basal ganglia

The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) comprise multiple subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates, which are situated at the base of the forebrain. Basal ganglia are strongly interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brainstem, as well as several other brain areas. The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions including: control of voluntary motor movements, procedural learning, routine […]

The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) comprise multiple subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates, which are situated at the base of the forebrain. Basal ganglia are strongly interconnected with the cerebral cortexthalamus, and brainstem, as well as several other brain areas. The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions including: control of voluntary motor movements, procedural learning, routine behaviors or “habits” such as bruxism, eye movements,cognition[1] and emotion.[2]

Currently, popular theories implicate the basal ganglia primarily in action selection; that is, it helps determine the decision of which of several possible behaviors to execute at any given time. In more specific terms, the basal ganglia’s primary function is likely to control and regulate activities of the motor and premotor cortical areas so that voluntary movements can be performed smoothly.[1][3] Experimental studies show that the basal ganglia exert an inhibitory influence on a number of motor systems, and that a release of this inhibition permits a motor system to become active. The “behavior switching” that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, which plays a key role in executive functions.[2][4]

The main components of the basal ganglia are the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen), the globus pallidus, thesubstantia nigra, the nucleus accumbens, and the subthalamic nucleus.[5] Each of these areas has a complex internal anatomical and neurochemical organization. The largest component, the striatum, receives input from many brain areas beyond the basal ganglia, but only sends output to other components of the basal ganglia. The pallidum receives input from the striatum, and sends inhibitory output to a number of motor-related areas. The substantia nigra is the source of the striatal input of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which plays an important role in basal ganglia function. The subthalamic nucleus receives input mainly from the striatum and cerebral cortex, and projects to the globus pallidus.

The importance of these subcortical nuclei for normal brain function and behavior is emphasized by the numerous and diverse neurological conditions associated with basal ganglia dysfunction, which include: disorders of behavior control such as Tourette syndromehemiballismus, and obsessive–compulsive disorderdystonia; psychostimulant addiction; andmovement disorders, the most notable of which are Parkinson’s disease, which involves degeneration of the dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and Huntington’s disease, which primarily involves damage to the striatum.[1][5]

The basal ganglia have a limbic sector whose components are assigned distinct names: the nucleus accumbensventral pallidum, and ventral tegmental area (VTA). There is considerable evidence that this limbic part plays a central role in reward learning, particularly a pathway from the VTA to the nucleus accumbens that uses the neurotransmitter dopamine. A number of highly addictive drugs, including cocaineamphetamine, and nicotine, are thought to work by increasing the efficacy of this dopamine signal. There is also evidence implicating overactivity of the VTA dopaminergic projection in schizophrenia.[6]

Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia

Front Syst Neurosci. 2011; 5: 66. Published online Aug 30, 2011. Prepublished online Mar 27, 2011.doi:  10.3389/fnsys.2011.00066 PMCID: PMC3163829 A Critical Review of Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia Carol A. Seger1,* and Brian J. Spiering1 Author information ► Article notes ► Copyright and License information ► This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Go to: Abstract The current paper briefly outlines the historical […]

Front Syst Neurosci. 2011; 5: 66.
Published online Aug 30, 2011. Prepublished online Mar 27, 2011.doi:  10.3389/fnsys.2011.00066
PMCID: PMC3163829

A Critical Review of Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia

Abstract

The current paper briefly outlines the historical development of the concept of habit learning and discusses its relationship to the basal ganglia. Habit learning has been studied in many different fields of neuroscience using different species, tasks, and methodologies, and as a result it has taken on a wide range of definitions from these various perspectives. We identify five common but not universal, definitional features of habit learning: that it is inflexible, slow or incremental, unconscious, automatic, and insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. We critically evaluate for each of these how it has been defined, its utility for research in both humans and non-human animals, and the evidence that it serves as an accurate description of basal ganglia function. In conclusion, we propose a multi-faceted approach to habit learning and its relationship to the basal ganglia, emphasizing the need for formal definitions that will provide directions for future research.

Keywords: 

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Isometry

Isometry

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For the mechanical engineering and architecture usage, see isometric projection. For isometry in differential geometry, seeisometry (Riemannian geometry).

In mathematics, an isometry is a distance-preserving map between metric spaces. Geometric figures which can be related by an isometry are called congruent.

Isometries are often used in

Isometry

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For the mechanical engineering and architecture usage, see isometric projection. For isometry in differential geometry, seeisometry (Riemannian geometry).

In mathematics, an isometry is a distance-preserving map between metric spaces. Geometric figures which can be related by an isometry are called congruent.

Isometries are often used in

Spectral theorem

Spectral theorem From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and functional analysis, the spectral theorem is any of a number of results about linear operators or about matrices. In broad terms the spectral theorem provides conditions under which an operator or a matrix can bediagonalized (that is, represented as a diagonal matrix in some basis). This concept of diagonalization is relatively straightforward for operators on finite-dimensional spaces, but […]

Spectral theorem

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and functional analysis, the spectral theorem is any of a number of results about linear operators or about matrices. In broad terms the spectral theorem provides conditions under which an operator or a matrix can bediagonalized (that is, represented as a diagonal matrix in some basis). This concept of diagonalization is relatively straightforward for operators on finite-dimensional spaces, but requires some modification for operators on infinite-dimensional spaces. In general, the spectral theorem identifies a class of linear operators that can be modelled by multiplication operators, which are as simple as one can hope to find. In more abstract language, the spectral theorem is a statement about commutative C*-algebras. See also spectral theory for a historical perspective.
Examples of operators to which the spectral theorem applies are self-adjoint operators or more generally normal operators on Hilbert spaces.
The spectral theorem also provides a canonical decomposition, called the spectral decompositioneigenvalue decomposition, or eigendecomposition, of the underlying vector space on which the operator acts.
In this article we consider mainly the simplest kind of spectral theorem, that for a self-adjoint operator on a Hilbert space. However, as noted above, the spectral theorem also holds for normal operators on a Hilbert space.

Ho, mia kor’

Ho, mia kor’, ne batu maltrankvile,El mia brusto nun ne saltu for!Jam teni min ne povas mi facileHo, mia kor’!Ho, mia kor’! Post longa laboradoC^u mi ne vinkos en decida hor’?Sufic^e! Trankvilig^u de l’ batado,Ho, mia kor’!L. L. ZamenhofEsperanto

Ho, mia kor’, ne batu maltrankvile,
El mia brusto nun ne saltu for!
Jam teni min ne povas mi facile
Ho, mia kor’!

Ho, mia kor’! Post longa laborado
C^u mi ne vinkos en decida hor’?
Sufic^e! Trankvilig^u de l’ batado,
Ho, mia kor’!

L. L. Zamenhof

Esperanto

Mia penso

Mia penso estas poemo verkita antaŭ 1887 de L. L. Zamenhof. Edmond Privat en sia Vivo de Zamenhof komentis ĝin jene (paĝo 32): „Dum ses jaroj li restadis sub silento. Ĝi estis tempo malfacila. Al neniu li parolis pri sia laborado… Tiel pasis for la plej belaj jaroj de la vivo, la studentaj, malgaje kaj dolore.“

Sur la kampo, for de l’ mondo,
Antau^ nokto de somero
Amikino en la rondo
Kantas kanton pri l’ espero.
Kaj pri vivo detruita
S^i rakontas kompatante, —
Mia vundo refrapita
Min doloras resangante.

“C^u vi dormas? Ho, sinjoro,
Kial tia senmoveco?
Ha, kredeble rememoro
El la kara infaneco?”
Kion diri? Ne ploranta
Povis esti parolado
Kun frau^lino ripozanta
Post somera promenado.

Mia penso kaj turmento,
Kaj doloro kaj esperoj!
Kiom de mi en silento
Al vi iris jam oferoj!
Kion havis mi plej karan —
La junecon — mi ploranta
Metis mem sur la altaron
De la devo ordonanta!

Fajron sentas mi interne,
Vivi ankau^ mi deziras —
Io pelas min eterne
Se mi al gajuloj iras …
Se ne plac^as al la sorto
Mia peno kaj laboro —
Venu tuj al mi la morto,
En espero — sen doloro!


Esperanto

Mia penso estas poemo verkita anta? 1887 de L. L. Zamenhof. Edmond Privat en sia Vivo de Zamenhof komentis ?in jene (pa?o 32): „Dum ses jaroj li restadis sub silento. ?i estis tempo malfacila. Al neniu li parolis pri sia laborado… Tiel pasis for la plej belaj jaroj de la vivo, la studentaj, malgaje kaj dolore.“

Sur la kampo, for de l’ mondo,
Antau^ nokto de somero
Amikino en la rondo
Kantas kanton pri l’ espero.
Kaj pri vivo detruita
S^i rakontas kompatante, —
Mia vundo refrapita
Min doloras resangante.

“C^u vi dormas? Ho, sinjoro,
Kial tia senmoveco?
Ha, kredeble rememoro
El la kara infaneco?”
Kion diri? Ne ploranta
Povis esti parolado
Kun frau^lino ripozanta
Post somera promenado.

Mia penso kaj turmento,
Kaj doloro kaj esperoj!
Kiom de mi en silento
Al vi iris jam oferoj!
Kion havis mi plej karan —
La junecon — mi ploranta
Metis mem sur la altaron
De la devo ordonanta!

Fajron sentas mi interne,
Vivi ankau^ mi deziras —
Io pelas min eterne
Se mi al gajuloj iras …
Se ne plac^as al la sorto
Mia peno kaj laboro —
Venu tuj al mi la morto,
En espero — sen doloro!


Esperanto