Bangalore to bring Sanskrit back into daily life: http://www.samskrita-bharati.org/
Sanskrit Voice – a community of Sanskrit lovers
http://sanskritvoice.com
An archive of Sanskrit dictionaries, readers & grammars in German, English & Russian. (circa 4000 Mb Book Scans, devanagari fonts): http://groups.google.com/group/Nagari
Free Diwali Cards
http://www.diwali-cards.com
http://www.123diwali.com/


Some free resources on the web for learning Sanskrit:

1.)A Practical Sanskrit Introductory – Charles Wikner

http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tutorial_wikner/

2.)The website of “Acharya”, SDL, IIT-Madras:

http://acharya.iitm.ac.in/sanskrit/tutor.php

3.)An Analytical Cross Referenced Sanskrit Grammar – Lennart Warnemyr:

http://www.warnemyr.com/skrgram/

4.)A Taiwanese website from the “Museum of Buddhist Studies” to teach yourself Sanskrit:

http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/DBLM/olcourse/sanskrit.htm

5.)Learning resources from the Sanskrit Religions Institute, U.S.A (the site also has links to other sites offering free learning resources) :

http://www.sanskrit.org/www/Sanskrit/sanskrit.htm

6.)Learning resources from Shirali Chitrapur Math’s website in PDF format (Chitrapur is a coastal town located near Honnavar, Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka):

http://www.chitrapurmath.net/sanskrit/step-by-step.htm

7.)U.K.-India’s online lessons:

http://www.ukindia.com/zip/zsan01.htm

8.)E-books from Sri Satya Sai Veda Pratistan, Puttaparthi:

http://www.vedamu.org/Sankrit/sankritmain.asp

9.)From the website of Dr. Satyavati Sriperumbuduru Kandala:

http://www.kandala.org/ClassMaterial.html

10.)Learning resources from Kalidasa Samskrita Kendram, Kanchipuram (resources include lessons as well as a free dictionary):

http://www.geocities.com/vcgrajan/kendram.html

11.)Shri Aurobindo Ashram’s Sanskrit learning resources:

http://sanskrit.sriaurobindoashram.org.in/

12.)A “teach yourself Sanskrit” freeware by the venerable Prof.Sudhir Kaicker:

http://www.sanskrit-lamp.org/

13.)An enthusiastic effort to teach Sanskrit online by Vasudeva Bhat, C.F.T.R.I., Mysore, Karnataka:

http://www.ourkarnataka.com/learnsan…skrit_main.htm

14.)Sringeri Mutt’s free learning resources:

http://www.svbf.org/sringeri/journal…/sanskrit.html

15.)”Master Sanskrit Easily” by by Dr. Narayan Kansara, Ahmedabad:

http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools

16.) A learning resource put up online by two gentlemen who go by the names, Gabriel ‘Pradīpaka’ & Andrés ‘Muni’.

http://www.sanskrit-sanscrito.com.ar…entingles.html

17.)The following website gives several resources for learning Sanskrit. Go to the bottom of the page, where you will find several downloadable lessons in PDF format by Sanskrit Bharati of Bangalore, an organization that has widespread following and which aims to promote spoken Sanskrit.

http://sanskritdocuments.org/learnin…ing_tools.html

18.) Vaman Shivaram Apte’s Sanskrit Dictionary online:

http://aa2411s.aa.tufs.ac.jp/%7Etjun/sktdic/

19.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon, which also contains a Tamil-English Dictionary (Sanskrit-English dictionary part has been adapted from the famous Monier-Williams’ ‘Sanskrit-English Dictionary’):

http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/tamil/

20.)The mother of all Sanskrit resources:

http://www.sanskritdocuments.org/

21.)Geral Huet’s Sanskrit Dictionary & other resources:

http://sanskrit.inria.fr/sanskrit.html

It is amazing how people spend their time & money, and battle out to keep this language alive!

Last edited by kspv; 24-04-2007 at 12:45 PM.

Sanskrit (/?sænskr?t/; ????????? sa?sk?tam [s?mskr?t??m], originally ???????? ???? sa?sk?t? v?k, “refined speech”) is a standardized dialect of Old-Indo-Aryan, the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, philosophical language in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and a scholarly literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in the Indian cultural zone. Originating as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and ultimately to Proto-Indo-European, today it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India[3] and is an official language of the state ofUttarakhand.[4] Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies.

The corpus of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and dharma texts. Sanskrit continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the forms of hymns and mantras. Spoken Sanskrit has been revived in some villages with traditional institutions, and there are attempts at further popularisation.


Sanskrit grammar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The grammar of the Sanskrit language has a complex verbal system, rich nominal declension, and extensive use of compound nouns. It was studied and codified by Sanskrit grammariansfrom the later Vedic period (roughly 8th century BC), culminating in the P??inian grammar of the 4th century BC.


Sanskrit (/?sænskr?t/; ????????? sa?sk?tam [s?mskr?t??m], originally ???????? ???? sa?sk?t? v?k, “refined speech”) is a standardized dialect of Old-Indo-Aryan, the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, philosophical language in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and a scholarly literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in the Indian cultural zone. Originating as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and ultimately to Proto-Indo-European, today it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India[3] and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand.[4] Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies.
The corpus of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and dharma texts. Sanskrit continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the forms of hymns and mantras. Spoken Sanskrit has been revived in some villages with traditional institutions, and there are attempts at further popularisation.


Sanskrit is the classical language of Indian and the liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. It is also one of the 22 official languages of India. The name Sanskrit means “refined”, “consecrated” and “sanctified”. It has always been regarded as the ‘high’ language and used mainly for religious and scientific discourse.
Vedic Sanskrit, the pre-Classical form of the language and the liturgical language of the Vedic religion, is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family. The oldest known text in Sanskrit, the Rigveda, a collection of over a thousand Hindu hymns, composed during the 2nd millenium BC.
Today Sanskrit is used mainly in Hindu religious rituals as a ceremonial language for hymns and mantras. Efforts are also being made to revive Sanskrit as an everyday spoken language in the village of Mattur near Shimoga in Karnataka. A modern form of Sanskrit is one of the 17 official home languages in India.
Since the late 19th century, Sanskrit has been written mostly with the Devan?gar? alphabet. However it has also been written with all the other alphabets of India, except Gurmukhi and Tamil, and with other alphabets such as Thai and Tibetan. The Grantha, Sharda and Siddham alphabets are used only for Sanskrit.
Since the late 18th century, Sanskrit has also been written with the Latin alphabet. The most commonly used system is the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST), which was been the standard for academic work since 1912.

Devan?gar? alphabet for Sanskrit

Vowels and vowel diacritics (??? / gho?a)

Sanskrit vowels and vowel diacritics

Consonants (??????? / vyajjana)

Sanskrit consonants

Conjunct consonants (????? / sa?yoga)

There are about a thousand conjunct consonants, most of which combine two or three consonants. There are also some with four-consonant conjuncts and at least one well-known conjunct with five consonants. Here’s a selection of commonly-used conjuncts:
A selection of Sanskrit conjunct consonants
You can find a full list of conjunct consonants used for Sanskrit at:
http://sanskrit.gde.to/learning_tutorial_wikner/P058.html

Numerals (?????? / sa?khy?)

Sanskrit numerals and numbers from 0-10

Sample text in Sanskrit

????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?, ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ?????-????-?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?, ???????? ????????-?????? ??????? ???????????
Translated into Sanskrit by Arvind Iyengar
Transliteration
Sarv? m?nav?? svatantr?? samutpann?? vartant? api ca, gauravadr??? adhik?radr??? ca sam?n?? ?va vartant?. ?t? sarv? c?tan?-tarka-?aktibhy?? susampann?? santi. Api ca, sarv?’pi bandhutva-bh?vanay? paraspara? vyavaharantu.
A recording of this text by Muralikrishnan Ramasamy

Another version of this text

????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?? ? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?
Transliteration (by Stefán Steinsson)
Sarv? m?nav?? janman? svatantr?? vaiyaktikagaurav??a adhik?r??a ca tuly?? ?va, sarv???? viv?ka? ?tmas?k?? ca vartat?, sarv? paraspara? bhr?t?bh?v?na vyavahar?yu?.
A recording of this text
Translation and recording by Shriramana Sharma

Translation

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Links

Information about the Sanskrit language
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrit
http://www.sanskrit-sanscrito.com.ar
http://sanskritroots.com
http://omkarananda-ashram.org/Sanskrit/Itranslt.html
http://www.samskrtam.org/
http://www.americansanskrit.com
http://www.sanskritstudies.org
Online Sanskrit lessons
http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/DBLM/olcourse/sanskrit.htm
http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/vedol-0-X.html
http://www.elportaldelaindia.com/El_Portal_de_la_India_Antigua/Sánscrito.html
Sanskrit phrases
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Sanskrit/Everyday_Phrases
http://or.girgit.chitthajagat.in/samskrit.wordpress.com/
Sanskrit dictionaries
http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/indologie/tamil/cap_search.html
http://aa2411s.aa.tufs.ac.jp/~tjun/sktdic
http://pauillac.inria.fr/~huet/SKT/DICO/index.html
http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/DBLM/olcourse/sanskrit.htm
http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/vedol-0-X.html
http://www.elportaldelaindia.com/El_Portal_de_la_India_Antigua/Sánscrito.html
http://sourceforge.net/projects/dhatu-patha/
Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon
http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/tamil/
Devanagari fonts and keyboards
http://www.wazu.jp/gallery/Fonts_Devanagari.html
http://www.kiranfont.com
http://www.devanagarifonts.net
http://www.sanskritweb.net/cakram/
Sanskrit Library – contains digitized Sanskrit texts and various tools to analyse them
http://sanskritlibrary.org/
Samskrita Bharati – an organisation established as an experiment in 1981 in Bangalore to bring Sanskrit back into daily life: http://www.samskrita-bharati.org/
Sanskrit Voice – a community of Sanskrit lovers
http://sanskritvoice.com
An archive of Sanskrit dictionaries, readers & grammars in German, English & Russian. (circa 4000 Mb Book Scans, devanagari fonts): http://groups.google.com/group/Nagari
Free Diwali Cards
http://www.diwali-cards.com
http://www.123diwali.com/


Some free resources on the web for learning Sanskrit:

1.)A Practical Sanskrit Introductory – Charles Wikner

http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tutorial_wikner/

2.)The website of “Acharya”, SDL, IIT-Madras:

http://acharya.iitm.ac.in/sanskrit/tutor.php

3.)An Analytical Cross Referenced Sanskrit Grammar – Lennart Warnemyr:

http://www.warnemyr.com/skrgram/

4.)A Taiwanese website from the “Museum of Buddhist Studies” to teach yourself Sanskrit:

http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/DBLM/olcourse/sanskrit.htm

5.)Learning resources from the Sanskrit Religions Institute, U.S.A (the site also has links to other sites offering free learning resources) :

http://www.sanskrit.org/www/Sanskrit/sanskrit.htm

6.)Learning resources from Shirali Chitrapur Math’s website in PDF format (Chitrapur is a coastal town located near Honnavar, Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka):

http://www.chitrapurmath.net/sanskrit/step-by-step.htm

7.)U.K.-India’s online lessons:

http://www.ukindia.com/zip/zsan01.htm

8.)E-books from Sri Satya Sai Veda Pratistan, Puttaparthi:

http://www.vedamu.org/Sankrit/sankritmain.asp

9.)From the website of Dr. Satyavati Sriperumbuduru Kandala:

http://www.kandala.org/ClassMaterial.html

10.)Learning resources from Kalidasa Samskrita Kendram, Kanchipuram (resources include lessons as well as a free dictionary):

http://www.geocities.com/vcgrajan/kendram.html

11.)Shri Aurobindo Ashram’s Sanskrit learning resources:

http://sanskrit.sriaurobindoashram.org.in/

12.)A “teach yourself Sanskrit” freeware by the venerable Prof.Sudhir Kaicker:

http://www.sanskrit-lamp.org/

13.)An enthusiastic effort to teach Sanskrit online by Vasudeva Bhat, C.F.T.R.I., Mysore, Karnataka:

http://www.ourkarnataka.com/learnsan…skrit_main.htm

14.)Sringeri Mutt’s free learning resources:

http://www.svbf.org/sringeri/journal…/sanskrit.html

15.)”Master Sanskrit Easily” by by Dr. Narayan Kansara, Ahmedabad:

http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools

16.) A learning resource put up online by two gentlemen who go by the names, Gabriel ‘Prad?paka’ & Andrés ‘Muni’.

http://www.sanskrit-sanscrito.com.ar…entingles.html

17.)The following website gives several resources for learning Sanskrit. Go to the bottom of the page, where you will find several downloadable lessons in PDF format by Sanskrit Bharati of Bangalore, an organization that has widespread following and which aims to promote spoken Sanskrit.

http://sanskritdocuments.org/learnin…ing_tools.html

18.) Vaman Shivaram Apte’s Sanskrit Dictionary online:

http://aa2411s.aa.tufs.ac.jp/%7Etjun/sktdic/

19.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon, which also contains a Tamil-English Dictionary (Sanskrit-English dictionary part has been adapted from the famous Monier-Williams’ ‘Sanskrit-English Dictionary’):

http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/tamil/

20.)The mother of all Sanskrit resources:

http://www.sanskritdocuments.org/

21.)Geral Huet’s Sanskrit Dictionary & other resources:

http://sanskrit.inria.fr/sanskrit.html

It is amazing how people spend their time & money, and battle out to keep this language alive!

Last edited by kspv; 24-04-2007 at 12:45 PM.