È TÃO BOM SER PEQUENINO

Alfredo Marceneiro canta È Tão bom Ser Pequenino

Letra de: Carlos Conde
Música: Corrido ou Mouraria

É tão bom ser pequenino
Ter pai, ter mãe, ter avós
Ter esperança no destino
E ter quem goste de nós

A velhice traz revés
Mas depois da meninice
Há quem adore a velhice
Para ser menino outra vez
Ser menino que altivez
De optimismo e desatino
Ver tudo bom e divino
Tudo esperança, tudo fé
Enquanto a vida assim é
È tão bom ser pequenino

Ver tudo com alegria
Sem delongas sem demoras
Viver a vida numa hora
Eternidade num dia
Ter na mente a fantasia
Dum bem que ninguém supôs
Ter crença sonhar a sós
Com a grandeza deste mundo
E para bem mais profundo
Ter pai, ter mãe, ter avós

Ter muito enlevo a sonhar
Acordar e ter carinho
Ter este Mundo inteirinho
No brilho do nosso olhar
Viver alheio ao penar
Deste orbe torpe ferino
Julgar-se eterno menino
Supor-se eterna criança
E num destino sem esperança
Ter esperança no destino

Oh! Desventura, Oh! Saudade

Causas da minha inconstância

Dai-me pedaços de infância

Retalhos de mocidade

Dai-me a doce claridade

Roubando-a ao tempo atroz

Eu queria ter a minha voz

Para cantar o meu passado

E é tão bom cantar o fado

E ter quem goste de nós

Alfredo Marceneiro canta È Tão bom Ser Pequenino

Letra de: Carlos Conde
Música: Corrido ou Mouraria

É tão bom ser pequenino
Ter pai, ter mãe, ter avós
Ter esperança no destino
E ter quem goste de nós

A velhice traz revés
Mas depois da meninice
Há quem adore a velhice
Para ser menino outra vez
Ser menino que altivez
De optimismo e desatino
Ver tudo bom e divino
Tudo esperança, tudo fé
Enquanto a vida assim é
È tão bom ser pequenino

Ver tudo com alegria
Sem delongas sem demoras
Viver a vida numa hora
Eternidade num dia
Ter na mente a fantasia
Dum bem que ninguém supôs
Ter crença sonhar a sós
Com a grandeza deste mundo
E para bem mais profundo
Ter pai, ter mãe, ter avós

Ter muito enlevo a sonhar
Acordar e ter carinho
Ter este Mundo inteirinho
No brilho do nosso olhar
Viver alheio ao penar
Deste orbe torpe ferino
Julgar-se eterno menino
Supor-se eterna criança
E num destino sem esperança
Ter esperança no destino

Oh! Desventura, Oh! Saudade

Causas da minha inconstância

Dai-me pedaços de infância

Retalhos de mocidade

Dai-me a doce claridade

Roubando-a ao tempo atroz

Eu queria ter a minha voz

Para cantar o meu passado

E é tão bom cantar o fado

E ter quem goste de nós

cat’s in the cradle

“Cat’s in the Cradle” is a 1974 folk rock song by Harry Chapin from the album Verities & Balderdash. The single topped the Billboard Hot 100 in December 1974. As Chapin’s only No. 1 hit song, it became the best … Continue reading

Cat’s in the Cradle” is a 1974 folk rock song by Harry Chapin from the album Verities & Balderdash. The single topped the Billboard Hot 100 in December 1974. As Chapin’s only No. 1 hit song, it became the best known of his work and a staple for folk rock music.

The song’s lyrics began as a poem written by Harry’s wife, the former Sandra “Sandy” Gaston; the poem itself was inspired by the awkward relationship between her first husband, James Cashmore, and his father, a New York City politician. She was also inspired by a country music song she had heard on the radio.[1] Harry also said the song was about his own relationship with his son, Josh, admitting, “Frankly, this song scares me to death.”

The song is told in first-person by a father who is too busy to spend time with his son. Though the son asks him to join in childhood activities, the father always responds with little more than vague promises of spending time together in the ‘future’. While wishing to spend time with his father, the son starts to model himself on his father’s behaviour, hence the verse wishing to be “just like him.”

The final two verses reverse the roles, where the father asks his grown-up son to spend time with him after his graduation, and then later come to visit, but the son responds that he is now too busy to find the time for his father. The father then reflects that they are both alike, saying “my boy was just like me.”

The song’s chorus references several childhood things: The Cat’s in the Cradle string game, silver spoons that are given to babies as christening gifts, and the nursery rhymes, Little Boy Blue, and Man in the Moon.

My child arrived just the other day
He came to the world in the usual way
But there were planes to catch and there were bills to pay
He learned to walk while I was away

And he was talking ‘fore I knew it and as he grew
He’d say, “I’m gonna be like you, dad
You know, I’m gonna be like you”

And the cat’s in the cradle and the silver spoon
Little boy blue and the man in the moon
“When you coming home, dad?” “I don’t know when
We’ll get together then, son, you know we’ll have a good time then”

When my son turned ten just the other day
Said, “Thanks for the ball, dad, come on and let’s play
Can you teach me to throw?” I said, “Not today
I got a lot to do” he said, “That’s okay”

And he walked away but his smile never dimmed
Said, “I’m gonna be like him, yeah
You know, I’m gonna be like him”

And the cat’s in the cradle and the silver spoon
Little boy blue and the man in the moon
“When you coming home, dad?” “I don’t know when
We’ll get together then, son, you know we’ll have a good time then”

Well, he came from college just the other day
So much like a man I just had to say
“Son, I’m proud of you, can you sit for a while?”
He shook his head and he said with a smile

“What I’d really like, dad, is to borrow the car keys
See you later
Can I have them please?”

And the cat’s in the cradle and the silver spoon
Little boy blue and the man in the moon
“When you coming home, son?” “I don’t know when
But we’ll get together then, dad, We’re gonna have a good time then”

Well, I’ve long since retired and my son’s moved away
Called him up just the other day
I said, “I’d like to see you if you don’t mind”
He said, “I’d love to, dad, if I could find the time”

“You see, my new job’s a hassle and the kid’s got the flu
But it’s sure nice talking to you, dad
It’s been sure nice talking to you”

And as I hung up the phone, it occurred to me
He’d grown up just like me
My boy was just like me

Yeah, and the cat’s in the cradle and the silver spoon
Little boy blue and the man in the moon
“When you coming home, son?” “I don’t know when
But we’ll get together then, dad, we’re gonna have a good time then”

Songwriters
CHAPIN, HARRY F./CHAPIN, SANDY

Published by
Lyrics © Warner/Chappell Music, Inc.


Zeitgeist

Submission Guidelines & Tips

All submissions should be your original work. Please do not simply copy/paste information (online articles, links, etc.) and submit it as-is. (Excerpts from, or links to, other material may be used within the article, and should be cited appropriately.)
Writing Guidelines (click to see examples):
Announcement — General announcements, major events, procedural or structural changes, etc. concerning the Movement as a whole.
Chapter Update — This should be used by Chapter Coordinators (or those whom they have designated) to submit status reports and announcements related to their specific chapter.
Editorial — An editorial is a written work that generally presents the opinion or view of the author or publishing entity. Technically, there is no minimum length for an Editorial, but it should be long enough to effectively communicate your position to the reader. Try not to make it so long that your readers lose interest before they even get through it. Most editorials are around 1-2 pages long, single-spaced.
Media Project — If you have a work of art such as a comic/ drawing, poem, song, etc. that you’d like to share, please submit it to The Zeitgeist Media Project. Material submitted to that site will be periodically published on the Blog, under this category.
Meeting Minutes — In addition to the recordings, at least one person per meeting should take Notes and post them here in a fairly neat and structured format, sometime after the meeting is over. The basic info should include:
-Date and time of the meeting
-The purpose of the meeting (Agenda)
-Meeting coordinator(s)
-Assigned action items and people assigned
-Any decisions and/or changes made
-A link to the audio and/or video recording (If there is no recording, please specify.)
News Article — A purely factual submission based on news reports and relevant events around the world, as opposed to an Editorial, which includes the opinion/view of the author.
Narrative — An original story based on relevant events, experiences, etc. that may be true or fictional.
Press Release — A general statement, typically in response to a major event, that is published on behalf of the entire Movement. Click here for detailed instructions on how to properly write and format a Press Release.
Project Update — This entry is pertinent for keeping members of the Movement updated on any new projects that are developing, as well as existing projects as they progress. Submit a Project Update any time you or your peers/ teammates begin a new project, or make any progress, breakthroughs, major changes, etc. to an existing one. Be sure to check these entries regularly before starting a new project to ensure that there is not already one in place that you can simply join. This will hopefully help alleviate any scattered or diluted efforts, and instead combine them into strong, streamlined projects and teams. (We may want to consider including an RSS feed that links to all the individual project team PMS sites. That way the people from those teams will only have to update one site, their PMS site, and it will feed onto the newsletter site automatically.)
Participation Guidelines:
Please remain courteous and constructive when posting content or comments.
For information on how your participation affects your karma, please read the Comment moderation FAQ.
—————–Helpful Tips for Getting Your Submission(s) Approved:——————-
Please note that these are by no means requirements, but your careful consideration of these factors will not only assist the Editors in sorting through boat loads of material, but will also give our readers, and ultimately the Movement as a whole, a greater sense of community and rapport, as well as improving the overall Blog experience.
Use your real name: We want to be able to share your content with the world, including third-party organizations when applicable, perhaps even for further publishing on other mediums. It’s more feasible to do that when we are recommending an article by John Smith, Dr. Jane Doe, or Betty Sue, than if we have to recommend an article by “Cupcake” or “JRider” with no background or reliable method to contact him or her, assuming it is a “him,” or assuming it is a “her.”
Update your profile information: It might give Editors (and your readers 😉 a better understanding of your material if they have even a minimal background on who you are. The general blog community might be eager to share an amazing piece of work written by Betty Sue the aquarist, or Bob Jones the carpenter… rather than a random article written by an anonymous stranger. Readers may be more likely to subscribe to your Blog’s RSS feed (found on the Site Map) and “follow” you or your activity. You can create a well-deserved presence for yourself and your material in the blog community.
Use your real photo: Same as above. We are trying to build a community and we can’t do that without building relationships. In fact, we’re striving for a social system that will one day facilitate global empathy, meaning the whole world is the community. People generally remember, or at least distinguish, names and faces better than icons and aliases. More importantly, people connect with names and faces better than generic visuals and inanimate labels. The next time someone has an idea for a project, they’ll probably remember to contact “Billy Johnson with the red hat, smiling kind of crooked” for help – much better than they’ll remember “Alex1988 with a sunflower, or was it a rainbow, or a Skittle, or… what was it again? Something with colors. I think twelve other people had the same icon…” (We don’t know anyone who has the same face as you. Do you? 😉
Provide sources: The members of the Newsletter Team, while extremely dedicated, only have but so much time on their hands to fact check everything so that we don’t get burned for publishing something that’s inaccurate. If you provide links and sources to back up whatever it is that you’re talking about, you’ve saved us a lot of work. Not to mention your article will be just plain awesome, and more enjoyable for the reader. People will be saving it in their favorites for future reference… just wait and see. You may also want to provide convenient hyperlinks to any organizations, events, etc. that you may be mentioning in your article. (When possible, don’t forget to use the ‘Insert/edit link’ tool to hyperlink the words themselves, so it looks nice and neat without all of that ugly URL formatting.) For example:
– You can learn more about this by viewing Peter Joseph’s lecture. – OR –
– You can learn more about this by viewing Where Are We Going, a great lecture by Peter Joseph.
…instead of…
– You can learn more about this by watching Peter Joseph’s lecture, Where Are We Going.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YxPPnCW6sMo
(Once or twice is fine, but scattered randomly throughout the entire article, not so much…)
Take pride in your work: Comb through it for spelling and grammatical errors. Yes, we have a proof-reading team in place for that, but don’t be so sure it will even make it to proofing if we can’t understand it. If the content is unclear or the meaning is lost, due to poor spelling and/or grammar, it may get rejected by Editors beforehand. Most likely, if the content is excellent, but the spelling and grammar needs work, Editors may send it back to you for clarification or improvement. However, the bottom line is, with the amount of submissions that will be coming in, it’s far more productive to publish polished submissions that require the least amount of additional work, and perhaps get to the other stuff later.
Spice it up: Nobody likes a bland article. Don’t forget to upload a thumbnail image for your submission, and feel free to add any images throughout the body that may enhance the reader’s experience. (Okay, don’t get too crazy. Keep the images relevant, and placed neatly (resized if needed) so that we can still read your lovely submission without having a seizure.) You may also add a video if applicable. Granted, the written content itself may be as “colorful” as can be, but it’s usually the imagery that initially draws people in to read it in the first place. Get creative, and remember, images from The Zeitgeist Media Project are available for anyone to use for free. 🙂
(Ooh, look! See what we did there, with the hyperlink? 😉
Carefully categorize your content: When filling out the submission form, don’t ignore the drop-downs. (They’re there for a reason. 😉 Even if you’re stumped, please try your best to accurately choose the submission ‘Type’ that best describes your work, and the ‘Category’ that it most closely relates to. It’s much more difficult (and time-consuming) for Editors to sort through and approve a bunch of generic items submitted as “Other,” than it is for them to pinpoint content for what it is, and go from there. Similarly, if it is in fact an “Other” (something that’s not listed in the drop-down), go ahead and categorize it as “Other” and don’t fudge it to be a “Press Release” or “Project Update,” because if it isn’t one, Editors will probably assume that you don’t actually know how to write a Press Release, or that your so-called “Project” doesn’t make any sense, and reject it. Always choose a Location when applicable, and don’t forget to add tags.
That’s all for now, but we may add more Helpful Tips as they arise. Happy Blogging!
Sincerely,
The Zeitgeist Movement Newsletter/Blog Team

Be sure to check out this 220 page Source Guide below which sources virtually everything. As requested by Zeitgeist creator Peter Joseph, I have replaced the original Zeitgeist movie with well over 1.25 million views with this updated for 2010 version. The meat and potato’s of it are the same, there’s some new information and the quality of it is improved upon.

Link to source guide:

http://zeitgeistmovie.com/Zeitgeist,%20The%20Movie-%20Companion%20Guide%20PDF…

https://signup.netflix.com/Movie/Zeitgeist-Moving-Forward/70225009?country=1&..

Zeitgeist (German pronunciation: [ˈtsaɪtɡaɪst] ( listen)) is “the spirit of the times” or “the spirit of the age.” [1]Zeitgeist is the general cultural, intellectual, ethical, spiritual, or political climate within a nation or even specific groups, along with the general ambiance, morals, sociocultural direction, and mood associated with an era.

The term is a loanword from German Zeit – “time” and Geist – “spirit” (cognate with English “ghost”).

The concept of Zeitgeist goes back to Johann Gottfried Herder and other German Romanticists, such as Cornelius Jagdmann, but is best known in relation to Hegel‘s philosophy of history. In 1769 Herder wrote a critique of the work Genius seculi by the philologist Christian Adolph Klotz and introduced the word Zeitgeist into German as a translation of genius seculi (Latin: genius – “guardian spirit” and saeculi – “of the age”).


-The Zeitgeist Movement, defined:

The Zeitgeist Movement (TZM) is an explicitly nonviolent, global sustainability advocacy group currently working in over 1000 Regional Chapters across 70 countries. The basic structure of The Movement consists of Chapters, Teams, Projects & Events.

In short, the Chapters are essentially what define The Movement in operation. Each Chapter works to not only spread awareness about the roots of our social problems today but also to express the logical, rational, practical solutions we have at our disposal to update (and evolve) our current social system, enabling a truly responsible, sustainable, global society to emerge for the betterment of all the world’s people.

TZM’s education and community projects seek the intermediate goal of obtaining a unified, worldwide movement for social transformation, regardless of country, religion, political party or any such traditionally divisive distinction. TZM recognizes a common, logical value identification pertaining to our survival, sustainability and public health which inherently transcends such culturally divisive issues. Human unification, rationalized out our inalterable, shared “common ground”, is a foundational premise.

From that understanding, a self-organizing Train of Thought with respect to how we can technically (and culturally) accomplish a new social system unfolds. The various stages of this transformation (“Transition”) is not something that can be readily predicted given the uncertain state of the world today and it is not the scope of this document to expand upon the issue. What we do know is that we are experiencing great destabilization in the world due to the inherent flaws of our current social structure and the problems emerging appear to be only getting worse as time goes on. It is from this uncertainty and loss of confidence in the current model that support for a new social system might be achieved, in part.

Therefore, The Movement’s work is to expand upon this Train of Thought and publicly communicate the resulting ideas, structures and methods with the goal of establishing a new cultural “zeitgeist”; hence a new, workable social model and common value system that ensures our socio-evolutionary fitness, our safety, our freedom, our quality of life and our prosperity.

-Your Role:

To become involved in The Movement does not require any monetary contribution, submission of personal information, forms to complete or any such traditional notion of membership. Volunteer organizers and Coordinators keep no databases outside of our simple web-based mailing lists which one is certainly encouraged to register with for updates.

TZM is modeled as a “see through” entity which merely represents a Data Set & Train of Thought at its core. It is holographic and decentralized in structure to assure its effect and warrant against historically notable problems of group identification. TZM has no offices, no location, no leaders, no benefactors and no static affiliations. This Movement is really about your personal understanding of the world along with how much you identify with the observations, logical inferences and solution oriented Train of Thought denoted in The Movement’s materials. If you agree with this need to change our system, please join a Chapter, learn, educate and help contribute.

TZM currently has many community projects, events and publications, as will be explained in this document. There is also a great deal of flexibility and creativity in how a person, group or Chapter chooses to engage and develop new ideas. The Movement is emergent in form and while, again, a basic Train of Thought persists, the tactics and specifics of the Movement’s work will inevitably undergo change.

In summery, we all have the same role here: To educate ourselves; educate others; create an organized critical mass and establish tactics to enable a transition to a new social design – a design which is arrived at in form by way of The Scientific Method.

As will be mentioned later in this document, a public, open-source project known as the Global Redesign Institute will exist to create and promote direct technical design changes for social organization, building upon the most advanced understandings in the fields of Science and Technology we have at the time.

-Educational Resources:

Since 2009, a great deal of data has been generated and output through various communication mediums. Radio Shows, PDFs, Films Presentations, Articles & Lectures are the most common (our information is always free). For someone new to TZM, the following list contains suggested references for review:

2012 ORIENTATION GUIDE This is a detailed summation of virtually all relevant points for TZM. It exists in Video and expanded PDF form, the latter of which contains extensive sources and appendices.

[ http://www.thezeitgeistmovement.com/orientation ]

WEBSITE FAQ TZM Global’s FAQ answers various questions, including Movement Structure specifics.

[ http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/faq#faq1 ]

LECTURES & “TOOL KIT” The Global Website’s ever emerging “Tool Kit” contains many video and text presentations, often with extended sources and references as well. While this content is predominantly in English at this time, many other Non-English presenters operate across the world can be found via the Internet. Please search for your local International Chapter’s Website and review their media as well. http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/tool-kit

Apart from these core sources, community development is large and there is always an ongoing flow of information occurring via the TZM Official Blog, Zeitnews and other participatory mediums that will be discussed in Part 3 of this guide.

-Movement Participation:

A “Member” is loosely defined as one who agrees with the tenets and approach of TZM and in turn participates in their local Chapter’s awareness actions, whether online or local. However, all Members of The Movement have their education about relevant issues as the number one requirement to proceed.

To reiterate, true “Membership” is really a subscription to the Train of Thought at hand. Hence, it is about understanding and supporting The Movement’s logical tenets and working in whatever way one can to bring about awareness and change in a responsible, strategic and nonviolent manner. More specifically, one’s communication and personal skills are important to consider here. Generally speaking, personal specialization of focus has a symbiotic social role as a characteristic of our “Group Mind”, if you will. In other words, some of us are good at some things and others are good at other things. It is the collaboration of our unique skills and interests that creates the larger order realizations. Finding your place in TZM is unique to you and your skill set.

For example, if you feel you have broad organisational skills, working with or becoming a Regional Coordinator for your Chapter might be of interest. If you are technically inclined with a background in Engineering or the like, The Global Redesign Institute might be a comfortable place. If you find your skills are more communicative and artistic, The Zeitgeist Media Project and/or Media Festival might be a good place to contribute. If you are a skilled writer and researcher, joining and contributing focused articles to TZM’s Blog might be of interest. If you are a good public speaker, give presentations at your Monthly Town Halls and/or ZDay in your region on relevant subjects. You get the idea. Focus on what you are good at.

*

2- Joining a Chapter

-Overview:

Very simply, TZM Chapters are regional Zeitgeist Movement Member Groups, organized in Tiers. From “Top to Bottom”, the current Chapter Tiers are:

International—[ Countries ]
State/Province—[ Next lower degree regional distinctions within a given Country ]
City/Town—[ Next lower degree regional distinctions within a given State or Province ]

As noted before, your involvement with your Regional Chapter is what essentially defines you as a Member of The Movement in form. You can go to the Global Website [ http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/ ] to see the Current Top Tier Chapter list [ http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/chapters ]. You can access the respective State (USA) or International Website and from there you should be able to locate the closest sub-chapter near you.

If you cannot find a Country, State or City Chapter for your region, it is then suggested you start one. Virtually all chapters have begun not by appointment, but by personal initiative. A simple review process to understand the seriousness and understanding of the applicant is assessed by existing Coordinators on a per case basis.

-Public Actions:

There are three reoccurring Public Actions for Chapters which are encouraged but naturally contingent upon the size and resources of the group: (1) Our annual “Zday” event; (2) our monthly “Town hall” event and (3) the annual Zeitgeist Media Festival. These will be discussed more in Part 4. However, each region also often has different community customs and possibilities. For example, in Los Angeles California, beach tent “vendor” posts are common on the boardwalk.

In Canada, many do street activism on a person to person basis. Some Chapters even host their own internet radio shows and produce their own media/newsletters based on custom research.

Part of working with your Chapter is being creative and explorative. In the end, the basic goal is still the same: Expose the root problems of our current system and then show the logic behind a new one.

-Meetings:

Chapters naturally need to have the ability to enable communication among its Members, along with other Chapters. As a Chapter grows, periodic Meetings should be conducted in live and/or virtual (online) settings.

TZM Global provides an Internet-Based Voice/Chat program which can be found here: http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/teamspeak

Chapter Meetings typically occur in Tiers with Chapter Coordinators on their respective level. For example, the North Carolina State Chapter, assuming no sub-chapters (city) within it, would have a meeting with all NC Members present. However, in the meetings of the next largest Tier, the Country level (USA in this case), there would only be Coordinators of each State, not all the USA Members. This narrowing is for the sake of comprehension as it would be too difficult to have Global Meetings with tens of thousands of Members at once.

-Questions: If you have a question relating to Chapter Organization which is not answered in the follow links: http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/faq http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/chapters

You may email directly via the Contact Form on this page: (select “Chapters” category): http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/contact-us

*

3- Websites, News & Project Contribution

Apart from signing up with the Global and Regional Mailing lists, there is a wealth of emerging information outlets and interactive mediums. These Websites and Projects are community driven, always free and have proven to be extremely effective. Most items noted below can be found via the Global Website’s home page as well.

-TZM Official Blog: http://blog.thezeitgeistmovement.com/

Member contribution via TZM Blog is a very effective way to give you, your chapter and important issues exposure. Many categories of interest from Economics, History, Science and Activism enable a tremendous platform for expression as an online newsletter and blog. Relevant articles that gain popularity also are highlighted via our Press Releases.

Please see the How-To Guide to start contributing: http://blog.thezeitgeistmovement.com/contribute

-TZM Global Radio: Started in 2009, TZM Global Radio is a Weekly Radio program presented by various coordinators/lecturers of The Zeitgeist Movement in a rotational fashion. It is here where ongoing public updates, news and announcements occur. Each Show occurs at 4pm Eastern Standard time every Wednesday via BlogTalkRadio.com: http://www.blogtalkradio.com/zmglobal

Info and Archive Page: http://www.thezeitgeistmovement.com/radio_shows

Older Archives: http://www.blogtalkradio.com/zmglobal

*Note: While the Global Radio Show is the most conclusive, other programs of great merit also exist, including Programs via the “Zeitgeist Broadcasting Network” (ZBN): http://www.stickam.com/zbnlive

-Zeitgeist Media Project: http://zeitgeistmediaproject.com/ The Zeitgeist Media Project is an online hub for Artistic Media Content which can be uploaded and shared. The media types range from Video, Visual Art, Music/Audio, Literature and more. This content is mostly Creative Commons and is designed to be downloaded and used by other members in their work.

-ZeitNews: http://www.zeitnews.org/

Started in 2010. Zeitnews is an amazing source for advanced Scientific Research. Subjects of interest include Energy, Transportation, Biotechnology, Robotics and other important issues that relate science and technology to human prosperity.

Members may also contribute to the online publication: http://www.zeitnews.org/about/

-Global Redesign Institute: http://www.globalredesigninstitute.org/

The Global Redesign Institute is a Think Tank project currently in development. This advanced concept will create a virtual projection, region by region of what an accurate and up to date social infrastructure would comprise, sidestepping the traditionally inhibiting factors of money and establishment preservation. This project is about designing and expressing what is technically possible – not what is “affordable”. More on this project will be announced when it becomes operational.

-”Why I Advocate” Campaign: http://www.thezeitgeistmovement.com/why-i-advocate

The Zeitgeist Movement’s “Why I Advocate TZM” Media Testimonial Campaign is a video blog project which gives personal perspectives and faces to The Zeitgeist Movement. This is very simple. Members simple make a public video about why they feel the need to change the world and identify with The Zeitgeist Movement. This is also a good way to show community support in general.

Current submissions can be viewed here: http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=why+I+advocate+zeitgeist&aq=f

-Social Networks: TZM Global Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/tzmglobal TZM Global Twitter: http://twitter.com/tzmglobal TZM Global Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/user/TZMOfficialChannel

Apart from the traditional Social Networks listed above, a hybrid project known as “TZM Social” has also emerged: http://www.tzmnetwork.com/

All members are encourage to review and contribute to these social mediums considering how powerful they have become culturally as a whole. Also, Regional Chapters and Projects are encouraged to initiate their own Networks via these medium for their own promotional purposes. ( I.E. a Youtube account assigned to your local chapter for display of your Town Halls, Zday events and the like.)

*

4- TZM Events and Activism

As noted prior, Chapters and hence Members have a few core (Global) periodic actions which are encouraged. These include, ZDay, ZMedia Fest and Monthly Town halls. Paired with these actions is our ZDrive food bank support and similar resource charity programs to help those in need. (more below*)

-Zeitgeist Day (“ZDay”): http://zdayglobal.org/

“Zeitgeist Day”, or ZDay for short, is an annual, global event day which occurs in the middle of March, each year. The goal is to increase public awareness of The Zeitgeist Movement. A Zeitgeist Day event can take many forms, ranging from a simple showing of DVD media; to full lectures and interactive question-and-answer events with Chapter Organizers in various regions. The 2010 ZDay there were 330 sympathetic events occurred in over 70 countries worldwide.

Each year, there is a “Main Event” which serves as a highlight, with more publicly notable speakers and guests. In 2009 and 2010, the Main event was in NYC; In 2011 it was in London, UK & in 2012 – Vancouver BC.

Please review the Official ZDay Website for more information: http://zdayglobal.org/

-Town Halls: http://www.thezeitgeistmovement.com/townhalls

The Zeitgeist Movement’s Town Hall Meetings are live, public events conducted by Official Regional Chapters. These localized events are similar in function to our annual global “Zeitgeist Day” (ZDAY) events but ideally occur monthly, rather than annually. Modelled after patterns proven effective by civil right’s movements historically, the goal is to inform the public of TZM’s understandings and goals and hence grow awareness and membership. To learn more; submit an event for your regions, please see: http://www.thezeitgeistmovement.com/townhalls

-Zeitgeist Media Festival: http://zeitgeistmediafestival.org/

Recognizing the power of art and media to help change the world, “The Zeitgeist Media Festival” engages the artistic community and its power to change values. It proposes that needed changes in the structural/economic workings of society can only manifest in tandem with a personal/social transformation of values in each of us. While intellectual knowledge serves its role of showing the path, many in the world follow their feelings- not the knowledge. The Zeitgeist Media Festival hopes to bridge those levels, while also illuminating a focus where changing and improving the world is no longer considered a fringe or suspect pursuit.

Participating in The Media Festival does not mean each event must meet some strict requirement of focus. However, participation does require that each act understand and agree with a general train of thought with respect to human and social sustainability.

The Zeitgeist Media Festival occurs in the Summer of each year. More info: http://zeitgeistmediafestival.org/site/index-1.html

-*ZDrive: The Zeitgeist Movement’s Charity Drive or “ZDrive” is a program to engage local social service institutions in conjunction with ongoing awareness events. The most common have been our Food Drives and Clothes Drives. For example, the Zeitgeist Media Festival Globally raised via donation about 12,000 meals for the poor in 2011. Resource donations are encouraged more than monetary contributions to avoid corruption.

How you conduct your ZDrive is contingent upon your region and its needs. Typically, a suggested donation of resources is welcomed upon entry to your event, such as the bringing of canned food for your local Food Bank. Since each region has different programs, it is suggested you contact your local charities to see how your Chapter can help.

So, if possible, every time you have a ZDay, Town Hall or Media Event, please conduct a ZDrive as well and have attendees bring resources for local charity.

In turn, please keep track of the statistical results of your charity work and email it us so we can keep a running global total of its effect. This is not only a wonderful action to help the many communities now in desperate need of support, it gives TZM a layer of traditional identification for those who might otherwise see the social ideas as “too radical” to be practical.

Stats email: media@thezeitgeistmovement.com

*

5- Advice and Summary

The preceding data should give new Members a great deal to think about and work with. It is important to remind the reader that TZM is a movement of ideas and values at its core. It is also Social in its very nature. In many ways, those who understand, volunteer and work with this global community to help improve the world are a proxy of how our society could be if social responsibility and environmental respect finally rose to its needed place.

However, there is no denying that what is sought in this journey is likely the most difficult and controversial undertaking one can have. No one said this would be easy. Yet the level of difficulty at hand means nothing compared to the dire nature of its necessity. This Movement is not for the weak of heart or those without self-confidence. One factor that makes internal community support critical to our success is the reality that we are not likely to see much external support for sometime to come. Historically, those ahead of their time who have sought to change the world have always been deemed subversive, agitators or even terrorists. Society and its established values seems to not look well upon broad social changes regardless of how much it may be needed or the logic of its merit.

Regardless, this changes nothing for those of us who actually care and as time moves forward, the trends of social turmoil and destabilization seem to indicate that a larger and larger subculture is emerging which recognizes this need for this larger scale change and it is the role of TZM to help make sure a viable solution is put forward as this evolution continues.

-Mission Statement: http://www.thezeitgeistmovement.com/mission-statement

Submission Guidelines & Tips

All submissions should be your original work. Please do not simply copy/paste information (online articles, links, etc.) and submit it as-is. (Excerpts from, or links to, other material may be used within the article, and should be cited appropriately.)
Writing Guidelines (click to see examples):
Announcement — General announcements, major events, procedural or structural changes, etc. concerning the Movement as a whole.
Chapter Update — This should be used by Chapter Coordinators (or those whom they have designated) to submit status reports and announcements related to their specific chapter.
Editorial — An editorial is a written work that generally presents the opinion or view of the author or publishing entity. Technically, there is no minimum length for an Editorial, but it should be long enough to effectively communicate your position to the reader. Try not to make it so long that your readers lose interest before they even get through it. Most editorials are around 1-2 pages long, single-spaced.
Media Project — If you have a work of art such as a comic/ drawing, poem, song, etc. that you’d like to share, please submit it to The Zeitgeist Media Project. Material submitted to that site will be periodically published on the Blog, under this category.
Meeting Minutes — In addition to the recordings, at least one person per meeting should take Notes and post them here in a fairly neat and structured format, sometime after the meeting is over. The basic info should include:
-Date and time of the meeting
-The purpose of the meeting (Agenda)
-Meeting coordinator(s)
-Assigned action items and people assigned
-Any decisions and/or changes made
-A link to the audio and/or video recording (If there is no recording, please specify.)
News Article — A purely factual submission based on news reports and relevant events around the world, as opposed to an Editorial, which includes the opinion/view of the author.
Narrative — An original story based on relevant events, experiences, etc. that may be true or fictional.
Press Release — A general statement, typically in response to a major event, that is published on behalf of the entire Movement. Click here for detailed instructions on how to properly write and format a Press Release.
Project Update — This entry is pertinent for keeping members of the Movement updated on any new projects that are developing, as well as existing projects as they progress. Submit a Project Update any time you or your peers/ teammates begin a new project, or make any progress, breakthroughs, major changes, etc. to an existing one. Be sure to check these entries regularly before starting a new project to ensure that there is not already one in place that you can simply join. This will hopefully help alleviate any scattered or diluted efforts, and instead combine them into strong, streamlined projects and teams. (We may want to consider including an RSS feed that links to all the individual project team PMS sites. That way the people from those teams will only have to update one site, their PMS site, and it will feed onto the newsletter site automatically.)
Participation Guidelines:
Please remain courteous and constructive when posting content or comments.
For information on how your participation affects your karma, please read the Comment moderation FAQ.
—————–Helpful Tips for Getting Your Submission(s) Approved:——————-
Please note that these are by no means requirements, but your careful consideration of these factors will not only assist the Editors in sorting through boat loads of material, but will also give our readers, and ultimately the Movement as a whole, a greater sense of community and rapport, as well as improving the overall Blog experience.
Use your real name: We want to be able to share your content with the world, including third-party organizations when applicable, perhaps even for further publishing on other mediums. It’s more feasible to do that when we are recommending an article by John Smith, Dr. Jane Doe, or Betty Sue, than if we have to recommend an article by “Cupcake” or “JRider” with no background or reliable method to contact him or her, assuming it is a “him,” or assuming it is a “her.”
Update your profile information: It might give Editors (and your readers 😉 a better understanding of your material if they have even a minimal background on who you are. The general blog community might be eager to share an amazing piece of work written by Betty Sue the aquarist, or Bob Jones the carpenter… rather than a random article written by an anonymous stranger. Readers may be more likely to subscribe to your Blog’s RSS feed (found on the Site Map) and “follow” you or your activity. You can create a well-deserved presence for yourself and your material in the blog community.
Use your real photo: Same as above. We are trying to build a community and we can’t do that without building relationships. In fact, we’re striving for a social system that will one day facilitate global empathy, meaning the whole world is the community. People generally remember, or at least distinguish, names and faces better than icons and aliases. More importantly, people connect with names and faces better than generic visuals and inanimate labels. The next time someone has an idea for a project, they’ll probably remember to contact “Billy Johnson with the red hat, smiling kind of crooked” for help – much better than they’ll remember “Alex1988 with a sunflower, or was it a rainbow, or a Skittle, or… what was it again? Something with colors. I think twelve other people had the same icon…” (We don’t know anyone who has the same face as you. Do you? 😉
Provide sources: The members of the Newsletter Team, while extremely dedicated, only have but so much time on their hands to fact check everything so that we don’t get burned for publishing something that’s inaccurate. If you provide links and sources to back up whatever it is that you’re talking about, you’ve saved us a lot of work. Not to mention your article will be just plain awesome, and more enjoyable for the reader. People will be saving it in their favorites for future reference… just wait and see. You may also want to provide convenient hyperlinks to any organizations, events, etc. that you may be mentioning in your article. (When possible, don’t forget to use the ‘Insert/edit link’ tool to hyperlink the words themselves, so it looks nice and neat without all of that ugly URL formatting.) For example:
– You can learn more about this by viewing Peter Joseph’s lecture. – OR –
– You can learn more about this by viewing Where Are We Going, a great lecture by Peter Joseph.
…instead of…
– You can learn more about this by watching Peter Joseph’s lecture, Where Are We Going.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YxPPnCW6sMo
(Once or twice is fine, but scattered randomly throughout the entire article, not so much…)
Take pride in your work: Comb through it for spelling and grammatical errors. Yes, we have a proof-reading team in place for that, but don’t be so sure it will even make it to proofing if we can’t understand it. If the content is unclear or the meaning is lost, due to poor spelling and/or grammar, it may get rejected by Editors beforehand. Most likely, if the content is excellent, but the spelling and grammar needs work, Editors may send it back to you for clarification or improvement. However, the bottom line is, with the amount of submissions that will be coming in, it’s far more productive to publish polished submissions that require the least amount of additional work, and perhaps get to the other stuff later.
Spice it up: Nobody likes a bland article. Don’t forget to upload a thumbnail image for your submission, and feel free to add any images throughout the body that may enhance the reader’s experience. (Okay, don’t get too crazy. Keep the images relevant, and placed neatly (resized if needed) so that we can still read your lovely submission without having a seizure.) You may also add a video if applicable. Granted, the written content itself may be as “colorful” as can be, but it’s usually the imagery that initially draws people in to read it in the first place. Get creative, and remember, images from The Zeitgeist Media Project are available for anyone to use for free. 🙂
(Ooh, look! See what we did there, with the hyperlink? 😉
Carefully categorize your content: When filling out the submission form, don’t ignore the drop-downs. (They’re there for a reason. 😉 Even if you’re stumped, please try your best to accurately choose the submission ‘Type’ that best describes your work, and the ‘Category’ that it most closely relates to. It’s much more difficult (and time-consuming) for Editors to sort through and approve a bunch of generic items submitted as “Other,” than it is for them to pinpoint content for what it is, and go from there. Similarly, if it is in fact an “Other” (something that’s not listed in the drop-down), go ahead and categorize it as “Other” and don’t fudge it to be a “Press Release” or “Project Update,” because if it isn’t one, Editors will probably assume that you don’t actually know how to write a Press Release, or that your so-called “Project” doesn’t make any sense, and reject it. Always choose a Location when applicable, and don’t forget to add tags.
That’s all for now, but we may add more Helpful Tips as they arise. Happy Blogging!
Sincerely,
The Zeitgeist Movement Newsletter/Blog Team

Be sure to check out this 220 page Source Guide below which sources virtually everything. As requested by Zeitgeist creator Peter Joseph, I have replaced the original Zeitgeist movie with well over 1.25 million views with this updated for 2010 version. The meat and potato’s of it are the same, there’s some new information and the quality of it is improved upon.

Link to source guide:

http://zeitgeistmovie.com/Zeitgeist,%20The%20Movie-%20Companion%20Guide%20PDF…

https://signup.netflix.com/Movie/Zeitgeist-Moving-Forward/70225009?country=1&..

Zeitgeist (German pronunciation: [?tsa?t?a?st] ( listen)) is “the spirit of the times” or “the spirit of the age.” [1] Zeitgeist is the general cultural, intellectual, ethical, spiritual, or political climate within a nation or even specific groups, along with the general ambiance, morals, sociocultural direction, and mood associated with an era.

The term is a loanword from German Zeit – “time” and Geist – “spirit” (cognate with English “ghost”).

The concept of Zeitgeist goes back to Johann Gottfried Herder and other German Romanticists, such as Cornelius Jagdmann, but is best known in relation to Hegel‘s philosophy of history. In 1769 Herder wrote a critique of the work Genius seculi by the philologist Christian Adolph Klotz and introduced the word Zeitgeist into German as a translation of genius seculi (Latin: genius – “guardian spirit” and saeculi – “of the age”).


-The Zeitgeist Movement, defined:

The Zeitgeist Movement (TZM) is an explicitly nonviolent, global sustainability advocacy group currently working in over 1000 Regional Chapters across 70 countries. The basic structure of The Movement consists of Chapters, Teams, Projects & Events.

In short, the Chapters are essentially what define The Movement in operation. Each Chapter works to not only spread awareness about the roots of our social problems today but also to express the logical, rational, practical solutions we have at our disposal to update (and evolve) our current social system, enabling a truly responsible, sustainable, global society to emerge for the betterment of all the world’s people.

TZM’s education and community projects seek the intermediate goal of obtaining a unified, worldwide movement for social transformation, regardless of country, religion, political party or any such traditionally divisive distinction. TZM recognizes a common, logical value identification pertaining to our survival, sustainability and public health which inherently transcends such culturally divisive issues. Human unification, rationalized out our inalterable, shared “common ground”, is a foundational premise.

From that understanding, a self-organizing Train of Thought with respect to how we can technically (and culturally) accomplish a new social system unfolds. The various stages of this transformation (“Transition”) is not something that can be readily predicted given the uncertain state of the world today and it is not the scope of this document to expand upon the issue. What we do know is that we are experiencing great destabilization in the world due to the inherent flaws of our current social structure and the problems emerging appear to be only getting worse as time goes on. It is from this uncertainty and loss of confidence in the current model that support for a new social system might be achieved, in part.

Therefore, The Movement’s work is to expand upon this Train of Thought and publicly communicate the resulting ideas, structures and methods with the goal of establishing a new cultural “zeitgeist”; hence a new, workable social model and common value system that ensures our socio-evolutionary fitness, our safety, our freedom, our quality of life and our prosperity.

-Your Role:

To become involved in The Movement does not require any monetary contribution, submission of personal information, forms to complete or any such traditional notion of membership. Volunteer organizers and Coordinators keep no databases outside of our simple web-based mailing lists which one is certainly encouraged to register with for updates.

TZM is modeled as a “see through” entity which merely represents a Data Set & Train of Thought at its core. It is holographic and decentralized in structure to assure its effect and warrant against historically notable problems of group identification. TZM has no offices, no location, no leaders, no benefactors and no static affiliations. This Movement is really about your personal understanding of the world along with how much you identify with the observations, logical inferences and solution oriented Train of Thought denoted in The Movement’s materials. If you agree with this need to change our system, please join a Chapter, learn, educate and help contribute.

TZM currently has many community projects, events and publications, as will be explained in this document. There is also a great deal of flexibility and creativity in how a person, group or Chapter chooses to engage and develop new ideas. The Movement is emergent in form and while, again, a basic Train of Thought persists, the tactics and specifics of the Movement’s work will inevitably undergo change.

In summery, we all have the same role here: To educate ourselves; educate others; create an organized critical mass and establish tactics to enable a transition to a new social design – a design which is arrived at in form by way of The Scientific Method.

As will be mentioned later in this document, a public, open-source project known as the Global Redesign Institute will exist to create and promote direct technical design changes for social organization, building upon the most advanced understandings in the fields of Science and Technology we have at the time.

-Educational Resources:

Since 2009, a great deal of data has been generated and output through various communication mediums. Radio Shows, PDFs, Films Presentations, Articles & Lectures are the most common (our information is always free). For someone new to TZM, the following list contains suggested references for review:

2012 ORIENTATION GUIDE This is a detailed summation of virtually all relevant points for TZM. It exists in Video and expanded PDF form, the latter of which contains extensive sources and appendices.

[ http://www.thezeitgeistmovement.com/orientation ]

WEBSITE FAQ TZM Global’s FAQ answers various questions, including Movement Structure specifics.

[ http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/faq#faq1 ]

LECTURES & “TOOL KIT” The Global Website’s ever emerging “Tool Kit” contains many video and text presentations, often with extended sources and references as well. While this content is predominantly in English at this time, many other Non-English presenters operate across the world can be found via the Internet. Please search for your local International Chapter’s Website and review their media as well. http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/tool-kit

Apart from these core sources, community development is large and there is always an ongoing flow of information occurring via the TZM Official Blog, Zeitnews and other participatory mediums that will be discussed in Part 3 of this guide.

-Movement Participation:

A “Member” is loosely defined as one who agrees with the tenets and approach of TZM and in turn participates in their local Chapter’s awareness actions, whether online or local. However, all Members of The Movement have their education about relevant issues as the number one requirement to proceed.

To reiterate, true “Membership” is really a subscription to the Train of Thought at hand. Hence, it is about understanding and supporting The Movement’s logical tenets and working in whatever way one can to bring about awareness and change in a responsible, strategic and nonviolent manner. More specifically, one’s communication and personal skills are important to consider here. Generally speaking, personal specialization of focus has a symbiotic social role as a characteristic of our “Group Mind”, if you will. In other words, some of us are good at some things and others are good at other things. It is the collaboration of our unique skills and interests that creates the larger order realizations. Finding your place in TZM is unique to you and your skill set.

For example, if you feel you have broad organisational skills, working with or becoming a Regional Coordinator for your Chapter might be of interest. If you are technically inclined with a background in Engineering or the like, The Global Redesign Institute might be a comfortable place. If you find your skills are more communicative and artistic, The Zeitgeist Media Project and/or Media Festival might be a good place to contribute. If you are a skilled writer and researcher, joining and contributing focused articles to TZM’s Blog might be of interest. If you are a good public speaker, give presentations at your Monthly Town Halls and/or ZDay in your region on relevant subjects. You get the idea. Focus on what you are good at.

*

2- Joining a Chapter

-Overview:

Very simply, TZM Chapters are regional Zeitgeist Movement Member Groups, organized in Tiers. From “Top to Bottom”, the current Chapter Tiers are:

International—[ Countries ]
State/Province—[ Next lower degree regional distinctions within a given Country ]
City/Town—[ Next lower degree regional distinctions within a given State or Province ]

As noted before, your involvement with your Regional Chapter is what essentially defines you as a Member of The Movement in form. You can go to the Global Website [ http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/ ] to see the Current Top Tier Chapter list [ http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/chapters ]. You can access the respective State (USA) or International Website and from there you should be able to locate the closest sub-chapter near you.

If you cannot find a Country, State or City Chapter for your region, it is then suggested you start one. Virtually all chapters have begun not by appointment, but by personal initiative. A simple review process to understand the seriousness and understanding of the applicant is assessed by existing Coordinators on a per case basis.

-Public Actions:

There are three reoccurring Public Actions for Chapters which are encouraged but naturally contingent upon the size and resources of the group: (1) Our annual “Zday” event; (2) our monthly “Town hall” event and (3) the annual Zeitgeist Media Festival. These will be discussed more in Part 4. However, each region also often has different community customs and possibilities. For example, in Los Angeles California, beach tent “vendor” posts are common on the boardwalk.

In Canada, many do street activism on a person to person basis. Some Chapters even host their own internet radio shows and produce their own media/newsletters based on custom research.

Part of working with your Chapter is being creative and explorative. In the end, the basic goal is still the same: Expose the root problems of our current system and then show the logic behind a new one.

-Meetings:

Chapters naturally need to have the ability to enable communication among its Members, along with other Chapters. As a Chapter grows, periodic Meetings should be conducted in live and/or virtual (online) settings.

TZM Global provides an Internet-Based Voice/Chat program which can be found here: http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/teamspeak

Chapter Meetings typically occur in Tiers with Chapter Coordinators on their respective level. For example, the North Carolina State Chapter, assuming no sub-chapters (city) within it, would have a meeting with all NC Members present. However, in the meetings of the next largest Tier, the Country level (USA in this case), there would only be Coordinators of each State, not all the USA Members. This narrowing is for the sake of comprehension as it would be too difficult to have Global Meetings with tens of thousands of Members at once.

-Questions: If you have a question relating to Chapter Organization which is not answered in the follow links: http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/faq http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/chapters

You may email directly via the Contact Form on this page: (select “Chapters” category): http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/contact-us

*

3- Websites, News & Project Contribution

Apart from signing up with the Global and Regional Mailing lists, there is a wealth of emerging information outlets and interactive mediums. These Websites and Projects are community driven, always free and have proven to be extremely effective. Most items noted below can be found via the Global Website’s home page as well.

-TZM Official Blog: http://blog.thezeitgeistmovement.com/

Member contribution via TZM Blog is a very effective way to give you, your chapter and important issues exposure. Many categories of interest from Economics, History, Science and Activism enable a tremendous platform for expression as an online newsletter and blog. Relevant articles that gain popularity also are highlighted via our Press Releases.

Please see the How-To Guide to start contributing: http://blog.thezeitgeistmovement.com/contribute

-TZM Global Radio: Started in 2009, TZM Global Radio is a Weekly Radio program presented by various coordinators/lecturers of The Zeitgeist Movement in a rotational fashion. It is here where ongoing public updates, news and announcements occur. Each Show occurs at 4pm Eastern Standard time every Wednesday via BlogTalkRadio.com: http://www.blogtalkradio.com/zmglobal

Info and Archive Page: http://www.thezeitgeistmovement.com/radio_shows

Older Archives: http://www.blogtalkradio.com/zmglobal

*Note: While the Global Radio Show is the most conclusive, other programs of great merit also exist, including Programs via the “Zeitgeist Broadcasting Network” (ZBN): http://www.stickam.com/zbnlive

-Zeitgeist Media Project: http://zeitgeistmediaproject.com/ The Zeitgeist Media Project is an online hub for Artistic Media Content which can be uploaded and shared. The media types range from Video, Visual Art, Music/Audio, Literature and more. This content is mostly Creative Commons and is designed to be downloaded and used by other members in their work.

-ZeitNews: http://www.zeitnews.org/

Started in 2010. Zeitnews is an amazing source for advanced Scientific Research. Subjects of interest include Energy, Transportation, Biotechnology, Robotics and other important issues that relate science and technology to human prosperity.

Members may also contribute to the online publication: http://www.zeitnews.org/about/

-Global Redesign Institute: http://www.globalredesigninstitute.org/

The Global Redesign Institute is a Think Tank project currently in development. This advanced concept will create a virtual projection, region by region of what an accurate and up to date social infrastructure would comprise, sidestepping the traditionally inhibiting factors of money and establishment preservation. This project is about designing and expressing what is technically possible – not what is “affordable”. More on this project will be announced when it becomes operational.

-”Why I Advocate” Campaign: http://www.thezeitgeistmovement.com/why-i-advocate

The Zeitgeist Movement’s “Why I Advocate TZM” Media Testimonial Campaign is a video blog project which gives personal perspectives and faces to The Zeitgeist Movement. This is very simple. Members simple make a public video about why they feel the need to change the world and identify with The Zeitgeist Movement. This is also a good way to show community support in general.

Current submissions can be viewed here: http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=why+I+advocate+zeitgeist&aq=f

-Social Networks: TZM Global Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/tzmglobal TZM Global Twitter: http://twitter.com/tzmglobal TZM Global Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/user/TZMOfficialChannel

Apart from the traditional Social Networks listed above, a hybrid project known as “TZM Social” has also emerged: http://www.tzmnetwork.com/

All members are encourage to review and contribute to these social mediums considering how powerful they have become culturally as a whole. Also, Regional Chapters and Projects are encouraged to initiate their own Networks via these medium for their own promotional purposes. ( I.E. a Youtube account assigned to your local chapter for display of your Town Halls, Zday events and the like.)

*

4- TZM Events and Activism

As noted prior, Chapters and hence Members have a few core (Global) periodic actions which are encouraged. These include, ZDay, ZMedia Fest and Monthly Town halls. Paired with these actions is our ZDrive food bank support and similar resource charity programs to help those in need. (more below*)

-Zeitgeist Day (“ZDay”): http://zdayglobal.org/

“Zeitgeist Day”, or ZDay for short, is an annual, global event day which occurs in the middle of March, each year. The goal is to increase public awareness of The Zeitgeist Movement. A Zeitgeist Day event can take many forms, ranging from a simple showing of DVD media; to full lectures and interactive question-and-answer events with Chapter Organizers in various regions. The 2010 ZDay there were 330 sympathetic events occurred in over 70 countries worldwide.

Each year, there is a “Main Event” which serves as a highlight, with more publicly notable speakers and guests. In 2009 and 2010, the Main event was in NYC; In 2011 it was in London, UK & in 2012 – Vancouver BC.

Please review the Official ZDay Website for more information: http://zdayglobal.org/

-Town Halls: http://www.thezeitgeistmovement.com/townhalls

The Zeitgeist Movement’s Town Hall Meetings are live, public events conducted by Official Regional Chapters. These localized events are similar in function to our annual global “Zeitgeist Day” (ZDAY) events but ideally occur monthly, rather than annually. Modelled after patterns proven effective by civil right’s movements historically, the goal is to inform the public of TZM’s understandings and goals and hence grow awareness and membership. To learn more; submit an event for your regions, please see: http://www.thezeitgeistmovement.com/townhalls

-Zeitgeist Media Festival: http://zeitgeistmediafestival.org/

Recognizing the power of art and media to help change the world, “The Zeitgeist Media Festival” engages the artistic community and its power to change values. It proposes that needed changes in the structural/economic workings of society can only manifest in tandem with a personal/social transformation of values in each of us. While intellectual knowledge serves its role of showing the path, many in the world follow their feelings- not the knowledge. The Zeitgeist Media Festival hopes to bridge those levels, while also illuminating a focus where changing and improving the world is no longer considered a fringe or suspect pursuit.

Participating in The Media Festival does not mean each event must meet some strict requirement of focus. However, participation does require that each act understand and agree with a general train of thought with respect to human and social sustainability.

The Zeitgeist Media Festival occurs in the Summer of each year. More info: http://zeitgeistmediafestival.org/site/index-1.html

-*ZDrive: The Zeitgeist Movement’s Charity Drive or “ZDrive” is a program to engage local social service institutions in conjunction with ongoing awareness events. The most common have been our Food Drives and Clothes Drives. For example, the Zeitgeist Media Festival Globally raised via donation about 12,000 meals for the poor in 2011. Resource donations are encouraged more than monetary contributions to avoid corruption.

How you conduct your ZDrive is contingent upon your region and its needs. Typically, a suggested donation of resources is welcomed upon entry to your event, such as the bringing of canned food for your local Food Bank. Since each region has different programs, it is suggested you contact your local charities to see how your Chapter can help.

So, if possible, every time you have a ZDay, Town Hall or Media Event, please conduct a ZDrive as well and have attendees bring resources for local charity.

In turn, please keep track of the statistical results of your charity work and email it us so we can keep a running global total of its effect. This is not only a wonderful action to help the many communities now in desperate need of support, it gives TZM a layer of traditional identification for those who might otherwise see the social ideas as “too radical” to be practical.

Stats email: media@thezeitgeistmovement.com

*

5- Advice and Summary

The preceding data should give new Members a great deal to think about and work with. It is important to remind the reader that TZM is a movement of ideas and values at its core. It is also Social in its very nature. In many ways, those who understand, volunteer and work with this global community to help improve the world are a proxy of how our society could be if social responsibility and environmental respect finally rose to its needed place.

However, there is no denying that what is sought in this journey is likely the most difficult and controversial undertaking one can have. No one said this would be easy. Yet the level of difficulty at hand means nothing compared to the dire nature of its necessity. This Movement is not for the weak of heart or those without self-confidence. One factor that makes internal community support critical to our success is the reality that we are not likely to see much external support for sometime to come. Historically, those ahead of their time who have sought to change the world have always been deemed subversive, agitators or even terrorists. Society and its established values seems to not look well upon broad social changes regardless of how much it may be needed or the logic of its merit.

Regardless, this changes nothing for those of us who actually care and as time moves forward, the trends of social turmoil and destabilization seem to indicate that a larger and larger subculture is emerging which recognizes this need for this larger scale change and it is the role of TZM to help make sure a viable solution is put forward as this evolution continues.

-Mission Statement: http://www.thezeitgeistmovement.com/mission-statement

INDIGNEZ-VOUS

INDIGNEZ-VOUS

De Stéphane Hessel

93 ans. C’est un peu la toute dernière étape. La fin n’est plus bien loin. Quelle chance de pouvoir en profiter pour rappeler ce qui a servi de socle à mon engagement politique : les années de résistance et le programme élaboré il y a soixante-six ans par le Conseil National de la Résistance ! C’est à Jean Moulin que nous devons, dans le cadre de ce Conseil, la réunion de toutes les composantes de la France occupée, les mouvements, les partis, les syndicats, pour proclamer leur adhésion à la France combattante et au seul chef qu’elle se reconnaissait : le général de Gaulle. De Londres où j’avais rejoint le général de Gaulle en mars 1941, j’apprenais que ce Conseil avait mis au point un programme, l’avait adopté le 15 mars 1944, proposé pour la France libérée un ensemble de principes et de valeurs sur lesquels reposerait la démocratie moderne de notre pays [1].

De ces principes et de ces valeurs, nous avons aujourd’hui plus que jamais besoin. Il nous appartient de veiller tous ensemble à ce que notre société reste une société dont nous soyons fiers : pas cette société des sans-papiers, des expulsions, des soupçons à l’égard des immigrés, pas cette société où l’on remet en cause les retraites, les acquis de la Sécurité sociale, pas cette société où les médias sont entre les mains des nantis, toutes choses que nous aurions refusé de cautionner si nous avions été les véritables héritiers du Conseil National de la Résistance.

A partir de 1945, après un drame atroce, c’est une ambitieuse résurrection à laquelle se livrent les forces présentes au sein du Conseil de la Résistance. Rappelons-le, c’est alors qu’est créée la Sécurité sociale comme la Résistance le souhaitait, comme son programme le stipulait : « Un plan complet de Sécurité sociale, visant à assurer à tous les citoyens des moyens d’existence, dans tous les cas où ils sont incapables de se les procurer par le travail » ; « une retraite permettant aux vieux travailleurs de finir dignement leurs jours. »

Les sources d’énergie, l’électricité et le gaz, les charbonnages, les grandes banques sont nationalisées. C’est ce que ce programme préconisait encore, « le retour à la nation des grands moyens de production monopolisés, fruit du travail commun, des sources d’énergie, des richesses du sous-sol, des compagnies d’assurance et des grandes banques » ; «l’instauration d’une véritable démocratie économique et sociale, impliquant l’éviction des grandes féodalités économiques et financières de la direction de l’économie ». L’intérêt général doit primer sur l’intérêt particulier, le juste partage des richesses créées par le monde du travail primer sur le pouvoir de l’argent. La Résistance propose «une organisation rationnelle de l’économie assurant la subordination des intérêts particuliers à l’intérêt général et affranchie de la dictature professionnelle instaurée à l’image des États fascistes », et le Gouvernement provisoire de la République s’en fait le relais.

Une véritable démocratie a besoin d’une presse indépendante ; la Résistance le sait, l’exige, en défendant
« la liberté de la presse, son honneur et son indépendance à l’égard de l’État, des puissances d’argent et des influences étrangères. »

C’est ce que relaient encore les ordonnances sur la presse, dès 1944. Or, c’est bien ce qui est aujourd’hui en danger.

La Résistance en appelait à « la possibilité effective pour tous les enfants français de bénéficier de l’instruction la plus développée », sans discrimination ; or, les réformes proposées en 2008 vont à l’encontre de ce projet. De jeunes enseignants, dont je soutiens l’action, ont été jusqu’à refuser de les appliquer et ils ont vu leurs salaires amputés en guise de punition. Ils se sont indignés, ont « désobéi », ont jugé ces réformes trop
éloignées de l’idéal de l’école républicaine, trop au service d’une société de l’argent et ne développant plus assez l’esprit créatif et critique.

C’est tout le socle des conquêtes sociales de la Résistance qui est aujourd’hui remis en cause [2].
Le motif de la résistance, c’est l’indignation. On ose nous dire que l’État ne peut plus assurer les coûts de ces
mesures citoyennes. Mais comment peut-il manquer aujourd’hui de l’argent pour maintenir et prolonger ces conquêtes alors que la production de richesses a considérablement augmenté depuis la Libération, période où
l’Europe était ruinée ? Sinon parce que le pouvoir de l’argent, tellement combattu par la Résistance, n’a jamais été aussi grand, insolent, égoïste, avec ses propres serviteurs jusque dans les plus hautes sphères de l’État.
Les banques désormais privatisées se montrent d’abord soucieuses de leurs dividendes, et des très haut salaires de leurs dirigeants, pas de l’intérêt général. L’écart entre les plus pauvres et les plus riches n’a jamais été aussi important ; et la course à l’argent, la compétition, autant encouragée.

Le motif de base de la Résistance était l’indignation. 

Nous, vétérans des mouvements de résistance et des forces combattantes de la France libre, nous appelons les jeunes générations à faire vivre, transmettre, l’héritage de la Résistance et ses idéaux. Nous leur disons : prenez le relais, indignez-vous ! Les responsables politiques, économiques, intellectuels et l’ensemble de la société ne doivent pas démissionner, ni se laisser impressionner par l’actuelle dictature internationale des marchés financiers qui menace la paix et la démocratie.

Je vous souhaite à tous, à chacun d’entre vous, d’avoir votre motif d’indignation. C’est précieux. Quand quelque chose vous indigne comme j’ai été indigné par le nazisme, alors on devient militant, fort et engagé.
On rejoint ce courant de l’histoire et le grand courant de l’histoire doit se poursuivre grâce à chacun. Et ce courant va vers plus de justice, plus de liberté mais pas cette liberté incontrôlée du renard dans le poulailler. Ces droits, dont la Déclaration universelle a rédigé le programme en 1948, sont universels. Si vous rencontrez quelqu’un qui n’en bénéficie pas, plaignez-le, aidez-le à les conquérir.

Deux visions de l’histoire

Quand j’essaie de comprendre ce qui a causé le fascisme, qui a fait que nous ayons été envahis par lui et par Vichy, je me dis que les possédants, avec leur égoïsme, ont eu terriblement peur de la révolution bolchévique.
Ils se sont laissés guider par leurs peurs. Mais si, aujourd’hui comme alors, une minorité active se dresse, cela suffira, nous aurons le levain pour que la pâte lève. Certes, l’expérience d’un très vieux comme moi, né
en 1917, se différencie de l’expérience des jeunes d’aujourd’hui. Je demande souvent à des professeurs de collège la possibilité d’intervenir auprès de leurs élèves, et je leur dis : vous n’avez pas les mêmes raisons
évidentes de vous engager. Pour nous, résister, c’était ne pas accepter l’occupation allemande, la défaite. C’était relativement simple. Simple comme ce qui a suivi, la décolonisation. Puis la guerre d’Algérie. Il fallait
que l’Algérie devienne indépendante, c’était évident. Quant à Staline, nous avons tous applaudi à la victoire de l’Armée rouge contre les nazis, en 1943. Mais déjà lorsque nous avions eu connaissance des grands
procès staliniens de 1935, et même s’il fallait garder une oreille ouverte vers le communisme pour contrebalancer le capitalisme américain, la nécessité de s’opposer à cette forme insupportable de totalitarisme s’était imposée comme une évidence. Ma longue vie m’a donné une succession de raisons de m’indigner.

Ces raisons sont nées moins d’une émotion que d’une volonté d’engagement. Le jeune normalien que j’étais a été très marqué par Sartre, un aîné condisciple. La Nausée, Le Mur, pas L ‘Être et le néant, ont été très importants dans la formation de ma pensée. Sartre nous a appris à nous dire : « Vous êtes responsables en tant qu’individus. » C’était un message libertaire. La responsabilité de l’homme qui ne peut s’en remettre ni à un pouvoir ni à un dieu. Au contraire, il faut s’engager au nom de sa responsabilité de personne humaine. Quand je suis entré à l’École normale de la rue d’Ulm, à Paris, en 1939, j’y entrais comme fervent disciple du philosophe Hegel, et je suivais le séminaire de Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Son enseignement explorait
l’expérience concrète, celle du corps et de ses relations avec le sens, grand singulier face au pluriel des sens. Mais mon optimisme naturel, qui veut que tout ce qui est souhaitable soit possible, me portait plutôt vers Hegel. L’hégélianisme interprète la longue histoire de l’humanité comme ayant un sens : c’est la liberté de l’homme progressant étape par étape. L’histoire est faite de chocs successifs, c’est la prise en compte de défis. L’histoire des sociétés progresse, et au bout, l’homme ayant atteint sa liberté complète, nous avons l’État démocratique dans sa forme idéale.

Il existe bien sûr une autre conception de l’histoire. Les progrès faits par la liberté, la compétition, la course au “toujours plus”, cela peut être vécu comme un ouragan destructeur. C’est ainsi que la représente un ami de mon père, l’homme qui a partagé avec lui la tâche de traduire en allemand À la Recherche du temps perdu de Marcel Proust. C’est le philosophe allemand Walter Benjamin. Il avait tiré un message pessimiste d’un tableau du peintre suisse, Paul Klee, l’Angelus Novus, où la figure de l’ange ouvre les bras comme pour contenir et repousser une tempête qu’il identifie avec le progrès. Pour Benjamin qui se suicidera en septembre 1940 pour fuir le nazisme, le sens de l’histoire, c’est le cheminement irrésistible de catastrophe en catastrophe.

L’indifférence : la pire des attitudes

C’est vrai, les raisons de s’indigner peuvent paraître aujourd’hui moins nettes ou le monde trop complexe. Qui commande, qui décide ? Il n’est pas toujours facile de distinguer entre tous les courants qui nous gouvernent. Nous n’avons plus affaire à une petite élite dont nous comprenons clairement les agissements. C’est un vaste monde, dont nous sentons bien qu’il est interdépendant. Nous vivons dans une inter connectivité comme jamais encore il n’en a existé. Mais dans ce monde, il y a des choses insupportables. Pour le voir, il faut bien regarder, chercher. Je dis aux jeunes : cherchez un peu, vous allez trouver. La pire des attitudes est l’indifférence, dire « je n’y peux rien, je me débrouille ».

En vous comportant ainsi, vous perdez l’une des composantes essentielles qui fait l’humain. Une des composantes indispensables : la faculté d’indignation et l’engagement qui en est la conséquence. On peut déjà identifier deux grands nouveaux défis :
1. L’immense écart qui existe entre les très pauvres et les très riches et qui ne cesse de s’accroître. C’est une innovation des XX` et XXI` siècle. Les très pauvres dans le monde d’aujourd’hui gagnent à peine deux
dollars par jour. On ne peut pas laisser cet écart se creuser encore. Ce constat seul doit susciter un engagement.
2. Les droits de l’homme et l’état de la planète. J’ai eu la chance après la Libération d’être associé à la rédaction de la Déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme adoptée par l’Organisation des Nations unies, le 10 décembre 1948, à Paris, au palais de Chaillot. C’est au titre de chef de cabinet de Henri Laugier, secrétaire général adjoint de l’ONU, et secrétaire de la Commission des Droits de l’homme que j’ai, avec d’autres, été amené à participer à la rédaction de cette déclaration. Je ne saurais oublier, dans son élaboration, le rôle de René Cassin, commissaire national à la Justice et à l’Éducation du gouvernement de la France libre,
à Londres, en 1941, qui fut prix Nobel de la paix en 1968, ni celui de Pierre Mendès France au sein du Conseil économique et social à qui les textes que nous élaborions étaient soumis, avant d’être examinés par la
Troisième commission de l’assemblée générale, en charge des questions sociales, humanitaires et culturelles. Elle comptait les cinquante-quatre États membres, à l’époque, des Nations unies, et j’en assurais le secrétariat. C’est à René Cassin que nous devons le terme de droits «universels » et non « internationaux » comme le proposaient nos amis anglo-saxons. Car là est bien l’enjeu au sortir de la seconde guerre mondiale : s’émanciper des menaces que le totalitarisme a fait peser sur l’humanité. Pour s’en émanciper, il faut obtenir que les États membres de l’ONU s’engagent à respecter ces droits universels. C’est une manière de
déjouer l’argument de pleine souveraineté qu’un État peut faire valoir alors qu’il se livre à des crimes contre l’humanité sur son sol. Ce fut le cas d’Hitler qui s’estimait maître chez lui et autorisé à provoquer un
génocide. Cette déclaration universelle doit beaucoup à la révulsion universelle envers le nazisme, le fascisme, le totalitarisme, et même, par notre présence, à l’esprit de la Résistance. Je sentais qu’il fallait faire vite, ne pas être dupe de l’hypocrisie qu’il y avait dans l’adhésion proclamée par les vainqueurs à ces valeurs que tous n’avaient pas l’intention de promouvoir loyalement, mais que nous tentions de leur imposer [3].

Je ne résiste pas à l’envie de citer l’article 15 de la Déclaration universelle des Droits de l’homme : « Tout individu a droit à une nationalité » ; l’article 22 : « Toute personne, en tant que membre de la société, a droit à la Sécurité sociale ; elle est fondée à obtenir la satisfaction des droits économiques, sociaux et culturels indispensables à sa dignité et au libre développement de sa personnalité, grâce à l’effort national et à la coopération internationale, compte tenu de l’organisation et des ressources de chaque pays. » Et si cette déclaration a une portée déclarative, et non pas juridique, elle n’en a pas moins joué un rôle puissant depuis 1948 ; on a vu des peuples colonisés s’en saisir dans leur lutte d’indépendance ; elle a ensemencé les esprits dans leur combat pour la liberté.

Je constate avec plaisir qu’au cours des dernières décennies se sont multipliés les organisations non gouvernementales, les mouvements sociaux comme Attac (Association pour la taxation des transactions financières), la FIDH (Fédération internationale des Droits de l’homme), Amnesty… qui sont agissants et performants. Il est évident que pour être efficace aujourd’hui, il faut agir en réseau, profiter de tous les moyens
modernes de communication.

Aux jeunes, je dis : regardez autour de vous, vous y trouverez les thèmes qui justifient votre indignation — le traitement faits aux immigrés, aux sans-papiers, aux Roms. Vous trouverez des situations concrètes qui vous amènent à donner cours à une action citoyenne forte.

Cherchez et vous trouverez !

Mon indignation à propos de la Palestine

Aujourd’hui, ma principale indignation concerne la Palestine, la bande de Gaza, la Cisjordanie. Ce conflit est la source même d’une indignation.

Il faut absolument lire le rapport Richard Goldstone de septembre 2009 sur Gaza, dans lequel ce juge sud-africain, juif, qui se dit même sioniste, accuse l’armée israélienne d’avoir commis des « actes assimilables à des crimes de guerre et peut-être, dans certaines circonstances, à des crimes contre l’humanité » pendant son opération “Plomb durci” qui a duré trois semaines. Je suis moi-même retourné à Gaza, en 2009, où j’ai pu entrer avec ma femme grâce à nos passeports diplomatiques afin d’étudier de visu ce que ce rapport disait. Les gens qui nous accompagnaient n’ont pas été autorisés à pénétrer dans la bande de Gaza. Là et en Cisjordanie.

Nous avons aussi visité les camps de réfugiés palestiniens mis en place dès 1948 par l’agence des Nations unies, l’UNRWA, où plus de trois millions de Palestiniens chassés de leurs terres par Israël attendent un
retour de plus en plus problématique. Quant à Gaza, c’est une prison à ciel ouvert pour un million et demi de Palestiniens. Une prison où ils s’organisent pour survivre. Plus encore que les destructions matérielles
comme celle de l’hôpital du Croissant rouge par “Plomb durci”, c’est le comportement des Gazaouis, leur patriotisme, leur amour de la mer et des plages, leur constante préoccupation du bien-être de leurs enfants, innombrables et rieurs, qui hantent notre mémoire. Nous avons été impressionnés par leur ingénieuse manière de faire face à toutes les pénuries qui leur sont imposées. Nous les avons vu confectionner des briques faute de ciment pour reconstruire les milliers de maisons détruites par les chars. On nous a confirmé qu’il y avait eu mille quatre cents morts — femmes, enfants, vieillards inclus dans le camp palestinien — au cours de cette opération “Plomb durci” menée par l’armée israélienne, contre seulement cinquante blessés côté israélien. Je
partage les conclusions du juge sud-africain. Que des Juifs puissent perpétrer eux-mêmes des crimes de guerre, c’est insupportable. Hélas, l’histoire donne peu d’exemples de peuples qui tirent les leçons de leur
propre histoire.

Je sais, le Hamas qui avait gagné les dernières élections législatives n’a pas pu éviter que des rockets soient envoyées sur les villes israéliennes en réponse à la situation d’isolement et de blocus dans laquelle se trouvent les Gazaouis. Je pense bien évidemment que le terrorisme est inacceptable, mais il faut reconnaître que lorsque l’on est occupé avec des moyens militaires infiniment supérieurs aux vôtres, la réaction populaire
ne peut pas être que non-violente.

Est-ce que ça sert le Hamas d’envoyer des rockets sur la ville de Sdérot? La réponse est non. Ça ne sert pas sa cause, mais on peut expliquer ce geste par l’exaspération des Gazaouis. Dans la notion d’exaspération, il
faut comprendre la violence comme une regrettable conclusion de situations inacceptables pour ceux qui les subissent. Alors, on peut se dire que le terrorisme est une forme d’exaspération. Et que cette exaspération est un terme négatif. Il ne faudrait pas ex-aspérer, il faudrait es-pérer. L’exaspération est un déni de l’espoir. Elle est compréhensible, je dirais presque qu’elle est naturelle, mais pour autant elle n’est pas acceptable. Parce qu’elle ne permet pas d’obtenir les résultats que peut éventuellement produire l’espérance.

La non-violence,
le chemin que nous devons apprendre à suivre.

Je suis convaincu que l’avenir appartient à la non-violence, à la conciliation des cultures différentes. C’est par cette voie que l’humanité devra franchir sa prochaine étape. Et là, je rejoins Sartre, on ne peut pas excuser les terroristes qui jettent des bombes, on peut les comprendre.

Sartre écrit en 1947 : « Je reconnais que la violence sous quelque forme qu’elle se manifeste est un échec. Mais c’est un échec inévitable parce que nous sommes dans un univers de violence. Et s’il est vrai que le
recours à la violence reste la violence qui risque de la perpétuer, il est vrai aussi c’est l’unique moyen de la faire cesser 4. » À quoi j’ajouterais que la non-violence est un moyen plus sûr de la faire cesser. On ne peut
pas soutenir les terroristes comme Sartre l’a fait au nom de ce principe pendant la guerre d’Algérie, ou lors de l’attentat des jeux de Munich, en 1972, commis contre des athlètes israéliens. Ce n’est pas efficace et
Sartre lui-même finira par s’interroger à la fin de sa vie sur le sens du terrorisme et à douter de sa raison d’être. Se dire « la violence n’est pas efficace », c’est bien plus important que de savoir si on doit condamner ou pas ceux qui s’y livrent. Le terrorisme n’est pas efficace. Dans la notion d’efficacité, il faut une espérance non-violente. S’il existe une espérance violente, c’est dans la poésie de Guillaume Apollinaire : « Que l’espérance est violente » ; pas en politique. Sartre, en mars 1980, à trois semaines de sa mort, déclarait : « Il faut essayer d’expliquer pourquoi le monde de maintenant, qui est horrible, n’est qu’un moment dans le long développement historique, que l’espoir a toujours été une des forces dominantes des révolutions et des insurrections, et comment je ressens encore l’espoir comme ma conception de l’avenir 5

Il faut comprendre que la violence tourne le dos à l’espoir. Il faut lui préférer l’espérance, l’espérance de la non-violence. C’est le chemin que nous devons apprendre à suivre. Aussi bien du côté des oppresseurs que des opprimés, il faut arriver à une négociation pour faire disparaître l’oppression ; c’est ce qui permettra de ne plus avoir de violence terroriste. C’est pourquoi il ne faut pas laisser s’accumuler trop de haine.

Le message d’un Mandela, d’un Martin Luther King trouve toute sa pertinence dans un monde qui a dépassé la confrontation des idéologies et le totalitarisme conquérant. C’est un message d’espoir dans la capacité des sociétés modernes à dépasser les conflits par une compréhension mutuelle et une patience vigilante. Pour y
parvenir, il faut se fonder sur les droits, dont la violation, quel qu’en soit l’auteur, doit provoquer notre indignation. Il n’y a pas à transiger sur ces droits.

Pour une insurrection pacifique

J’ai noté — et je ne suis pas le seul — la réaction du gouvernement israélien confronté au fait que chaque vendredi les citoyens de Bil’id vont, sans jeter de pierres, sans utiliser la force, jusqu’au mur contre lequel ils protestent. Les autorités israéliennes ont qualifié cette marche de « terrorisme non-violent ». Pas mal… Il faut être israélien pour qualifier de terroriste la non-violence. Il faut surtout être embarrassé par l’efficacité de la non-violence qui tient à ce qu’elle suscite l’appui, la compréhension, le soutien de tous ceux qui dans le monde sont les adversaires de l’oppression.

La pensée productiviste, portée par l’Occident, a entraîné le monde dans une crise dont il faut sortir par une rupture radicale avec la fuite en avant du “toujours plus”, dans le domaine financier mais aussi dans le domaine des sciences et des techniques. Il est grand temps que le souci d’éthique, de justice, d’équilibre durable
devienne prévalent. Car les risques les plus graves nous menacent.

Ils peuvent mettre un terme à l’aventure humaine sur une planète qu’elle peut rendre inhabitable pour l’homme.
Mais il reste vrai que d’importants progrès ont été faits depuis 1948: la décolonisation, la fin de l’apartheid, la destruction de l’empire soviétique, la chute du Mur de Berlin. Par contre, les dix premières années du XXIe
siècle ont été une période de recul. Ce recul, je l’explique en partie par la présidence américaine de George Bush, le 11 septembre, et les conséquences désastreuses qu’en ont tirées les Etats-Unis, comme cette
intervention militaire en Irak. Nous avons eu cette crise économique, mais nous n’en avons pas davantage initié une nouvelle politique de développement. réchauffement De même, climatique le n’a sommet pas de permis Copenhague d’engager une contre le véritable politique pour la préservation de la planète. Nous sommes à un seuil, entre les horreurs de la première décennie et les possibilités des décennies suivantes. Mais il faut espérer, il faut toujours espérer. La décennie précédente, celle des années 1990, avait été source de grands progrès. Les Nations unies ont su convoquer des conférences comme celles de Rio sur l’environnement, en 1992 ; celle de Pékin sur les femmes, en 1995 ; en septembre 2000, à l’initiative du secrétaire général des Nations unies, Kofi Annan, les 191 pays membres ont adopté la déclaration sur les « Huit objectifs du millénaire pour le développement », par laquelle ils s’engagent notamment à réduire de moitié la pauvreté dans le monde d’ici 2015. Mon grand regret, c’est que ni Obama ni l’Union européenne ne se soient encore manifestés avec ce qui devrait être leur apport pour une phase constructive, s’appuyant sur les valeurs fondamentales.

Comment conclure cet appel à s’indigner ? En rappelant encore que, à l’occasion du soixantième anniversaire du Programme du Conseil national de la Résistance, nous disions le 8 mars 2004, nous vétérans des
mouvements de Résistance et des forces combattantes de la France libre (1940-1945), que certes « le nazisme est vaincu, grâce au sacrifice de nos frères et soeurs de la Résistance et des Nations unies contre la barbarie fasciste. Mais cette menace n’a pas totalement disparu et notre colère contre l’injustice est toujours intacte».

Non, cette menace n’a pas totalement disparu. Aussi, appelons-nous toujours à « une véritable insurrection pacifique contre les moyens de communication de masse qui ne proposent comme horizon pour notre jeunesse que la consommation de masse, le mépris des plus faibles et de la culture, l’amnésie généralisée et la compétition à outrance de tous contre tous. »
À ceux et celles qui feront le XXI’ siècle, nous disons avec notre affection
:
« CRÉER, C’EST RÉSISTER.
RÉSISTER, C’EST CRÉER. »

NOTES
1 Créé clandestinement le 27 mai 1943, à Paris, par les représentants des
huit grands mouvements de Résistance ; des deux grands syndicats
d’avant-guerre : la CGT, la CFTC (confédération française des travailleurs
chrétiens) ; et des six principaux partis politiques de la Troisième Ré-
publique dont le PC et la SFIO (les socialistes), le Conseil national de la
Résistance (CNR) tint sa première réunion ce 27 mai, sous la présidence
de Jean Moulin, délégué du général de Gaulle lequel voulait instaurer ce
Conseil pour rendre plus efficace la lutte contre les nazis, renforcer sa
propre légitimité face aux alliés. De Gaulle chargeait ce conseil d’élaborer
un programme de gouvernement en prévision de la libération de la
France. Ce programme fit l’objet de plusieurs va et vient entre le CNR et
le gouvernement de la France libre, à la fois à Londres et à Alger, avant
d’être adopté le 15 mars 1944, en assemblée plénière par le CNR. Ce
programme est remis solennellement au Général de Gaulle par le CNR le
25 août 1944, à l’hôtel de Ville de Paris. Notons que l’ordonnance sur la
presse est promulguée dès le 26 août. Et qu’un des principaux
rédacteurs du programme fut Roger Ginsburger, fils d’un rabbin alsacien
; alors, sous le pseudonyme de Pierre Villon, il est secrétaire général du
Front national de l’indépendance de la France, mouvement de résistance
créé par le Parti communiste français, en 1941, et représente ce
mouvement au sein du CNR et de son bureau permanent.
2 D’après une estimation syndicaliste, on est passé de 75 à 80% du revenu
comme montant des retraites à environ 50%, ceci étant un ordre de
grandeur. Jean-Paul Domin, maître de conférence en Économie à l’Uni-
versité de Reims Champagne-Ardennes, en 2010, rédige pour l’Institut
Européen du Salariat une note sur « L’assurance maladie complémen-
taire ». Il y révèle combien l’accès à une complémentaire de qualité est
désormais un privilège dû à la position dans l’emploi, que les plus
fragiles renoncent à des soins faute d’assurances complémentaires et de
l’importance du reste à payer ; que la source du problème est de n’avoir
plus fait du salaire le support des droits sociaux — point central des
ordonnances des 4 et 15 octobre 1945. Celles-ci promulguaient la
Sécurité sociale et plaçaient sa gestion, sous la double autorité des
représentants des travailleurs et de l’État. Depuis les réformes Juppé de
1995 prononcées par ordonnances, puis la loi Douste Blazy (docteur de
formation), de 2004, c’est l’État seul qui gère la Sécurité sociale. C’est
par exemple le chef de l’État qui nomme par décret le directeur général
de la Caisse nationale d’assurance maladie (CNAM). Ce ne sont plus
comme aux lendemains de la Libération, des syndicalistes qui en sont à
la tête des caisses primaires départementales mais l’État, via les préfets.
Les représentants des travailleurs n’y tiennent plus qu’un rôle de
conseiller.
3 La Déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme fut adoptée le 10
décembre 1948, à Paris, par l’Assemblée générale des Nations unies par
48 États sur les 58 membres. Huit s’abstinrent : l’Afrique du Sud, à
cause de l’apartheid que la déclaration condamnait de fait ; l’Arabie
saoudite, du même, à cause de l’égalité hommes femmes ; l’Union
soviétique (la Russie, Tchécoslovaquie, la l’Ukraine, Yougoslavie,
le Biélorussie), estimant quant la à Pologne, eux que la la
Déclaration n’allait pas assez loin dans la prise en compte des droits
économiques et sociaux et sur la question des droits des minorités ; on
note cependant que la Russie en particulier s’opposa à la proposition
australienne de créer une Cour internationale des Droits de l’homme
chargée d’examiner les pétitions adressées aux Nations unies ; il faut ici
rappeler que l’article 8 de la Déclaration introduit le principe du recours
individuel contre un État en cas de violation des droits fondamentaux ;
ce principe allait trouver en Europe son application en 1998, avec la
création d’une Cour européenne des droits de l’homme permanente qui
garantit ce droit de recours à plus de 800 millions d’Européens.
4 Sartre, J.-P., « Situation de l’écrivain en 1947 o, in Situations II, Paris,
Gallimard, 1948.
5 Sartre, J.-P., « Maintenant l’espoir… (III) » in Le Nouvel Observateur, 24
mars 1980.
6 Les signataires de l’Appel du 8 mars 2004 sont : Lucie Aubrac,
Raymond Aubrac, Henri Bartoli, Daniel Cordier, Philippe Dechartre,
Georges Guingouin, Stéphane Hessel, Maurice Kriegel-Valrimont, Lise
London, Georges Séguy, Germaine Tillion, Jean-Pierre Vernant, Maurice
Voutey.

POSTFACE
Stéphane Hessel est né à Berlin, en 1917, d’un père juif écrivain,
traducteur, Franz Hessel, et d’une mère peintre, mélomane, Helen
Grund, écrivaine elle-même. Ses parents s’établissent à Paris en 1924,
avec leurs deux enfants, Ulrich, l’aîné, et Stéphane. Grâce au milieu
familial, tous deux fréquentent l’avant-garde parisienne, dont le dadaïste
Marcel Duchamp et le sculpteur américain Alexandre Calder. Stéphane
entre à l’École normale supérieure de la rue d’Ulm en 1939, mais la
guerre interrompt ses études. Naturalisé français depuis 1937, il est
mobilisé et connaît la drôle de guerre, voit le maréchal Pétain brader la
souveraineté française. En mai 1941, il rejoint la France libre du général
de Gaulle, à Londres. Il travaille au Bureau de contre-espionnage, de
renseignement et d’action (BCRA). Par une nuit de fin mars 1944, il est
débarqué clandestinement en France sous le nom de code « Greco » avec
pour mission d’entrer en contact avec les différents réseaux parisiens, de
trouver de nouveaux lieux d’émission radio pour faire passer à Londres
les renseignements recueillis, en vue du débarquement allié. Le 10 juillet
1944, il est arrêté à Paris par la Gestapo sur dénonciation : « On ne
poursuit pas quelqu’un qui a parlé sous la torture », écrira-t-il dans un
livre de mémoires, Danse avec le siècle, en 1997.
Après des interrogatoires sous la torture — l’épreuve de la baignoire notamment,
mais il déstabilise ses tortionnaires en leur parlant allemand, sa langue
natale — il est envoyé au camp de Buchenwald, en Allemagne, le 8 août
1944, donc à quelques jours de la libération de Paris. A la veille d’être
pendu, il parvient in extremis à échanger son identité contre celle d’un
français décédé du typhus dans le camp. Sous son nouveau nom, Michel
Boitel, fraiseur de métier, il est transféré au camp de Rottleberode à
proximité de l’usine de train d’atterrissage des bombardiers allemands,
les Junker 52, mais heureusement — sa chance éternelle —, il est versé
au service comptabilité. Il s’évade. Repris, il est déplacé au camp de
Dora où sont fabriquées les V-1 et V-2, ces fusées avec lesquelles les
nazis espèrent encore gagner la guerre. Affecté à la compagnie
disciplinaire, il s’évade à nouveau et cette fois pour de bon ; les troupes
alliées se rapprochent de Dora. Enfin, il retrouve Paris, sa femme Vitia
— la mère de ses trois enfants, deux garçons et une fille.
Cette vie restituée, il fallait l’engager », écrit l’ancien de la France
libre, dans ses mémoires. En 1946, après avoir réussi le concours
d’entrée au ministère des Affaires étrangères, Stéphane Hessel devient
diplomate. Son premier poste est aux Nations unies où, cette année-là,
Henri Laugier, secrétaire général adjoint des Nations unies et secrétaire
de la Commission des droits de l’homme, lui propose d’être son
secrétaire de cabinet. C’est à ce titre que Stéphane Hessel rejoint la
commission chargée d’élaborer ce qui sera la Déclaration universelle des
Droits de l’homme. On considère que sur ses douze membres, six ont
joué un rôle plus essentiel : Eleanor Roosevelt, la veuve du Président
Roosevelt décédé en 1945, féministe engagée, elle préside la commission
; le docteur Chang (Chine de Tchang Kaïchek et non de Mao) : vice-
président de la commission, il affirma que la Déclaration ne devait pas
être le reflet des seules idées occidentales ; Charles Habib Malik (Liban),
rapporteur de la commission, souvent présenté comme la force motrice »,
avec Eleanor Roosevelt ; René Cassin (France), juriste et diplomate,
président de la commission consultative des Droits de l’homme auprès
du Quai d’Orsay ; on lui doit la rédaction de plusieurs articles et d’avoir
su composer avec les craintes de certains États, y compris la France, de
voir leur souveraineté coloniale menacée par cette déclaration — il avait
une conception exigeante et interventionniste des Droits de l’homme ;
John Peters Humphrey (Canada), avocat et diplomate, proche
collaborateur de Laugier, il écrivit la première ébauche, un document de
400 pages ; enfin Stéphane Hessel (France), diplomate, chef de cabinet
du même Laugier, le plus jeune. On voit combien l’esprit de la France
libre souffla sur cette commission. La Déclaration est adoptée le 10
décembre 1948 par les Nations unies au palais de Chaillot, à Paris. Avec
l’afflux de nouveaux fonctionnaires, dont beaucoup convoitent un poste
bien rémunéré, « isolant les marginaux en quête d’idéal » selon le propre
commentaire d’Hessel dans ses mémoires, il quitte les Nations unies. Il
est affecté par le ministère des Affaires Étrangères à la représentation de
la France au sein d’institutions internationales, l’occasion de retrouver
temporairement, à ce titre, New York et les Nations unies. Pendant la
guerre d’Algérie, il milite en faveur de l’indépendance algérienne. En
1977, avec la complicité du secrétaire général de l’Élysée, Claude
Brossolette, le fils de Pierre, chef autrefois du BCRA, il se voit proposer
par le président Valéry Giscard d’Estaing le poste d’ambassadeur auprès
des Nations unies, à Genève. Il ne cache pas que, de tous les hommes
d’État français, celui dont il s’est senti le plus proche est Pierre Mendès
France, connu à Londres à l’époque de la France libre et retrouvé aux
Nations unies en 1946 à New York, où ce dernier représente la France au
sein du Conseil économique et social. Il va devoir sa consécration comme
diplomate à « cette modification dans le gouvernement de la France,
écrit-il encore, que constitue l’arrivée de François Mitterrand à l’Élysée »,
en 1981. « Elle a fait d’un diplomate assez étroitement spécialisé dans la
coopération multilatérale, arrivé à deux ans de sa retraite, un
ambassadeur de France. » Il adhère au parti socialiste. « Je me demande
pourquoi ? Première réponse : le choc de l’année 1995. Je n’imaginais
pas les Français assez imprudents pour porter Jacques Chirac à la
présidence. » Disposant désormais d’un passeport diplomatique, il se
rend avec sa nouvelle femme en 2008 et 2009 dans la bande de Gaza et
à son retour témoigne sur la douloureuse existence des Gazaouis. « Je
me suis toujours situé du côté des dissidents, déclare-t-il à la même
époque. »
C’est bien celui-là qui parle ici, à 93 ans.
S. C.

INDIGNEZ-VOUS

De Stéphane Hessel

93 ans. C’est un peu la toute dernière étape. La fin n’est plus bien loin. Quelle chance de pouvoir en profiter pour rappeler ce qui a servi de socle à mon engagement politique : les années de résistance et le programme élaboré il y a soixante-six ans par le Conseil National de la Résistance ! C’est à Jean Moulin que nous devons, dans le cadre de ce Conseil, la réunion de toutes les composantes de la France occupée, les mouvements, les partis, les syndicats, pour proclamer leur adhésion à la France combattante et au seul chef qu’elle se reconnaissait : le général de Gaulle. De Londres où j’avais rejoint le général de Gaulle en mars 1941, j’apprenais que ce Conseil avait mis au point un programme, l’avait adopté le 15 mars 1944, proposé pour la France libérée un ensemble de principes et de valeurs sur lesquels reposerait la démocratie moderne de notre pays [1].

De ces principes et de ces valeurs, nous avons aujourd’hui plus que jamais besoin. Il nous appartient de veiller tous ensemble à ce que notre société reste une société dont nous soyons fiers : pas cette société des sans-papiers, des expulsions, des soupçons à l’égard des immigrés, pas cette société où l’on remet en cause les retraites, les acquis de la Sécurité sociale, pas cette société où les médias sont entre les mains des nantis, toutes choses que nous aurions refusé de cautionner si nous avions été les véritables héritiers du Conseil National de la Résistance.

A partir de 1945, après un drame atroce, c’est une ambitieuse résurrection à laquelle se livrent les forces présentes au sein du Conseil de la Résistance. Rappelons-le, c’est alors qu’est créée la Sécurité sociale comme la Résistance le souhaitait, comme son programme le stipulait : « Un plan complet de Sécurité sociale, visant à assurer à tous les citoyens des moyens d’existence, dans tous les cas où ils sont incapables de se les procurer par le travail » ; « une retraite permettant aux vieux travailleurs de finir dignement leurs jours. »

Les sources d’énergie, l’électricité et le gaz, les charbonnages, les grandes banques sont nationalisées. C’est ce que ce programme préconisait encore, « le retour à la nation des grands moyens de production monopolisés, fruit du travail commun, des sources d’énergie, des richesses du sous-sol, des compagnies d’assurance et des grandes banques » ; «l’instauration d’une véritable démocratie économique et sociale, impliquant l’éviction des grandes féodalités économiques et financières de la direction de l’économie ». L’intérêt général doit primer sur l’intérêt particulier, le juste partage des richesses créées par le monde du travail primer sur le pouvoir de l’argent. La Résistance propose «une organisation rationnelle de l’économie assurant la subordination des intérêts particuliers à l’intérêt général et affranchie de la dictature professionnelle instaurée à l’image des États fascistes », et le Gouvernement provisoire de la République s’en fait le relais.

Une véritable démocratie a besoin d’une presse indépendante ; la Résistance le sait, l’exige, en défendant
« la liberté de la presse, son honneur et son indépendance à l’égard de l’État, des puissances d’argent et des influences étrangères. »

C’est ce que relaient encore les ordonnances sur la presse, dès 1944. Or, c’est bien ce qui est aujourd’hui en danger.

La Résistance en appelait à « la possibilité effective pour tous les enfants français de bénéficier de l’instruction la plus développée », sans discrimination ; or, les réformes proposées en 2008 vont à l’encontre de ce projet. De jeunes enseignants, dont je soutiens l’action, ont été jusqu’à refuser de les appliquer et ils ont vu leurs salaires amputés en guise de punition. Ils se sont indignés, ont « désobéi », ont jugé ces réformes trop
éloignées de l’idéal de l’école républicaine, trop au service d’une société de l’argent et ne développant plus assez l’esprit créatif et critique.

C’est tout le socle des conquêtes sociales de la Résistance qui est aujourd’hui remis en cause [2].
Le motif de la résistance, c’est l’indignation. On ose nous dire que l’État ne peut plus assurer les coûts de ces
mesures citoyennes. Mais comment peut-il manquer aujourd’hui de l’argent pour maintenir et prolonger ces conquêtes alors que la production de richesses a considérablement augmenté depuis la Libération, période où
l’Europe était ruinée ? Sinon parce que le pouvoir de l’argent, tellement combattu par la Résistance, n’a jamais été aussi grand, insolent, égoïste, avec ses propres serviteurs jusque dans les plus hautes sphères de l’État.
Les banques désormais privatisées se montrent d’abord soucieuses de leurs dividendes, et des très haut salaires de leurs dirigeants, pas de l’intérêt général. L’écart entre les plus pauvres et les plus riches n’a jamais été aussi important ; et la course à l’argent, la compétition, autant encouragée.

Le motif de base de la Résistance était l’indignation. 

Nous, vétérans des mouvements de résistance et des forces combattantes de la France libre, nous appelons les jeunes générations à faire vivre, transmettre, l’héritage de la Résistance et ses idéaux. Nous leur disons : prenez le relais, indignez-vous ! Les responsables politiques, économiques, intellectuels et l’ensemble de la société ne doivent pas démissionner, ni se laisser impressionner par l’actuelle dictature internationale des marchés financiers qui menace la paix et la démocratie.

Je vous souhaite à tous, à chacun d’entre vous, d’avoir votre motif d’indignation. C’est précieux. Quand quelque chose vous indigne comme j’ai été indigné par le nazisme, alors on devient militant, fort et engagé.
On rejoint ce courant de l’histoire et le grand courant de l’histoire doit se poursuivre grâce à chacun. Et ce courant va vers plus de justice, plus de liberté mais pas cette liberté incontrôlée du renard dans le poulailler. Ces droits, dont la Déclaration universelle a rédigé le programme en 1948, sont universels. Si vous rencontrez quelqu’un qui n’en bénéficie pas, plaignez-le, aidez-le à les conquérir.

Deux visions de l’histoire

Quand j’essaie de comprendre ce qui a causé le fascisme, qui a fait que nous ayons été envahis par lui et par Vichy, je me dis que les possédants, avec leur égoïsme, ont eu terriblement peur de la révolution bolchévique.
Ils se sont laissés guider par leurs peurs. Mais si, aujourd’hui comme alors, une minorité active se dresse, cela suffira, nous aurons le levain pour que la pâte lève. Certes, l’expérience d’un très vieux comme moi, né
en 1917, se différencie de l’expérience des jeunes d’aujourd’hui. Je demande souvent à des professeurs de collège la possibilité d’intervenir auprès de leurs élèves, et je leur dis : vous n’avez pas les mêmes raisons
évidentes de vous engager. Pour nous, résister, c’était ne pas accepter l’occupation allemande, la défaite. C’était relativement simple. Simple comme ce qui a suivi, la décolonisation. Puis la guerre d’Algérie. Il fallait
que l’Algérie devienne indépendante, c’était évident. Quant à Staline, nous avons tous applaudi à la victoire de l’Armée rouge contre les nazis, en 1943. Mais déjà lorsque nous avions eu connaissance des grands
procès staliniens de 1935, et même s’il fallait garder une oreille ouverte vers le communisme pour contrebalancer le capitalisme américain, la nécessité de s’opposer à cette forme insupportable de totalitarisme s’était imposée comme une évidence. Ma longue vie m’a donné une succession de raisons de m’indigner.

Ces raisons sont nées moins d’une émotion que d’une volonté d’engagement. Le jeune normalien que j’étais a été très marqué par Sartre, un aîné condisciple. La Nausée, Le Mur, pas L ‘Être et le néant, ont été très importants dans la formation de ma pensée. Sartre nous a appris à nous dire : « Vous êtes responsables en tant qu’individus. » C’était un message libertaire. La responsabilité de l’homme qui ne peut s’en remettre ni à un pouvoir ni à un dieu. Au contraire, il faut s’engager au nom de sa responsabilité de personne humaine. Quand je suis entré à l’École normale de la rue d’Ulm, à Paris, en 1939, j’y entrais comme fervent disciple du philosophe Hegel, et je suivais le séminaire de Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Son enseignement explorait
l’expérience concrète, celle du corps et de ses relations avec le sens, grand singulier face au pluriel des sens. Mais mon optimisme naturel, qui veut que tout ce qui est souhaitable soit possible, me portait plutôt vers Hegel. L’hégélianisme interprète la longue histoire de l’humanité comme ayant un sens : c’est la liberté de l’homme progressant étape par étape. L’histoire est faite de chocs successifs, c’est la prise en compte de défis. L’histoire des sociétés progresse, et au bout, l’homme ayant atteint sa liberté complète, nous avons l’État démocratique dans sa forme idéale.

Il existe bien sûr une autre conception de l’histoire. Les progrès faits par la liberté, la compétition, la course au “toujours plus”, cela peut être vécu comme un ouragan destructeur. C’est ainsi que la représente un ami de mon père, l’homme qui a partagé avec lui la tâche de traduire en allemand À la Recherche du temps perdu de Marcel Proust. C’est le philosophe allemand Walter Benjamin. Il avait tiré un message pessimiste d’un tableau du peintre suisse, Paul Klee, l’Angelus Novus, où la figure de l’ange ouvre les bras comme pour contenir et repousser une tempête qu’il identifie avec le progrès. Pour Benjamin qui se suicidera en septembre 1940 pour fuir le nazisme, le sens de l’histoire, c’est le cheminement irrésistible de catastrophe en catastrophe.

L’indifférence : la pire des attitudes

C’est vrai, les raisons de s’indigner peuvent paraître aujourd’hui moins nettes ou le monde trop complexe. Qui commande, qui décide ? Il n’est pas toujours facile de distinguer entre tous les courants qui nous gouvernent. Nous n’avons plus affaire à une petite élite dont nous comprenons clairement les agissements. C’est un vaste monde, dont nous sentons bien qu’il est interdépendant. Nous vivons dans une inter connectivité comme jamais encore il n’en a existé. Mais dans ce monde, il y a des choses insupportables. Pour le voir, il faut bien regarder, chercher. Je dis aux jeunes : cherchez un peu, vous allez trouver. La pire des attitudes est l’indifférence, dire « je n’y peux rien, je me débrouille ».

En vous comportant ainsi, vous perdez l’une des composantes essentielles qui fait l’humain. Une des composantes indispensables : la faculté d’indignation et l’engagement qui en est la conséquence. On peut déjà identifier deux grands nouveaux défis :
1. L’immense écart qui existe entre les très pauvres et les très riches et qui ne cesse de s’accroître. C’est une innovation des XX` et XXI` siècle. Les très pauvres dans le monde d’aujourd’hui gagnent à peine deux
dollars par jour. On ne peut pas laisser cet écart se creuser encore. Ce constat seul doit susciter un engagement.
2. Les droits de l’homme et l’état de la planète. J’ai eu la chance après la Libération d’être associé à la rédaction de la Déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme adoptée par l’Organisation des Nations unies, le 10 décembre 1948, à Paris, au palais de Chaillot. C’est au titre de chef de cabinet de Henri Laugier, secrétaire général adjoint de l’ONU, et secrétaire de la Commission des Droits de l’homme que j’ai, avec d’autres, été amené à participer à la rédaction de cette déclaration. Je ne saurais oublier, dans son élaboration, le rôle de René Cassin, commissaire national à la Justice et à l’Éducation du gouvernement de la France libre,
à Londres, en 1941, qui fut prix Nobel de la paix en 1968, ni celui de Pierre Mendès France au sein du Conseil économique et social à qui les textes que nous élaborions étaient soumis, avant d’être examinés par la
Troisième commission de l’assemblée générale, en charge des questions sociales, humanitaires et culturelles. Elle comptait les cinquante-quatre États membres, à l’époque, des Nations unies, et j’en assurais le secrétariat. C’est à René Cassin que nous devons le terme de droits «universels » et non « internationaux » comme le proposaient nos amis anglo-saxons. Car là est bien l’enjeu au sortir de la seconde guerre mondiale : s’émanciper des menaces que le totalitarisme a fait peser sur l’humanité. Pour s’en émanciper, il faut obtenir que les États membres de l’ONU s’engagent à respecter ces droits universels. C’est une manière de
déjouer l’argument de pleine souveraineté qu’un État peut faire valoir alors qu’il se livre à des crimes contre l’humanité sur son sol. Ce fut le cas d’Hitler qui s’estimait maître chez lui et autorisé à provoquer un
génocide. Cette déclaration universelle doit beaucoup à la révulsion universelle envers le nazisme, le fascisme, le totalitarisme, et même, par notre présence, à l’esprit de la Résistance. Je sentais qu’il fallait faire vite, ne pas être dupe de l’hypocrisie qu’il y avait dans l’adhésion proclamée par les vainqueurs à ces valeurs que tous n’avaient pas l’intention de promouvoir loyalement, mais que nous tentions de leur imposer [3].

Je ne résiste pas à l’envie de citer l’article 15 de la Déclaration universelle des Droits de l’homme : « Tout individu a droit à une nationalité » ; l’article 22 : « Toute personne, en tant que membre de la société, a droit à la Sécurité sociale ; elle est fondée à obtenir la satisfaction des droits économiques, sociaux et culturels indispensables à sa dignité et au libre développement de sa personnalité, grâce à l’effort national et à la coopération internationale, compte tenu de l’organisation et des ressources de chaque pays. » Et si cette déclaration a une portée déclarative, et non pas juridique, elle n’en a pas moins joué un rôle puissant depuis 1948 ; on a vu des peuples colonisés s’en saisir dans leur lutte d’indépendance ; elle a ensemencé les esprits dans leur combat pour la liberté.

Je constate avec plaisir qu’au cours des dernières décennies se sont multipliés les organisations non gouvernementales, les mouvements sociaux comme Attac (Association pour la taxation des transactions financières), la FIDH (Fédération internationale des Droits de l’homme), Amnesty… qui sont agissants et performants. Il est évident que pour être efficace aujourd’hui, il faut agir en réseau, profiter de tous les moyens
modernes de communication.

Aux jeunes, je dis : regardez autour de vous, vous y trouverez les thèmes qui justifient votre indignation — le traitement faits aux immigrés, aux sans-papiers, aux Roms. Vous trouverez des situations concrètes qui vous amènent à donner cours à une action citoyenne forte.

Cherchez et vous trouverez !

Mon indignation à propos de la Palestine

Aujourd’hui, ma principale indignation concerne la Palestine, la bande de Gaza, la Cisjordanie. Ce conflit est la source même d’une indignation.

Il faut absolument lire le rapport Richard Goldstone de septembre 2009 sur Gaza, dans lequel ce juge sud-africain, juif, qui se dit même sioniste, accuse l’armée israélienne d’avoir commis des « actes assimilables à des crimes de guerre et peut-être, dans certaines circonstances, à des crimes contre l’humanité » pendant son opération “Plomb durci” qui a duré trois semaines. Je suis moi-même retourné à Gaza, en 2009, où j’ai pu entrer avec ma femme grâce à nos passeports diplomatiques afin d’étudier de visu ce que ce rapport disait. Les gens qui nous accompagnaient n’ont pas été autorisés à pénétrer dans la bande de Gaza. Là et en Cisjordanie.

Nous avons aussi visité les camps de réfugiés palestiniens mis en place dès 1948 par l’agence des Nations unies, l’UNRWA, où plus de trois millions de Palestiniens chassés de leurs terres par Israël attendent un
retour de plus en plus problématique. Quant à Gaza, c’est une prison à ciel ouvert pour un million et demi de Palestiniens. Une prison où ils s’organisent pour survivre. Plus encore que les destructions matérielles
comme celle de l’hôpital du Croissant rouge par “Plomb durci”, c’est le comportement des Gazaouis, leur patriotisme, leur amour de la mer et des plages, leur constante préoccupation du bien-être de leurs enfants, innombrables et rieurs, qui hantent notre mémoire. Nous avons été impressionnés par leur ingénieuse manière de faire face à toutes les pénuries qui leur sont imposées. Nous les avons vu confectionner des briques faute de ciment pour reconstruire les milliers de maisons détruites par les chars. On nous a confirmé qu’il y avait eu mille quatre cents morts — femmes, enfants, vieillards inclus dans le camp palestinien — au cours de cette opération “Plomb durci” menée par l’armée israélienne, contre seulement cinquante blessés côté israélien. Je
partage les conclusions du juge sud-africain. Que des Juifs puissent perpétrer eux-mêmes des crimes de guerre, c’est insupportable. Hélas, l’histoire donne peu d’exemples de peuples qui tirent les leçons de leur
propre histoire.

Je sais, le Hamas qui avait gagné les dernières élections législatives n’a pas pu éviter que des rockets soient envoyées sur les villes israéliennes en réponse à la situation d’isolement et de blocus dans laquelle se trouvent les Gazaouis. Je pense bien évidemment que le terrorisme est inacceptable, mais il faut reconnaître que lorsque l’on est occupé avec des moyens militaires infiniment supérieurs aux vôtres, la réaction populaire
ne peut pas être que non-violente.

Est-ce que ça sert le Hamas d’envoyer des rockets sur la ville de Sdérot? La réponse est non. Ça ne sert pas sa cause, mais on peut expliquer ce geste par l’exaspération des Gazaouis. Dans la notion d’exaspération, il
faut comprendre la violence comme une regrettable conclusion de situations inacceptables pour ceux qui les subissent. Alors, on peut se dire que le terrorisme est une forme d’exaspération. Et que cette exaspération est un terme négatif. Il ne faudrait pas ex-aspérer, il faudrait es-pérer. L’exaspération est un déni de l’espoir. Elle est compréhensible, je dirais presque qu’elle est naturelle, mais pour autant elle n’est pas acceptable. Parce qu’elle ne permet pas d’obtenir les résultats que peut éventuellement produire l’espérance.

La non-violence,
le chemin que nous devons apprendre à suivre.

Je suis convaincu que l’avenir appartient à la non-violence, à la conciliation des cultures différentes. C’est par cette voie que l’humanité devra franchir sa prochaine étape. Et là, je rejoins Sartre, on ne peut pas excuser les terroristes qui jettent des bombes, on peut les comprendre.

Sartre écrit en 1947 : « Je reconnais que la violence sous quelque forme qu’elle se manifeste est un échec. Mais c’est un échec inévitable parce que nous sommes dans un univers de violence. Et s’il est vrai que le
recours à la violence reste la violence qui risque de la perpétuer, il est vrai aussi c’est l’unique moyen de la faire cesser 4. » À quoi j’ajouterais que la non-violence est un moyen plus sûr de la faire cesser. On ne peut
pas soutenir les terroristes comme Sartre l’a fait au nom de ce principe pendant la guerre d’Algérie, ou lors de l’attentat des jeux de Munich, en 1972, commis contre des athlètes israéliens. Ce n’est pas efficace et
Sartre lui-même finira par s’interroger à la fin de sa vie sur le sens du terrorisme et à douter de sa raison d’être. Se dire « la violence n’est pas efficace », c’est bien plus important que de savoir si on doit condamner ou pas ceux qui s’y livrent. Le terrorisme n’est pas efficace. Dans la notion d’efficacité, il faut une espérance non-violente. S’il existe une espérance violente, c’est dans la poésie de Guillaume Apollinaire : « Que l’espérance est violente » ; pas en politique. Sartre, en mars 1980, à trois semaines de sa mort, déclarait : « Il faut essayer d’expliquer pourquoi le monde de maintenant, qui est horrible, n’est qu’un moment dans le long développement historique, que l’espoir a toujours été une des forces dominantes des révolutions et des insurrections, et comment je ressens encore l’espoir comme ma conception de l’avenir 5

Il faut comprendre que la violence tourne le dos à l’espoir. Il faut lui préférer l’espérance, l’espérance de la non-violence. C’est le chemin que nous devons apprendre à suivre. Aussi bien du côté des oppresseurs que des opprimés, il faut arriver à une négociation pour faire disparaître l’oppression ; c’est ce qui permettra de ne plus avoir de violence terroriste. C’est pourquoi il ne faut pas laisser s’accumuler trop de haine.

Le message d’un Mandela, d’un Martin Luther King trouve toute sa pertinence dans un monde qui a dépassé la confrontation des idéologies et le totalitarisme conquérant. C’est un message d’espoir dans la capacité des sociétés modernes à dépasser les conflits par une compréhension mutuelle et une patience vigilante. Pour y
parvenir, il faut se fonder sur les droits, dont la violation, quel qu’en soit l’auteur, doit provoquer notre indignation. Il n’y a pas à transiger sur ces droits.

Pour une insurrection pacifique

J’ai noté — et je ne suis pas le seul — la réaction du gouvernement israélien confronté au fait que chaque vendredi les citoyens de Bil’id vont, sans jeter de pierres, sans utiliser la force, jusqu’au mur contre lequel ils protestent. Les autorités israéliennes ont qualifié cette marche de « terrorisme non-violent ». Pas mal… Il faut être israélien pour qualifier de terroriste la non-violence. Il faut surtout être embarrassé par l’efficacité de la non-violence qui tient à ce qu’elle suscite l’appui, la compréhension, le soutien de tous ceux qui dans le monde sont les adversaires de l’oppression.

La pensée productiviste, portée par l’Occident, a entraîné le monde dans une crise dont il faut sortir par une rupture radicale avec la fuite en avant du “toujours plus”, dans le domaine financier mais aussi dans le domaine des sciences et des techniques. Il est grand temps que le souci d’éthique, de justice, d’équilibre durable
devienne prévalent. Car les risques les plus graves nous menacent.

Ils peuvent mettre un terme à l’aventure humaine sur une planète qu’elle peut rendre inhabitable pour l’homme.
Mais il reste vrai que d’importants progrès ont été faits depuis 1948: la décolonisation, la fin de l’apartheid, la destruction de l’empire soviétique, la chute du Mur de Berlin. Par contre, les dix premières années du XXIe
siècle ont été une période de recul. Ce recul, je l’explique en partie par la présidence américaine de George Bush, le 11 septembre, et les conséquences désastreuses qu’en ont tirées les Etats-Unis, comme cette
intervention militaire en Irak. Nous avons eu cette crise économique, mais nous n’en avons pas davantage initié une nouvelle politique de développement. réchauffement De même, climatique le n’a sommet pas de permis Copenhague d’engager une contre le véritable politique pour la préservation de la planète. Nous sommes à un seuil, entre les horreurs de la première décennie et les possibilités des décennies suivantes. Mais il faut espérer, il faut toujours espérer. La décennie précédente, celle des années 1990, avait été source de grands progrès. Les Nations unies ont su convoquer des conférences comme celles de Rio sur l’environnement, en 1992 ; celle de Pékin sur les femmes, en 1995 ; en septembre 2000, à l’initiative du secrétaire général des Nations unies, Kofi Annan, les 191 pays membres ont adopté la déclaration sur les « Huit objectifs du millénaire pour le développement », par laquelle ils s’engagent notamment à réduire de moitié la pauvreté dans le monde d’ici 2015. Mon grand regret, c’est que ni Obama ni l’Union européenne ne se soient encore manifestés avec ce qui devrait être leur apport pour une phase constructive, s’appuyant sur les valeurs fondamentales.

Comment conclure cet appel à s’indigner ? En rappelant encore que, à l’occasion du soixantième anniversaire du Programme du Conseil national de la Résistance, nous disions le 8 mars 2004, nous vétérans des
mouvements de Résistance et des forces combattantes de la France libre (1940-1945), que certes « le nazisme est vaincu, grâce au sacrifice de nos frères et soeurs de la Résistance et des Nations unies contre la barbarie fasciste. Mais cette menace n’a pas totalement disparu et notre colère contre l’injustice est toujours intacte».

Non, cette menace n’a pas totalement disparu. Aussi, appelons-nous toujours à « une véritable insurrection pacifique contre les moyens de communication de masse qui ne proposent comme horizon pour notre jeunesse que la consommation de masse, le mépris des plus faibles et de la culture, l’amnésie généralisée et la compétition à outrance de tous contre tous. »
À ceux et celles qui feront le XXI’ siècle, nous disons avec notre affection
:
« CRÉER, C’EST RÉSISTER.
RÉSISTER, C’EST CRÉER. »

NOTES
1 Créé clandestinement le 27 mai 1943, à Paris, par les représentants des
huit grands mouvements de Résistance ; des deux grands syndicats
d’avant-guerre : la CGT, la CFTC (confédération française des travailleurs
chrétiens) ; et des six principaux partis politiques de la Troisième Ré-
publique dont le PC et la SFIO (les socialistes), le Conseil national de la
Résistance (CNR) tint sa première réunion ce 27 mai, sous la présidence
de Jean Moulin, délégué du général de Gaulle lequel voulait instaurer ce
Conseil pour rendre plus efficace la lutte contre les nazis, renforcer sa
propre légitimité face aux alliés. De Gaulle chargeait ce conseil d’élaborer
un programme de gouvernement en prévision de la libération de la
France. Ce programme fit l’objet de plusieurs va et vient entre le CNR et
le gouvernement de la France libre, à la fois à Londres et à Alger, avant
d’être adopté le 15 mars 1944, en assemblée plénière par le CNR. Ce
programme est remis solennellement au Général de Gaulle par le CNR le
25 août 1944, à l’hôtel de Ville de Paris. Notons que l’ordonnance sur la
presse est promulguée dès le 26 août. Et qu’un des principaux
rédacteurs du programme fut Roger Ginsburger, fils d’un rabbin alsacien
; alors, sous le pseudonyme de Pierre Villon, il est secrétaire général du
Front national de l’indépendance de la France, mouvement de résistance
créé par le Parti communiste français, en 1941, et représente ce
mouvement au sein du CNR et de son bureau permanent.
2 D’après une estimation syndicaliste, on est passé de 75 à 80% du revenu
comme montant des retraites à environ 50%, ceci étant un ordre de
grandeur. Jean-Paul Domin, maître de conférence en Économie à l’Uni-
versité de Reims Champagne-Ardennes, en 2010, rédige pour l’Institut
Européen du Salariat une note sur « L’assurance maladie complémen-
taire ». Il y révèle combien l’accès à une complémentaire de qualité est
désormais un privilège dû à la position dans l’emploi, que les plus
fragiles renoncent à des soins faute d’assurances complémentaires et de
l’importance du reste à payer ; que la source du problème est de n’avoir
plus fait du salaire le support des droits sociaux — point central des
ordonnances des 4 et 15 octobre 1945. Celles-ci promulguaient la
Sécurité sociale et plaçaient sa gestion, sous la double autorité des
représentants des travailleurs et de l’État. Depuis les réformes Juppé de
1995 prononcées par ordonnances, puis la loi Douste Blazy (docteur de
formation), de 2004, c’est l’État seul qui gère la Sécurité sociale. C’est
par exemple le chef de l’État qui nomme par décret le directeur général
de la Caisse nationale d’assurance maladie (CNAM). Ce ne sont plus
comme aux lendemains de la Libération, des syndicalistes qui en sont à
la tête des caisses primaires départementales mais l’État, via les préfets.
Les représentants des travailleurs n’y tiennent plus qu’un rôle de
conseiller.
3 La Déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme fut adoptée le 10
décembre 1948, à Paris, par l’Assemblée générale des Nations unies par
48 États sur les 58 membres. Huit s’abstinrent : l’Afrique du Sud, à
cause de l’apartheid que la déclaration condamnait de fait ; l’Arabie
saoudite, du même, à cause de l’égalité hommes femmes ; l’Union
soviétique (la Russie, Tchécoslovaquie, la l’Ukraine, Yougoslavie,
le Biélorussie), estimant quant la à Pologne, eux que la la
Déclaration n’allait pas assez loin dans la prise en compte des droits
économiques et sociaux et sur la question des droits des minorités ; on
note cependant que la Russie en particulier s’opposa à la proposition
australienne de créer une Cour internationale des Droits de l’homme
chargée d’examiner les pétitions adressées aux Nations unies ; il faut ici
rappeler que l’article 8 de la Déclaration introduit le principe du recours
individuel contre un État en cas de violation des droits fondamentaux ;
ce principe allait trouver en Europe son application en 1998, avec la
création d’une Cour européenne des droits de l’homme permanente qui
garantit ce droit de recours à plus de 800 millions d’Européens.
4 Sartre, J.-P., « Situation de l’écrivain en 1947 o, in Situations II, Paris,
Gallimard, 1948.
5 Sartre, J.-P., « Maintenant l’espoir… (III) » in Le Nouvel Observateur, 24
mars 1980.
6 Les signataires de l’Appel du 8 mars 2004 sont : Lucie Aubrac,
Raymond Aubrac, Henri Bartoli, Daniel Cordier, Philippe Dechartre,
Georges Guingouin, Stéphane Hessel, Maurice Kriegel-Valrimont, Lise
London, Georges Séguy, Germaine Tillion, Jean-Pierre Vernant, Maurice
Voutey.

POSTFACE
Stéphane Hessel est né à Berlin, en 1917, d’un père juif écrivain,
traducteur, Franz Hessel, et d’une mère peintre, mélomane, Helen
Grund, écrivaine elle-même. Ses parents s’établissent à Paris en 1924,
avec leurs deux enfants, Ulrich, l’aîné, et Stéphane. Grâce au milieu
familial, tous deux fréquentent l’avant-garde parisienne, dont le dadaïste
Marcel Duchamp et le sculpteur américain Alexandre Calder. Stéphane
entre à l’École normale supérieure de la rue d’Ulm en 1939, mais la
guerre interrompt ses études. Naturalisé français depuis 1937, il est
mobilisé et connaît la drôle de guerre, voit le maréchal Pétain brader la
souveraineté française. En mai 1941, il rejoint la France libre du général
de Gaulle, à Londres. Il travaille au Bureau de contre-espionnage, de
renseignement et d’action (BCRA). Par une nuit de fin mars 1944, il est
débarqué clandestinement en France sous le nom de code « Greco » avec
pour mission d’entrer en contact avec les différents réseaux parisiens, de
trouver de nouveaux lieux d’émission radio pour faire passer à Londres
les renseignements recueillis, en vue du débarquement allié. Le 10 juillet
1944, il est arrêté à Paris par la Gestapo sur dénonciation : « On ne
poursuit pas quelqu’un qui a parlé sous la torture », écrira-t-il dans un
livre de mémoires, Danse avec le siècle, en 1997.
Après des interrogatoires sous la torture — l’épreuve de la baignoire notamment,
mais il déstabilise ses tortionnaires en leur parlant allemand, sa langue
natale — il est envoyé au camp de Buchenwald, en Allemagne, le 8 août
1944, donc à quelques jours de la libération de Paris. A la veille d’être
pendu, il parvient in extremis à échanger son identité contre celle d’un
français décédé du typhus dans le camp. Sous son nouveau nom, Michel
Boitel, fraiseur de métier, il est transféré au camp de Rottleberode à
proximité de l’usine de train d’atterrissage des bombardiers allemands,
les Junker 52, mais heureusement — sa chance éternelle —, il est versé
au service comptabilité. Il s’évade. Repris, il est déplacé au camp de
Dora où sont fabriquées les V-1 et V-2, ces fusées avec lesquelles les
nazis espèrent encore gagner la guerre. Affecté à la compagnie
disciplinaire, il s’évade à nouveau et cette fois pour de bon ; les troupes
alliées se rapprochent de Dora. Enfin, il retrouve Paris, sa femme Vitia
— la mère de ses trois enfants, deux garçons et une fille.
Cette vie restituée, il fallait l’engager », écrit l’ancien de la France
libre, dans ses mémoires. En 1946, après avoir réussi le concours
d’entrée au ministère des Affaires étrangères, Stéphane Hessel devient
diplomate. Son premier poste est aux Nations unies où, cette année-là,
Henri Laugier, secrétaire général adjoint des Nations unies et secrétaire
de la Commission des droits de l’homme, lui propose d’être son
secrétaire de cabinet. C’est à ce titre que Stéphane Hessel rejoint la
commission chargée d’élaborer ce qui sera la Déclaration universelle des
Droits de l’homme. On considère que sur ses douze membres, six ont
joué un rôle plus essentiel : Eleanor Roosevelt, la veuve du Président
Roosevelt décédé en 1945, féministe engagée, elle préside la commission
; le docteur Chang (Chine de Tchang Kaïchek et non de Mao) : vice-
président de la commission, il affirma que la Déclaration ne devait pas
être le reflet des seules idées occidentales ; Charles Habib Malik (Liban),
rapporteur de la commission, souvent présenté comme la force motrice »,
avec Eleanor Roosevelt ; René Cassin (France), juriste et diplomate,
président de la commission consultative des Droits de l’homme auprès
du Quai d’Orsay ; on lui doit la rédaction de plusieurs articles et d’avoir
su composer avec les craintes de certains États, y compris la France, de
voir leur souveraineté coloniale menacée par cette déclaration — il avait
une conception exigeante et interventionniste des Droits de l’homme ;
John Peters Humphrey (Canada), avocat et diplomate, proche
collaborateur de Laugier, il écrivit la première ébauche, un document de
400 pages ; enfin Stéphane Hessel (France), diplomate, chef de cabinet
du même Laugier, le plus jeune. On voit combien l’esprit de la France
libre souffla sur cette commission. La Déclaration est adoptée le 10
décembre 1948 par les Nations unies au palais de Chaillot, à Paris. Avec
l’afflux de nouveaux fonctionnaires, dont beaucoup convoitent un poste
bien rémunéré, « isolant les marginaux en quête d’idéal » selon le propre
commentaire d’Hessel dans ses mémoires, il quitte les Nations unies. Il
est affecté par le ministère des Affaires Étrangères à la représentation de
la France au sein d’institutions internationales, l’occasion de retrouver
temporairement, à ce titre, New York et les Nations unies. Pendant la
guerre d’Algérie, il milite en faveur de l’indépendance algérienne. En
1977, avec la complicité du secrétaire général de l’Élysée, Claude
Brossolette, le fils de Pierre, chef autrefois du BCRA, il se voit proposer
par le président Valéry Giscard d’Estaing le poste d’ambassadeur auprès
des Nations unies, à Genève. Il ne cache pas que, de tous les hommes
d’État français, celui dont il s’est senti le plus proche est Pierre Mendès
France, connu à Londres à l’époque de la France libre et retrouvé aux
Nations unies en 1946 à New York, où ce dernier représente la France au
sein du Conseil économique et social. Il va devoir sa consécration comme
diplomate à « cette modification dans le gouvernement de la France,
écrit-il encore, que constitue l’arrivée de François Mitterrand à l’Élysée »,
en 1981. « Elle a fait d’un diplomate assez étroitement spécialisé dans la
coopération multilatérale, arrivé à deux ans de sa retraite, un
ambassadeur de France. » Il adhère au parti socialiste. « Je me demande
pourquoi ? Première réponse : le choc de l’année 1995. Je n’imaginais
pas les Français assez imprudents pour porter Jacques Chirac à la
présidence. » Disposant désormais d’un passeport diplomatique, il se
rend avec sa nouvelle femme en 2008 et 2009 dans la bande de Gaza et
à son retour témoigne sur la douloureuse existence des Gazaouis. « Je
me suis toujours situé du côté des dissidents, déclare-t-il à la même
époque. »
C’est bien celui-là qui parle ici, à 93 ans.
S. C.

Food Safety

Published on May 23, 2013

The world’s leading Scientists, Physicians, Attorneys, Politicians and Environmental Activists expose the corruption and dangers surrounding the widespread use of Genetically Modified Organisms in the new feature length documentary, “Seeds of Death: Unveiling the Lies of GMOs”.

Senior Executive Producer / Writer / Director: Gary Null PhD
Executive Producer/Writer/Co-Director: Richard Polonetsky
Producers: Paola Bossola, Richard Gale, James Spruill, Patrick Thompson, Valerie Van Cleve
Editors: James Spruill, Patrick Thompson, Richie Williamson, Nick Palm
Music: Kevin MacLeod (Incompetech.com), Armando Guarnera
Graphics: Jay Graygor


Published on May 12, 2012
****SAVE THIS DOCUMENTARY AS AN MP4 FILE TO WATCH RATHER THAN STREAM***
1) Highlight and copy this videos URL address:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5uah8L…
2) Go to www.savetube.com
3) Paste the URL you just copied into the “VID” field and then click on VIDEO.
4) It will then give you options for download, download the MP4 file. You can then watch it without waiting for it to buffer and even better, burn it to DVD for others to see.

Americans’ right to access fresh, healthy foods of their choice is under attack. Farmageddon tells the story of small, family farms that were providing safe, healthy foods to their communities and were forced to stop, sometimes through violent ac-tion, by agents of misguided government bureaucracies, and seeks to figure out why.

Filmmaker Kristin Canty’s quest to find healthy food for her four children turned into an educational journey to discover why access to these foods was being threatened. What she found were policies that favor agribusiness and factory farms over small family-operated farms selling fresh foods to their communities. Instead of focusing on the source of food safety problems — most often the industrial food chain — policymakers and regulators implement and enforce solutions that target and often drive out of business small farms that have proven themselves more than capable of producing safe, healthy food, but buckle under the crushing weight of government regulations and excessive enforcement actions.

Farmageddon highlights the urgency of food freedom, encouraging farmers and consumers alike to take action to preserve individuals’ rights to access food of their choice and farmers’ rights to produce these foods safely and free from unreasona-bly burdensome regulations. The film serves to put policymakers and regulators on notice that there is a growing movement of people aware that their freedom to choose the foods they want is in danger, a movement that is taking action with its dollars and its voting power to protect and preserve the dwindling number of family farms that are struggling to survive.


Dear Friend,
Late last year the FDA quietly took a major step toward approving the “frankenfish,” AquaBounty’s genetically modified salmon.
Its approval would be a radical move by the FDA — the first genetically modified animal ever to enter our food supply. It’s no wonder the FDA posted its final review, clearing the way for approval, on the Friday before the Christmas holiday, when few people would notice.
The FDA is now taking public comments on its study, which is expected to lead to approval of the frankenfish. This is our last chance to keep GMO salmon off our grocery store shelves, and stop the dangerous trend of introducing GM animals into our food supply.
AquaBounty’s frankenfish is an Atlantic salmon, spliced with genes from an eel pout and growth hormone from a Chinook salmon. The result is a salmon that produces growth hormone year-round and grows twice as fast. The risks are myriad.
The fish hasn’t been proven safe for humans. But the FDA is preparing to approve it based on a limited, flawed and inadequate study — even thought the same study identified elevated allergy-causing potential,1 and elevated levels of the IGF-1 growth hormone, which is linked to colon, prostate and breast cancers. Clearly more study is needed to determine the safety or danger of GMO salmon.2
Were GMO salmon to escape its farms into the wild, the fish would pose a serious risk to wild salmon populations. The GMO salmon consume five times more food than wild salmon, and are more aggressive. Introducing these traits into the wild population would be serious — and irreversible.3
Separate from any risks, the GMO salmon are less healthy to eat — producing less of the beneficial omega-3 fatty acids than conventional salmon — and a less efficient food source — requiring 1.5 to 8 kilograms of wild fish to produce one kilogram of conventional farmed salmon.
Worse still, without GMO labeling, these frankenfish would be totally unlabeled on store shelves, and indistinguishable from other farmed salmon, so consumers will have no way of making an informed choice.
The White House knows that the public is opposed to GMO salmon and is feeling our pressure.
A recent report even documents that the White House may have delayed the release of the FDA assessment, which was completed in May, until after the election, to avoid upsetting the president’s political base.4
Significant public opposition in this comment period is our best shot at preventing approval of GMO salmon. But this is our last chance. So now is the time to make your voice heard.
Thanks for fighting for safe food.
Elijah Zarlin, Campaign Manager 
CREDO Action from Working Assets
1. “Consumers Union Says FDA Assessment of GE Salmon Is Flawed and Inadequate,” Consumers Union, 12/21/12
2. “AquAdvantage Salmon Ready for Commerce?,” Permaculture News, 9/23/10
3. “Tell the FDA: No Frankenfish,” Organic Consumers Union
4. “White House Ends Its Interference in a Scientific Review,” Slate, 12/21/12


FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE CONTACT:
Organic Consumers Association
Katherine Paul,
207.653.3090,
katherine@organicconsumers.org

FINLAND, Minn. – Nov. 12, 2012 – The Organic Consumers Association (OCA) is monitoring the ongoing vote count and election results for Prop 37, the California Right to Know Genetically Engineered Food Act. The OCA will contest the vote if results differ substantially from pre-election poll results or if there are reports of any voting irregularities, particularly in Orange and San Mateo Counties where paperless ballot systems make voting more vulnerable to fraud.

Prop 37 was defeated by 6 percentage points, 53% to 47%, according to the California Secretary of State on election night. However, as with every election, not every ballot had been counted as of midnight Nov. 6. On election night, there were still 3.3 million uncounted votes. As of November 11, the vote totals were 5,205,044 NO to 4,619,580 YES.

“The OCA, along with the California Right to Know Campaign and its attorneys, are closely monitoring the ongoing vote count process,” said Ronnie Cummins, Director of the OCA and OCF, which contributed more than $1 million to the Prop 37 campaign. “We will challenge the outcome if the final count indicates more YES than NO votes, or if the results are substantially different from our pre-election polls.”

State law requires county elections officials to report their final results to the Secretary of State by December 7. The Secretary of State has until December 14 to certify the results of the election.

The OCA hired Lake Research Partners to conduct pre-election polling for Prop 37. The final results of the polling are not yet available.

“Win or lose, Prop 37 is just the beginning,” said Cummins. “We’ve put GMO labeling on the national map, and we’ve put Big Ag and Big Food on notice: This movement is stronger than ever, and it’s not going away.”

Activists in Washington State have already collected more than half of the signatures they need to put a similar GMO labeling initiative on the ballot there in 2013. Plans are also in the works to reignite legislative attempts in Vermont and Connecticut, where laws don’t provide for citizens ballot initiatives.

The Organic Consumers Association (OCA) is an online and grassroots non-profit 501(c)3 public interest organization campaigning for health, justice, and sustainability.

The Organic Consumers Fund is a 501(c)4 allied organization of the Organic Consumers Association, focused on grassroots lobbying and legislative action.


FDA Acts on Food Safety Bill by Judith McGeary, Esq. – May 20, 2011 http://www.ftcldf.org/federal/111_Cong-S510.htm http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s111-510 http://www.ftcldf.org/fda-acts-on-food-safety-bill.htm The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently issued the first new rules under the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), meeting the initial deadlines imposed by the Act. The first rule addresses prior notice of food shipments imported from other countries. Under current law, anyone who is importing food that is subject to FDA’s jurisdiction (i.e. anything except meat, poultry, or egg products) must submit prior notification to the FDA [See 21 C.F.R. § 1.278-1.279]. The FSMA added the new requirement that such notice include “any country to which the article has been refused entry” [FSMA Sec. 304]. The FDA’s new rule amends the regulations accordingly. The second rule addresses the standard for FDA to administratively detain food. Administrative detention is a limited enforcement power — the agency can detain an article of food for no more than 30 days [See 21 C.F.R. § 1.379]. The purpose of the detention is to keep the food out of commerce while the FDA institutes a seizure or injunction action. The FSMA lowered the standard necessary for FDA to administratively detain food, from “credible evidence” that the food “presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences of death” to “reason to believe” that the food is “adulterated or misbranded.” The FDA’s recent interim rule incorporates the new, lower standard. http://youtu.be/OddINatuAXw http://youtu.be/b27EFldZ17k http://www.ftcldf.org/fda-acts-on-food-safety-http://www.govtrack.us/congress/billtext.xpd?bill=h111-875 H. R. 875 http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s111-510 http://www.ftcldf.org/fda-acts-on-food-safety-bill.htmhttp://www.ftcldf.org/federal/111_Cong-S510.htm [111th Congress Public Law 353]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]

[[Page 124 STAT. 3885]]

Public Law 111-353
111th Congress

An Act

To amend the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act with respect to the
safety of the food supply. <>

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled, <>
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; REFERENCES; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

(a) <> Short Title.–This Act may be cited
as the “FDA Food Safety Modernization Act”.

(b) References.–Except as otherwise specified, whenever in this Act
an amendment is expressed in terms of an amendment to a section or other
provision, the reference shall be considered to be made to a section or
other provision of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C.
301 et seq.).
(c) Table of Contents.–The table of contents for this Act is as
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; references; table of contents.

TITLE I–IMPROVING CAPACITY TO PREVENT FOOD SAFETY PROBLEMS

Sec. 101. Inspections of records.
Sec. 102. Registration of food facilities.
Sec. 103. Hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls.
Sec. 104. Performance standards.
Sec. 105. Standards for produce safety.
Sec. 106. Protection against intentional adulteration.
Sec. 107. Authority to collect fees.
Sec. 108. National agriculture and food defense strategy.
Sec. 109. Food and Agriculture Coordinating Councils.
Sec. 110. Building domestic capacity.
Sec. 111. Sanitary transportation of food.
Sec. 112. Food allergy and anaphylaxis management.
Sec. 113. New dietary ingredients.
Sec. 114. Requirement for guidance relating to post harvest processing
of raw oysters.
Sec. 115. Port shopping.
Sec. 116. Alcohol-related facilities.

TITLE II–IMPROVING CAPACITY TO DETECT AND RESPOND TO FOOD SAFETY
PROBLEMS

Sec. 201. Targeting of inspection resources for domestic facilities,
foreign facilities, and ports of entry; annual report.
Sec. 202. Laboratory accreditation for analyses of foods.
Sec. 203. Integrated consortium of laboratory networks.
Sec. 204. Enhancing tracking and tracing of food and recordkeeping.
Sec. 205. Surveillance.
Sec. 206. Mandatory recall authority.
Sec. 207. Administrative detention of food.
Sec. 208. Decontamination and disposal standards and plans.
Sec. 209. Improving the training of State, local, territorial, and
tribal food safety officials.
Sec. 210. Enhancing food safety.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3886]]

Sec. 211. Improving the reportable food registry.

TITLE III–IMPROVING THE SAFETY OF IMPORTED FOOD

Sec. 301. Foreign supplier verification program.
Sec. 302. Voluntary qualified importer program.
Sec. 303. Authority to require import certifications for food.
Sec. 304. Prior notice of imported food shipments.
Sec. 305. Building capacity of foreign governments with respect to food
safety.
Sec. 306. Inspection of foreign food facilities.
Sec. 307. Accreditation of third-party auditors.
Sec. 308. Foreign offices of the Food and Drug Administration.
Sec. 309. Smuggled food.

TITLE IV–MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Sec. 401. Funding for food safety.
Sec. 402. Employee protections.
Sec. 403. Jurisdiction; authorities.
Sec. 404. Compliance with international agreements.
Sec. 405. Determination of budgetary effects.

TITLE I–IMPROVING CAPACITY TO PREVENT FOOD SAFETY PROBLEMS

SEC. 101. INSPECTIONS OF RECORDS.

(a) In General.–Section 414(a) (21 U.S.C. 350c(a)) is amended–
(1) by striking the heading and all that follows through
“of food is” and inserting the following: “Records
Inspection.–
“(1) Adulterated food.–If the Secretary has a reasonable
belief that an article of food, and any other article of food
that the Secretary reasonably believes is likely to be affected
in a similar manner, is”;
(2) by inserting “, and to any other article of food that
the Secretary reasonably believes is likely to be affected in a
similar manner,” after “relating to such article”;
(3) by striking the last sentence; and
(4) by inserting at the end the following:
“(2) Use of or exposure to food of
concern. <> –If the Secretary believes that
there is a reasonable probability that the use of or exposure to
an article of food, and any other article of food that the
Secretary reasonably believes is likely to be affected in a
similar manner, will cause serious adverse health consequences
or death to humans or animals, each person (excluding farms and
restaurants) who manufactures, processes, packs, distributes,
receives, holds, or imports such article shall, at the request
of an officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary,
permit such officer or employee, upon presentation of
appropriate credentials and a written notice to such person, at
reasonable times and within reasonable limits and in a
reasonable manner, to have access to and copy all records
relating to such article and to any other article of food that
the Secretary reasonably believes is likely to be affected in a
similar manner, that are needed to assist the Secretary in
determining whether there is a reasonable probability that the
use of or exposure to the food will cause serious adverse health
consequences or death to humans or animals.
“(3) Application.–The requirement under paragraphs (1) and
(2) applies to all records relating to the manufacture,
processing, packing, distribution, receipt, holding, or
importation of such article maintained by or on behalf of such
person

[[Page 124 STAT. 3887]]

in any format (including paper and electronic formats) and at
any location.”.

(b) Conforming Amendment.–Section 704(a)(1)(B) (21 U.S.C.
374(a)(1)(B)) is amended by striking “section 414 when” and all that
follows through “subject to” and inserting “section 414, when the
standard for records inspection under paragraph (1) or (2) of section
414(a) applies, subject to”.
SEC. 102. REGISTRATION OF FOOD FACILITIES.

(a) Updating of Food Category Regulations; Biennial Registration
Renewal.–Section 415(a) (21 U.S.C. 350d(a)) is amended–
(1) in paragraph (2), by–
(A) striking “conducts business and” and inserting
“conducts business, the e-mail address for the contact
person of the facility or, in the case of a foreign
facility, the United States agent for the facility,
and”; and
(B) inserting “, or any other food categories as
determined appropriate by the Secretary, including by
guidance” after “Code of Federal Regulations”;
(2) by redesignating paragraphs (3) and (4) as paragraphs
(4) and (5), respectively; and
(3) by inserting after paragraph (2) the following:
“(3) Biennial registration renewal. <> –During the period beginning on October 1 and ending
on December 31 of each even-numbered year, a registrant that has
submitted a registration under paragraph (1) shall submit to the
Secretary a renewal registration containing the information
described in paragraph (2). The Secretary shall provide for an
abbreviated registration renewal process for any registrant that
has not had any changes to such information since the registrant
submitted the preceding registration or registration renewal for
the facility involved.”.

(b) Suspension of Registration.–
(1) In general.–Section 415 (21 U.S.C. 350d) is amended–
(A) in subsection (a)(2), by inserting after the
first sentence the following: “The registration shall
contain an assurance that the Secretary will be
permitted to inspect such facility at the times and in
the manner permitted by this Act.”;
(B) by redesignating subsections (b) and (c) as
subsections (c) and (d), respectively; and
(C) by inserting after subsection (a) the following:

“(b) Suspension of Registration.–
“(1) In general.–If the Secretary determines that food
manufactured, processed, packed, received, or held by a facility
registered under this section has a reasonable probability of
causing serious adverse health consequences or death to humans
or animals, the Secretary may by order suspend the registration
of a facility–
“(A) that created, caused, or was otherwise
responsible for such reasonable probability; or
“(B)(i) that knew of, or had reason to know of,
such reasonable probability; and
“(ii) packed, received, or held such food.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3888]]

“(2) Hearing on suspension. <> –The
Secretary shall provide the registrant subject to an order under
paragraph (1) with an opportunity for an informal hearing, to be
held as soon as possible but not later than 2 business days
after the issuance of the order or such other time period, as
agreed upon by the Secretary and the registrant, on the actions
required for reinstatement of registration and why the
registration that is subject to suspension should be reinstated.
The Secretary shall reinstate a registration if the Secretary
determines, based on evidence presented, that adequate grounds
do not exist to continue the suspension of the registration.
“(3) Post-hearing corrective action plan; vacating of
order.–
“(A) Corrective action plan.–If, after providing
opportunity for an informal hearing under paragraph (2),
the Secretary determines that the suspension of
registration remains necessary, the Secretary shall
require the registrant to submit a corrective action
plan to demonstrate how the registrant plans to correct
the conditions found by the
Secretary. <> The Secretary shall
review such plan not later than 14 days after the
submission of the corrective action plan or such other
time period as determined by the Secretary.
“(B) Vacating of order.–Upon a determination by
the Secretary that adequate grounds do not exist to
continue the suspension actions required by the order,
or that such actions should be modified, the Secretary
shall promptly vacate the order and reinstate the
registration of the facility subject to the order or
modify the order, as appropriate.
“(4) Effect of suspension.–If the registration of a
facility is suspended under this subsection, no person shall
import or export food into the United States from such facility,
offer to import or export food into the United States from such
facility, or otherwise introduce food from such facility into
interstate or intrastate commerce in the United States.
“(5) Regulations.–
“(A) In general.–The Secretary shall promulgate
regulations to implement this subsection. The Secretary
may promulgate such regulations on an interim final
basis.
“(B) Registration requirement.–The Secretary may
require that registration under this section be
submitted in an electronic format. Such requirement may
not take effect before the date that is 5 years after
the date of enactment of the FDA Food Safety
Modernization Act.
“(6) Application date. <> —
Facilities shall be subject to the requirements of this
subsection beginning on the earlier of–
“(A) the date on which the Secretary issues
regulations under paragraph (5); or
“(B) 180 days after the date of enactment of the
FDA Food Safety Modernization Act.
“(7) No delegation.–The authority conferred by this
subsection to issue an order to suspend a registration or vacate
an order of suspension shall not be delegated to any officer or
employee other than the Commissioner.”.
(2) <> Small entity
compliance policy guide.–Not later than 180 days after the
issuance of the regulations promulgated

[[Page 124 STAT. 3889]]

under section 415(b)(5) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic
Act (as added by this section), the Secretary shall issue a
small entity compliance policy guide setting forth in plain
language the requirements of such regulations to assist small
entities in complying with registration requirements and other
activities required under such section.
(3) Imported food.–Section 801(l) (21 U.S.C. 381(l)) is
amended by inserting “(or for which a registration has been
suspended under such section)” after “section 415”.

(c) <> Clarification of Intent.–
(1) Retail food establishment.–The Secretary shall amend
the definition of the term “retail food establishment” in
section in 1.227(b)(11) of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations
to clarify that, in determining the primary function of an
establishment or a retail food establishment under such section,
the sale of food products directly to consumers by such
establishment and the sale of food directly to consumers by such
retail food establishment include–
(A) the sale of such food products or food directly
to consumers by such establishment at a roadside stand
or farmers’ market where such stand or market is located
other than where the food was manufactured or processed;
(B) the sale and distribution of such food through a
community supported agriculture program; and
(C) the sale and distribution of such food at any
other such direct sales platform as determined by the
Secretary.
(2) Definitions.–For purposes of paragraph (1)–
(A) the term “community supported agriculture
program” has the same meaning given the term
“community supported agriculture (CSA) program” in
section 249.2 of title 7, Code of Federal Regulations
(or any successor regulation); and
(B) the term “consumer” does not include a
business.

(d) Conforming Amendments.–
(1) Section 301(d) (21 U.S.C. 331(d)) is amended by
inserting “415,” after “404,”.
(2) Section 415(d), as redesignated by subsection
(b), <> is amended by adding at the end
before the period “for a facility to be registered, except with
respect to the reinstatement of a registration that is suspended
under subsection (b)”.
SEC. 103. HAZARD ANALYSIS AND RISK-BASED PREVENTIVE CONTROLS.

(a) In General.–Chapter IV (21 U.S.C. 341 et seq.) is amended by
adding at the end the following:
“SEC. 418. <> HAZARD ANALYSIS AND RISK-BASED
PREVENTIVE CONTROLS.

“(a) In General.–The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a
facility shall, in accordance with this section, evaluate the hazards
that could affect food manufactured, processed, packed, or held by such
facility, identify and implement preventive controls to significantly
minimize or prevent the occurrence of such hazards and provide
assurances that such food is not adulterated under section 402 or
misbranded under section 403(w), monitor the performance of those
controls, and maintain records of this monitoring as a matter of routine
practice.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3890]]

“(b) Hazard Analysis.–The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a
facility shall–
“(1) identify and evaluate known or reasonably foreseeable
hazards that may be associated with the facility, including–
“(A) biological, chemical, physical, and
radiological hazards, natural toxins, pesticides, drug
residues, decomposition, parasites, allergens, and
unapproved food and color additives; and
“(B) hazards that occur naturally, or may be
unintentionally introduced; and
“(2) identify and evaluate hazards that may be
intentionally introduced, including by acts of terrorism; and
“(3) develop a written analysis of the hazards.

“(c) Preventive Controls.–The owner, operator, or agent in charge
of a facility shall identify and implement preventive controls,
including at critical control points, if any, to provide assurances
that–
“(1) hazards identified in the hazard analysis conducted
under subsection (b)(1) will be significantly minimized or
prevented;
“(2) any hazards identified in the hazard analysis
conducted under subsection (b)(2) will be significantly
minimized or prevented and addressed, consistent with section
420, as applicable; and
“(3) the food manufactured, processed, packed, or held by
such facility will not be adulterated under section 402 or
misbranded under section 403(w).

“(d) Monitoring of Effectiveness.–The owner, operator, or agent in
charge of a facility shall monitor the effectiveness of the preventive
controls implemented under subsection (c) to provide assurances that the
outcomes described in subsection (c) shall be achieved.
“(e) Corrective Actions. <> –The owner,
operator, or agent in charge of a facility shall establish procedures to
ensure that, if the preventive controls implemented under subsection (c)
are not properly implemented or are found to be ineffective–
“(1) appropriate action is taken to reduce the likelihood
of recurrence of the implementation failure;
“(2) all affected food is evaluated for safety; and
“(3) all affected food is prevented from entering into
commerce if the owner, operator or agent in charge of such
facility cannot ensure that the affected food is not adulterated
under section 402 or misbranded under section 403(w).

“(f) Verification.–The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a
facility shall verify that–
“(1) the preventive controls implemented under subsection
(c) are adequate to control the hazards identified under
subsection (b);
“(2) the owner, operator, or agent is conducting monitoring
in accordance with subsection (d);
“(3) the owner, operator, or agent is making appropriate
decisions about corrective actions taken under subsection (e);
“(4) the preventive controls implemented under subsection
(c) are effectively and significantly minimizing or preventing
the occurrence of identified hazards, including through the use
of environmental and product testing programs and other
appropriate means; and

[[Page 124 STAT. 3891]]

“(5) there is documented, periodic reanalysis of the plan
under subsection (i) to ensure that the plan is still relevant
to the raw materials, conditions and processes in the facility,
and new and emerging threats.

“(g) Recordkeeping. <> –The owner, operator,
or agent in charge of a facility shall maintain, for not less than 2
years, records documenting the monitoring of the preventive controls
implemented under subsection (c), instances of nonconformance material
to food safety, the results of testing and other appropriate means of
verification under subsection (f)(4), instances when corrective actions
were implemented, and the efficacy of preventive controls and corrective
actions.

“(h) Written Plan and Documentation.–The owner, operator, or agent
in charge of a facility shall prepare a written plan that documents and
describes the procedures used by the facility to comply with the
requirements of this section, including analyzing the hazards under
subsection (b) and identifying the preventive controls adopted under
subsection (c) to address those hazards. Such written plan, together
with the documentation described in subsection (g), shall be made
promptly available to a duly authorized representative of the Secretary
upon oral or written request.
“(i) Requirement To Reanalyze. <> –The owner,
operator, or agent in charge of a facility shall conduct a reanalysis
under subsection (b) whenever a significant change is made in the
activities conducted at a facility operated by such owner, operator, or
agent if the change creates a reasonable potential for a new hazard or a
significant increase in a previously identified hazard or not less
frequently than once every 3 years, whichever is earlier. Such
reanalysis shall be completed and additional preventive controls needed
to address the hazard identified, if any, shall be implemented before
the change in activities at the facility is operative. Such owner,
operator, or agent shall revise the written plan required under
subsection (h) if such a significant change is made or document the
basis for the conclusion that no additional or revised preventive
controls are needed. The Secretary may require a reanalysis under this
section to respond to new hazards and developments in scientific
understanding, including, as appropriate, results from the Department of
Homeland Security biological, chemical, radiological, or other terrorism
risk assessment.

“(j) Exemption for Seafood, Juice, and Low-acid Canned Food
Facilities Subject to HACCP.–
“(1) In general.–This section shall not apply to a
facility if the owner, operator, or agent in charge of such
facility is required to comply with, and is in compliance with,
1 of the following standards and regulations with respect to
such facility:
“(A) The Seafood Hazard Analysis Critical Control
Points Program of the Food and Drug Administration.
“(B) The Juice Hazard Analysis Critical Control
Points Program of the Food and Drug Administration.
“(C) The Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods
Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers standards of
the Food and Drug Administration (or any successor
standards).
“(2) Applicability.–The exemption under paragraph (1)(C)
shall apply only with respect to microbiological hazards that
are regulated under the standards for Thermally Processed

[[Page 124 STAT. 3892]]

Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers under
part 113 of chapter 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any
successor regulations).

“(k) Exception for Activities of Facilities Subject to Section
419.–This section shall not apply to activities of a facility that are
subject to section 419.
“(l) Modified Requirements for Qualified Facilities.–
“(1) Qualified facilities.–
“(A) In general.–A facility is a qualified
facility for purposes of this subsection if the facility
meets the conditions under subparagraph (B) or (C).
“(B) Very small business.–A facility is a
qualified facility under this subparagraph–
“(i) if the facility, including any
subsidiary or affiliate of the facility, is,
collectively, a very small business (as defined in
the regulations promulgated under subsection (n));
and
“(ii) in the case where the facility is a
subsidiary or affiliate of an entity, if such
subsidiaries or affiliates, are, collectively, a
very small business (as so defined).
“(C) <> Limited annual
monetary value of sales.–
“(i) In general.–A facility is a qualified
facility under this subparagraph if clause (ii)
applies–
“(I) to the facility, including any
subsidiary or affiliate of the facility,
collectively; and
“(II) to the subsidiaries or
affiliates, collectively, of any entity
of which the facility is a subsidiary or
affiliate.
“(ii) Average annual monetary value.–This
clause applies if–
“(I) during the 3-year period
preceding the applicable calendar year,
the average annual monetary value of the
food manufactured, processed, packed, or
held at such facility (or the collective
average annual monetary value of such
food at any subsidiary or affiliate, as
described in clause (i)) that is sold
directly to qualified end-users during
such period exceeded the average annual
monetary value of the food manufactured,
processed, packed, or held at such
facility (or the collective average
annual monetary value of such food at
any subsidiary or affiliate, as so
described) sold by such facility (or
collectively by any such subsidiary or
affiliate) to all other purchasers
during such period; and
“(II) the average annual monetary
value of all food sold by such facility
(or the collective average annual
monetary value of such food sold by any
subsidiary or affiliate, as described in
clause (i)) during such period was less
than $500,000, adjusted for inflation.
“(2) Exemption.–A qualified facility–
“(A) shall not be subject to the requirements under
subsections (a) through (i) and subsection (n) in an
applicable calendar year; and
“(B) shall submit to the Secretary–

[[Page 124 STAT. 3893]]

“(i)(I) documentation that demonstrates that
the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the
facility has identified potential hazards
associated with the food being produced, is
implementing preventive controls to address the
hazards, and is monitoring the preventive controls
to ensure that such controls are effective; or
“(II) documentation (which may include
licenses, inspection reports, certificates,
permits, credentials, certification by an
appropriate agency (such as a State department of
agriculture), or other evidence of oversight), as
specified by the Secretary, that the facility is
in compliance with State, local, county, or other
applicable non-Federal food safety law; and
“(ii) <> documentation, as
specified by the Secretary in a guidance document
issued not later than 1 year after the date of
enactment of this section, that the facility is a
qualified facility under paragraph (1)(B) or
(1)(C).
“(3) Withdrawal; rule of construction.–
“(A) In general.–In the event of an active
investigation of a foodborne illness outbreak that is
directly linked to a qualified facility subject to an
exemption under this subsection, or if the Secretary
determines that it is necessary to protect the public
health and prevent or mitigate a foodborne illness
outbreak based on conduct or conditions associated with
a qualified facility that are material to the safety of
the food manufactured, processed, packed, or held at
such facility, the Secretary may withdraw the exemption
provided to such facility under this subsection.
“(B) Rule of construction.–Nothing in this
subsection shall be construed to expand or limit the
inspection authority of the Secretary.
“(4) Definitions.–In this subsection:
“(A) Affiliate.–The term `affiliate’ means any
facility that controls, is controlled by, or is under
common control with another facility.
“(B) Qualified end-user.–The term `qualified end-
user’, with respect to a food, means–
“(i) the consumer of the food; or
“(ii) a restaurant or retail food
establishment (as those terms are defined by the
Secretary for purposes of section 415) that–
“(I) is located–
“(aa) in the same State as
the qualified facility that sold
the food to such restaurant or
establishment; or
“(bb) not more than 275
miles from such facility; and
“(II) is purchasing the food for
sale directly to consumers at such
restaurant or retail food establishment.
“(C) Consumer.–For purposes of subparagraph (B),
the term `consumer’ does not include a business.
“(D) Subsidiary.–The term `subsidiary’ means any
company which is owned or controlled directly or
indirectly by another company.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3894]]

“(5) Study.–
“(A) In general.–The Secretary, in consultation
with the Secretary of Agriculture, shall conduct a study
of the food processing sector regulated by the Secretary
to determine–
“(i) the distribution of food production by
type and size of operation, including monetary
value of food sold;
“(ii) the proportion of food produced by each
type and size of operation;
“(iii) the number and types of food
facilities co-located on farms, including the
number and proportion by commodity and by
manufacturing or processing activity;
“(iv) the incidence of foodborne illness
originating from each size and type of operation
and the type of food facilities for which no
reported or known hazard exists; and
“(v) the effect on foodborne illness risk
associated with commingling, processing,
transporting, and storing food and raw
agricultural commodities, including differences in
risk based on the scale and duration of such
activities.
“(B) Size.–The results of the study conducted
under subparagraph (A) shall include the information
necessary to enable the Secretary to define the terms
`small business’ and `very small business’, for purposes
of promulgating the regulation under subsection (n). In
defining such terms, the Secretary shall include
consideration of harvestable acres, income, the number
of employees, and the volume of food harvested.
“(C) Submission of report.–Not later than 18
months after the date of enactment the FDA Food Safety
Modernization Act, the Secretary shall submit to
Congress a report that describes the results of the
study conducted under subparagraph (A).
“(6) No preemption.–Nothing in this subsection preempts
State, local, county, or other non-Federal law regarding the
safe production of food. Compliance with this subsection shall
not relieve any person from liability at common law or under
State statutory law.
“(7) Notification to consumers.–
“(A) In general.–A qualified facility that is
exempt from the requirements under subsections (a)
through (i) and subsection (n) and does not prepare
documentation under paragraph (2)(B)(i)(I) shall–
“(i) with respect to a food for which a food
packaging label is required by the Secretary under
any other provision of this Act, include
prominently and conspicuously on such label the
name and business address of the facility where
the food was manufactured or processed; or
“(ii) with respect to a food for which a food
packaging label is not required by the Secretary
under any other provisions of this Act,
prominently and conspicuously display, at the
point of purchase, the name and business address
of the facility where the

[[Page 124 STAT. 3895]]

food was manufactured or processed, on a label,
poster, sign, placard, or documents delivered
contemporaneously with the food in the normal
course of business, or, in the case of Internet
sales, in an electronic notice.
“(B) No additional label.–Subparagraph (A) does
not provide authority to the Secretary to require a
label that is in addition to any label required under
any other provision of this Act.

“(m) Authority With Respect to Certain Facilities.–The Secretary
may, by regulation, exempt or modify the requirements for compliance
under this section with respect to facilities that are solely engaged in
the production of food for animals other than man, the storage of raw
agricultural commodities (other than fruits and vegetables) intended for
further distribution or processing, or the storage of packaged foods
that are not exposed to the environment.
“(n) Regulations.–
“(1) In general. <> –Not later than 18
months after the date of enactment of the FDA Food Safety
Modernization Act, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations–
“(A) to establish science-based minimum standards
for conducting a hazard analysis, documenting hazards,
implementing preventive controls, and documenting the
implementation of the preventive controls under this
section; and
“(B) to define, for purposes of this section, the
terms `small business’ and `very small business’, taking
into consideration the study described in subsection
(l)(5).
“(2) Coordination.–In promulgating the regulations under
paragraph (1)(A), with regard to hazards that may be
intentionally introduced, including by acts of terrorism, the
Secretary shall coordinate with the Secretary of Homeland
Security, as appropriate.
“(3) Content.–The regulations promulgated under paragraph
(1)(A) shall–
“(A) provide sufficient flexibility to be
practicable for all sizes and types of facilities,
including small businesses such as a small food
processing facility co-located on a farm;
“(B) comply with chapter 35 of title 44, United
States Code (commonly known as the `Paperwork Reduction
Act’), with special attention to minimizing the burden
(as defined in section 3502(2) of such Act) on the
facility, and collection of information (as defined in
section 3502(3) of such Act), associated with such
regulations;
“(C) acknowledge differences in risk and minimize,
as appropriate, the number of separate standards that
apply to separate foods; and
“(D) not require a facility to hire a consultant or
other third party to identify, implement, certify, or
audit preventative controls, except in the case of
negotiated enforcement resolutions that may require such
a consultant or third party.
“(4) Rule of construction.–Nothing in this subsection
shall be construed to provide the Secretary with the authority
to prescribe specific technologies, practices, or critical
controls for an individual facility.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3896]]

“(5) Review.–In promulgating the regulations under
paragraph (1)(A), the Secretary shall review regulatory hazard
analysis and preventive control programs in existence on the
date of enactment of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act,
including the Grade `A’ Pasteurized Milk Ordinance to ensure
that such regulations are consistent, to the extent practicable,
with applicable domestic and internationally-recognized
standards in existence on such date.

“(o) Definitions.–For purposes of this section:
“(1) Critical control point.–The term `critical control
point’ means a point, step, or procedure in a food process at
which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or
eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce such hazard to an
acceptable level.
“(2) Facility.–The term `facility’ means a domestic
facility or a foreign facility that is required to register
under section 415.
“(3) Preventive controls.–The term `preventive controls’
means those risk-based, reasonably appropriate procedures,
practices, and processes that a person knowledgeable about the
safe manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of food
would employ to significantly minimize or prevent the hazards
identified under the hazard analysis conducted under subsection
(b) and that are consistent with the current scientific
understanding of safe food manufacturing, processing, packing,
or holding at the time of the analysis. Those procedures,
practices, and processes may include the following:
“(A) Sanitation procedures for food contact
surfaces and utensils and food-contact surfaces of
equipment.
“(B) Supervisor, manager, and employee hygiene
training.
“(C) An environmental monitoring program to verify
the effectiveness of pathogen controls in processes
where a food is exposed to a potential contaminant in
the environment.
“(D) A food allergen control program.
“(E) A recall plan.
“(F) Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs)
under part 110 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations
(or any successor regulations).
“(G) Supplier verification activities that relate
to the safety of food.”.

(b) <> Guidance Document.–The Secretary
shall issue a guidance document related to the regulations promulgated
under subsection (b)(1) with respect to the hazard analysis and
preventive controls under section 418 of the Federal Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act (as added by subsection (a)).

(c) <> Rulemaking.–
(1) Proposed rulemaking.–
(A) In general. <> –Not later than 9 months after
the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of
Health and Human Services (referred to in this
subsection as the “Secretary”) shall publish a notice
of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register to
promulgate regulations with respect to–
(i) activities that constitute on-farm packing
or holding of food that is not grown, raised, or
consumed

[[Page 124 STAT. 3897]]

on such farm or another farm under the same
ownership for purposes of section 415 of the
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C.
350d), as amended by this Act; and
(ii) activities that constitute on-farm
manufacturing or processing of food that is not
consumed on that farm or on another farm under
common ownership for purposes of such section 415.
(B) Clarification.–The rulemaking described under
subparagraph (A) shall enhance the implementation of
such section 415 and clarify the activities that are
included as part of the definition of the term
“facility” under such section 415. Nothing in this Act
authorizes the Secretary to modify the definition of the
term “facility” under such section.
(C) Science-based risk analysis.–In promulgating
regulations under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall
conduct a science-based risk analysis of–
(i) specific types of on-farm packing or
holding of food that is not grown, raised, or
consumed on such farm or another farm under the
same ownership, as such packing and holding
relates to specific foods; and
(ii) specific on-farm manufacturing and
processing activities as such activities relate to
specific foods that are not consumed on that farm
or on another farm under common ownership.
(D) Authority with respect to certain facilities.–
(i) In general.–In promulgating the
regulations under subparagraph (A), the Secretary
shall consider the results of the science-based
risk analysis conducted under subparagraph (C),
and shall exempt certain facilities from the
requirements in section 418 of the Federal Food,
Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by this section),
including hazard analysis and preventive controls,
and the mandatory inspection frequency in section
421 of such Act (as added by section 201), or
modify the requirements in such sections 418 or
421, as the Secretary determines appropriate, if
such facilities are engaged only in specific types
of on-farm manufacturing, processing, packing, or
holding activities that the Secretary determines
to be low risk involving specific foods the
Secretary determines to be low risk.
(ii) Limitation. <> —
The exemptions or modifications under clause (i)
shall not include an exemption from the
requirement to register under section 415 of the
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C.
350d), as amended by this Act, if applicable, and
shall apply only to small businesses and very
small businesses, as defined in the regulation
promulgated under section 418(n) of the Federal
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added under
subsection (a)).
(2) Final regulations.–Not later than 9 months after the
close of the comment period for the proposed rulemaking under
paragraph (1), the Secretary shall adopt final rules with
respect to–

[[Page 124 STAT. 3898]]

(A) activities that constitute on-farm packing or
holding of food that is not grown, raised, or consumed
on such farm or another farm under the same ownership
for purposes of section 415 of the Federal Food, Drug,
and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 350d), as amended by this
Act;
(B) activities that constitute on-farm manufacturing
or processing of food that is not consumed on that farm
or on another farm under common ownership for purposes
of such section 415; and
(C) the requirements under sections 418 and 421 of
the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as added by
this Act, from which the Secretary may issue exemptions
or modifications of the requirements for certain types
of facilities.

(d) Small Entity Compliance Policy Guide. <> –Not later than 180 days after the issuance of the
regulations promulgated under subsection (n) of section 418 of the
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by subsection (a)), the
Secretary shall issue a small entity compliance policy guide setting
forth in plain language the requirements of such section 418 and this
section to assist small entities in complying with the hazard analysis
and other activities required under such section 418 and this section.

(e) Prohibited Acts.–Section 301 (21 U.S.C. 331) is amended by
adding at the end the following:
“(uu) The operation of a facility that manufactures, processes,
packs, or holds food for sale in the United States if the owner,
operator, or agent in charge of such facility is not in compliance with
section 418.”.
(f) <> No Effect on HACCP Authorities.–
Nothing in the amendments made by this section limits the authority of
the Secretary under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C.
301 et seq.) or the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 201 et seq.) to
revise, issue, or enforce Hazard Analysis Critical Control programs and
the Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed
Containers standards.

(g) <> Dietary
Supplements.–Nothing in the amendments made by this section shall apply
to any facility with regard to the manufacturing, processing, packing,
or holding of a dietary supplement that is in compliance with the
requirements of sections 402(g)(2) and 761 of the Federal Food, Drug,
and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 342(g)(2), 379aa-1).

(h) <> Updating Guidance Relating to Fish
and Fisheries Products Hazards and Controls. <> –The
Secretary shall, not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of
this Act, update the Fish and Fisheries Products Hazards and Control
Guidance to take into account advances in technology that have occurred
since the previous publication of such Guidance by the Secretary.

(i) <> Effective Dates.–
(1) General rule.–The amendments made by this section shall
take effect 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act.
(2) <> Flexibility
for small businesses.–Notwithstanding paragraph (1)–
(A) the amendments made by this section shall apply
to a small business (as defined in the regulations
promulgated under section 418(n) of the Federal Food,
Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by this section))
beginning on the

[[Page 124 STAT. 3899]]

date that is 6 months after the effective date of such
regulations; and
(B) the amendments made by this section shall apply
to a very small business (as defined in such
regulations) beginning on the date that is 18 months
after the effective date of such regulations.
SEC. 104. <> PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.

(a) In General. <> –The Secretary shall, in
coordination with the Secretary of Agriculture, not less frequently than
every 2 years, review and evaluate relevant health data and other
relevant information, including from toxicological and epidemiological
studies and analyses, current Good Manufacturing Practices issued by the
Secretary relating to food, and relevant recommendations of relevant
advisory committees, including the Food Advisory Committee, to determine
the most significant foodborne contaminants.

(b) Guidance Documents and Regulations.–Based on the review and
evaluation conducted under subsection (a), and when appropriate to
reduce the risk of serious illness or death to humans or animals or to
prevent adulteration of the food under section 402 of the Federal Food,
Drug, or Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 342) or to prevent the spread by food
of communicable disease under section 361 of the Public Health Service
Act (42 U.S.C. 264), the Secretary shall issue contaminant-specific and
science-based guidance documents, including guidance documents regarding
action levels, or regulations. Such guidance, including guidance
regarding action levels, or regulations–
(1) <> shall apply to products or
product classes;
(2) shall, where appropriate, differentiate between food for
human consumption and food intended for consumption by animals
other than humans; and
(3) shall not be written to be facility-specific.

(c) No Duplication of Efforts.–The Secretary shall coordinate with
the Secretary of Agriculture to avoid issuing duplicative guidance on
the same contaminants.
(d) Review.–The Secretary shall periodically review and revise, as
appropriate, the guidance documents, including guidance documents
regarding action levels, or regulations promulgated under this section.
SEC. 105. STANDARDS FOR PRODUCE SAFETY.

(a) In General.–Chapter IV (21 U.S.C. 341 et seq.), as amended by
section 103, is amended by adding at the end the following:
“SEC. 419. <> STANDARDS FOR PRODUCE SAFETY.

“(a) Proposed Rulemaking.–
“(1) In general.–
“(A)
Rulemaking. <> —
Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the
FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, the Secretary, in
coordination with the Secretary of Agriculture and
representatives of State departments of agriculture
(including with regard to the national organic program
established under the Organic Foods Production Act of
1990), and in consultation with the Secretary of
Homeland Security, shall publish a notice of proposed
rulemaking to establish science-based minimum standards
for the safe production and harvesting of those types of
fruits

[[Page 124 STAT. 3900]]

and vegetables, including specific mixes or categories
of fruits and vegetables, that are raw agricultural
commodities for which the Secretary has determined that
such standards minimize the risk of serious adverse
health consequences or death.
“(B) Determination by secretary.–With respect to
small businesses and very small businesses (as such
terms are defined in the regulation promulgated under
subparagraph (A)) that produce and harvest those types
of fruits and vegetables that are raw agricultural
commodities that the Secretary has determined are low
risk and do not present a risk of serious adverse health
consequences or death, the Secretary may determine not
to include production and harvesting of such fruits and
vegetables in such rulemaking, or may modify the
applicable requirements of regulations promulgated
pursuant to this section.
“(2) Public input.–During the comment period on the notice
of proposed rulemaking under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall
conduct not less than 3 public meetings in diverse geographical
areas of the United States to provide persons in different
regions an opportunity to comment.
“(3) Content.–The proposed rulemaking under paragraph (1)
shall–
“(A) provide sufficient flexibility to be
applicable to various types of entities engaged in the
production and harvesting of fruits and vegetables that
are raw agricultural commodities, including small
businesses and entities that sell directly to consumers,
and be appropriate to the scale and diversity of the
production and harvesting of such commodities;
“(B) include, with respect to growing, harvesting,
sorting, packing, and storage operations, science-based
minimum standards related to soil amendments, hygiene,
packaging, temperature controls, animals in the growing
area, and water;
“(C) consider hazards that occur naturally, may be
unintentionally introduced, or may be intentionally
introduced, including by acts of terrorism;
“(D) take into consideration, consistent with
ensuring enforceable public health protection,
conservation and environmental practice standards and
policies established by Federal natural resource
conservation, wildlife conservation, and environmental
agencies;
“(E) in the case of production that is certified
organic, not include any requirements that conflict with
or duplicate the requirements of the national organic
program established under the Organic Foods Production
Act of 1990, while providing the same level of public
health protection as the requirements under guidance
documents, including guidance documents regarding action
levels, and regulations under the FDA Food Safety
Modernization Act; and
“(F) define, for purposes of this section, the
terms `small business’ and `very small business’.
“(4) Prioritization.–The Secretary shall prioritize the
implementation of the regulations under this section for
specific fruits and vegetables that are raw agricultural
commodities

[[Page 124 STAT. 3901]]

based on known risks which may include a history and severity of
foodborne illness outbreaks.

“(b) Final Regulation.–
“(1) In general. <> –Not later than 1
year after the close of the comment period for the proposed
rulemaking under subsection (a), the Secretary shall adopt a
final regulation to provide for minimum science-based standards
for those types of fruits and vegetables, including specific
mixes or categories of fruits or vegetables, that are raw
agricultural commodities, based on known safety risks, which may
include a history of foodborne illness outbreaks.
“(2) Final regulation.–The final regulation shall–
“(A) provide for coordination of education and
enforcement activities by State and local officials, as
designated by the Governors of the respective States or
the appropriate elected State official as recognized by
State statute; and
“(B) include a description of the variance process
under subsection (c) and the types of permissible
variances the Secretary may grant.
“(3) Flexibility for small
businesses. <> —
Notwithstanding paragraph (1)–
“(A) the regulations promulgated under this section
shall apply to a small business (as defined in the
regulation promulgated under subsection (a)(1)) after
the date that is 1 year after the effective date of the
final regulation under paragraph (1); and
“(B) the regulations promulgated under this section
shall apply to a very small business (as defined in the
regulation promulgated under subsection (a)(1)) after
the date that is 2 years after the effective date of the
final regulation under paragraph (1).

“(c) Criteria.–
“(1) In general.–The regulations adopted under subsection
(b) shall–
“(A) set forth those procedures, processes, and
practices that the Secretary determines to minimize the
risk of serious adverse health consequences or death,
including procedures, processes, and practices that the
Secretary determines to be reasonably necessary to
prevent the introduction of known or reasonably
foreseeable biological, chemical, and physical hazards,
including hazards that occur naturally, may be
unintentionally introduced, or may be intentionally
introduced, including by acts of terrorism, into fruits
and vegetables, including specific mixes or categories
of fruits and vegetables, that are raw agricultural
commodities and to p

Published on May 23, 2013

The world’s leading Scientists, Physicians, Attorneys, Politicians and Environmental Activists expose the corruption and dangers surrounding the widespread use of Genetically Modified Organisms in the new feature length documentary, “Seeds of Death: Unveiling the Lies of GMOs”.

Senior Executive Producer / Writer / Director: Gary Null PhD
Executive Producer/Writer/Co-Director: Richard Polonetsky
Producers: Paola Bossola, Richard Gale, James Spruill, Patrick Thompson, Valerie Van Cleve
Editors: James Spruill, Patrick Thompson, Richie Williamson, Nick Palm
Music: Kevin MacLeod (Incompetech.com), Armando Guarnera
Graphics: Jay Graygor


Published on May 12, 2012
****SAVE THIS DOCUMENTARY AS AN MP4 FILE TO WATCH RATHER THAN STREAM***
1) Highlight and copy this videos URL address:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5uah8L…
2) Go to www.savetube.com
3) Paste the URL you just copied into the “VID” field and then click on VIDEO.
4) It will then give you options for download, download the MP4 file. You can then watch it without waiting for it to buffer and even better, burn it to DVD for others to see.

Americans’ right to access fresh, healthy foods of their choice is under attack. Farmageddon tells the story of small, family farms that were providing safe, healthy foods to their communities and were forced to stop, sometimes through violent ac-tion, by agents of misguided government bureaucracies, and seeks to figure out why.

Filmmaker Kristin Canty’s quest to find healthy food for her four children turned into an educational journey to discover why access to these foods was being threatened. What she found were policies that favor agribusiness and factory farms over small family-operated farms selling fresh foods to their communities. Instead of focusing on the source of food safety problems — most often the industrial food chain — policymakers and regulators implement and enforce solutions that target and often drive out of business small farms that have proven themselves more than capable of producing safe, healthy food, but buckle under the crushing weight of government regulations and excessive enforcement actions.

Farmageddon highlights the urgency of food freedom, encouraging farmers and consumers alike to take action to preserve individuals’ rights to access food of their choice and farmers’ rights to produce these foods safely and free from unreasona-bly burdensome regulations. The film serves to put policymakers and regulators on notice that there is a growing movement of people aware that their freedom to choose the foods they want is in danger, a movement that is taking action with its dollars and its voting power to protect and preserve the dwindling number of family farms that are struggling to survive.


Dear Friend,
Late last year the FDA quietly took a major step toward approving the “frankenfish,” AquaBounty’s genetically modified salmon.
Its approval would be a radical move by the FDA — the first genetically modified animal ever to enter our food supply. It’s no wonder the FDA posted its final review, clearing the way for approval, on the Friday before the Christmas holiday, when few people would notice.
The FDA is now taking public comments on its study, which is expected to lead to approval of the frankenfish. This is our last chance to keep GMO salmon off our grocery store shelves, and stop the dangerous trend of introducing GM animals into our food supply.
AquaBounty’s frankenfish is an Atlantic salmon, spliced with genes from an eel pout and growth hormone from a Chinook salmon. The result is a salmon that produces growth hormone year-round and grows twice as fast. The risks are myriad.
The fish hasn’t been proven safe for humans. But the FDA is preparing to approve it based on a limited, flawed and inadequate study — even thought the same study identified elevated allergy-causing potential,1 and elevated levels of the IGF-1 growth hormone, which is linked to colon, prostate and breast cancers. Clearly more study is needed to determine the safety or danger of GMO salmon.2
Were GMO salmon to escape its farms into the wild, the fish would pose a serious risk to wild salmon populations. The GMO salmon consume five times more food than wild salmon, and are more aggressive. Introducing these traits into the wild population would be serious — and irreversible.3
Separate from any risks, the GMO salmon are less healthy to eat — producing less of the beneficial omega-3 fatty acids than conventional salmon — and a less efficient food source — requiring 1.5 to 8 kilograms of wild fish to produce one kilogram of conventional farmed salmon.
Worse still, without GMO labeling, these frankenfish would be totally unlabeled on store shelves, and indistinguishable from other farmed salmon, so consumers will have no way of making an informed choice.
The White House knows that the public is opposed to GMO salmon and is feeling our pressure.
A recent report even documents that the White House may have delayed the release of the FDA assessment, which was completed in May, until after the election, to avoid upsetting the president’s political base.4
Significant public opposition in this comment period is our best shot at preventing approval of GMO salmon. But this is our last chance. So now is the time to make your voice heard.
Thanks for fighting for safe food.
Elijah Zarlin, Campaign Manager 
CREDO Action from Working Assets
1. “Consumers Union Says FDA Assessment of GE Salmon Is Flawed and Inadequate,” Consumers Union, 12/21/12
2. “AquAdvantage Salmon Ready for Commerce?,” Permaculture News, 9/23/10
3. “Tell the FDA: No Frankenfish,” Organic Consumers Union
4. “White House Ends Its Interference in a Scientific Review,” Slate, 12/21/12


FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE CONTACT:
Organic Consumers Association
Katherine Paul,
207.653.3090,
katherine@organicconsumers.org

FINLAND, Minn. – Nov. 12, 2012 – The Organic Consumers Association (OCA) is monitoring the ongoing vote count and election results for Prop 37, the California Right to Know Genetically Engineered Food Act. The OCA will contest the vote if results differ substantially from pre-election poll results or if there are reports of any voting irregularities, particularly in Orange and San Mateo Counties where paperless ballot systems make voting more vulnerable to fraud.

Prop 37 was defeated by 6 percentage points, 53% to 47%, according to the California Secretary of State on election night. However, as with every election, not every ballot had been counted as of midnight Nov. 6. On election night, there were still 3.3 million uncounted votes. As of November 11, the vote totals were 5,205,044 NO to 4,619,580 YES.

“The OCA, along with the California Right to Know Campaign and its attorneys, are closely monitoring the ongoing vote count process,” said Ronnie Cummins, Director of the OCA and OCF, which contributed more than $1 million to the Prop 37 campaign. “We will challenge the outcome if the final count indicates more YES than NO votes, or if the results are substantially different from our pre-election polls.”

State law requires county elections officials to report their final results to the Secretary of State by December 7. The Secretary of State has until December 14 to certify the results of the election.

The OCA hired Lake Research Partners to conduct pre-election polling for Prop 37. The final results of the polling are not yet available.

“Win or lose, Prop 37 is just the beginning,” said Cummins. “We’ve put GMO labeling on the national map, and we’ve put Big Ag and Big Food on notice: This movement is stronger than ever, and it’s not going away.”

Activists in Washington State have already collected more than half of the signatures they need to put a similar GMO labeling initiative on the ballot there in 2013. Plans are also in the works to reignite legislative attempts in Vermont and Connecticut, where laws don’t provide for citizens ballot initiatives.

The Organic Consumers Association (OCA) is an online and grassroots non-profit 501(c)3 public interest organization campaigning for health, justice, and sustainability.

The Organic Consumers Fund is a 501(c)4 allied organization of the Organic Consumers Association, focused on grassroots lobbying and legislative action.


FDA Acts on Food Safety Bill by Judith McGeary, Esq. – May 20, 2011 http://www.ftcldf.org/federal/111_Cong-S510.htm http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s111-510 http://www.ftcldf.org/fda-acts-on-food-safety-bill.htm The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently issued the first new rules under the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), meeting the initial deadlines imposed by the Act. The first rule addresses prior notice of food shipments imported from other countries. Under current law, anyone who is importing food that is subject to FDA’s jurisdiction (i.e. anything except meat, poultry, or egg products) must submit prior notification to the FDA [See 21 C.F.R. § 1.278-1.279]. The FSMA added the new requirement that such notice include “any country to which the article has been refused entry” [FSMA Sec. 304]. The FDA’s new rule amends the regulations accordingly. The second rule addresses the standard for FDA to administratively detain food. Administrative detention is a limited enforcement power — the agency can detain an article of food for no more than 30 days [See 21 C.F.R. § 1.379]. The purpose of the detention is to keep the food out of commerce while the FDA institutes a seizure or injunction action. The FSMA lowered the standard necessary for FDA to administratively detain food, from “credible evidence” that the food “presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences of death” to “reason to believe” that the food is “adulterated or misbranded.” The FDA’s recent interim rule incorporates the new, lower standard. http://youtu.be/OddINatuAXw http://youtu.be/b27EFldZ17k http://www.ftcldf.org/fda-acts-on-food-safety-http://www.govtrack.us/congress/billtext.xpd?bill=h111-875 H. R. 875 http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s111-510 http://www.ftcldf.org/fda-acts-on-food-safety-bill.htmhttp://www.ftcldf.org/federal/111_Cong-S510.htm [111th Congress Public Law 353]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]

[[Page 124 STAT. 3885]]

Public Law 111-353
111th Congress

An Act

To amend the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act with respect to the
safety of the food supply. <>

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled, <>
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; REFERENCES; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

(a) <> Short Title.–This Act may be cited
as the “FDA Food Safety Modernization Act”.

(b) References.–Except as otherwise specified, whenever in this Act
an amendment is expressed in terms of an amendment to a section or other
provision, the reference shall be considered to be made to a section or
other provision of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C.
301 et seq.).
(c) Table of Contents.–The table of contents for this Act is as
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; references; table of contents.

TITLE I–IMPROVING CAPACITY TO PREVENT FOOD SAFETY PROBLEMS

Sec. 101. Inspections of records.
Sec. 102. Registration of food facilities.
Sec. 103. Hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls.
Sec. 104. Performance standards.
Sec. 105. Standards for produce safety.
Sec. 106. Protection against intentional adulteration.
Sec. 107. Authority to collect fees.
Sec. 108. National agriculture and food defense strategy.
Sec. 109. Food and Agriculture Coordinating Councils.
Sec. 110. Building domestic capacity.
Sec. 111. Sanitary transportation of food.
Sec. 112. Food allergy and anaphylaxis management.
Sec. 113. New dietary ingredients.
Sec. 114. Requirement for guidance relating to post harvest processing
of raw oysters.
Sec. 115. Port shopping.
Sec. 116. Alcohol-related facilities.

TITLE II–IMPROVING CAPACITY TO DETECT AND RESPOND TO FOOD SAFETY
PROBLEMS

Sec. 201. Targeting of inspection resources for domestic facilities,
foreign facilities, and ports of entry; annual report.
Sec. 202. Laboratory accreditation for analyses of foods.
Sec. 203. Integrated consortium of laboratory networks.
Sec. 204. Enhancing tracking and tracing of food and recordkeeping.
Sec. 205. Surveillance.
Sec. 206. Mandatory recall authority.
Sec. 207. Administrative detention of food.
Sec. 208. Decontamination and disposal standards and plans.
Sec. 209. Improving the training of State, local, territorial, and
tribal food safety officials.
Sec. 210. Enhancing food safety.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3886]]

Sec. 211. Improving the reportable food registry.

TITLE III–IMPROVING THE SAFETY OF IMPORTED FOOD

Sec. 301. Foreign supplier verification program.
Sec. 302. Voluntary qualified importer program.
Sec. 303. Authority to require import certifications for food.
Sec. 304. Prior notice of imported food shipments.
Sec. 305. Building capacity of foreign governments with respect to food
safety.
Sec. 306. Inspection of foreign food facilities.
Sec. 307. Accreditation of third-party auditors.
Sec. 308. Foreign offices of the Food and Drug Administration.
Sec. 309. Smuggled food.

TITLE IV–MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Sec. 401. Funding for food safety.
Sec. 402. Employee protections.
Sec. 403. Jurisdiction; authorities.
Sec. 404. Compliance with international agreements.
Sec. 405. Determination of budgetary effects.

TITLE I–IMPROVING CAPACITY TO PREVENT FOOD SAFETY PROBLEMS

SEC. 101. INSPECTIONS OF RECORDS.

(a) In General.–Section 414(a) (21 U.S.C. 350c(a)) is amended–
(1) by striking the heading and all that follows through
“of food is” and inserting the following: “Records
Inspection.–
“(1) Adulterated food.–If the Secretary has a reasonable
belief that an article of food, and any other article of food
that the Secretary reasonably believes is likely to be affected
in a similar manner, is”;
(2) by inserting “, and to any other article of food that
the Secretary reasonably believes is likely to be affected in a
similar manner,” after “relating to such article”;
(3) by striking the last sentence; and
(4) by inserting at the end the following:
“(2) Use of or exposure to food of
concern. <> –If the Secretary believes that
there is a reasonable probability that the use of or exposure to
an article of food, and any other article of food that the
Secretary reasonably believes is likely to be affected in a
similar manner, will cause serious adverse health consequences
or death to humans or animals, each person (excluding farms and
restaurants) who manufactures, processes, packs, distributes,
receives, holds, or imports such article shall, at the request
of an officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary,
permit such officer or employee, upon presentation of
appropriate credentials and a written notice to such person, at
reasonable times and within reasonable limits and in a
reasonable manner, to have access to and copy all records
relating to such article and to any other article of food that
the Secretary reasonably believes is likely to be affected in a
similar manner, that are needed to assist the Secretary in
determining whether there is a reasonable probability that the
use of or exposure to the food will cause serious adverse health
consequences or death to humans or animals.
“(3) Application.–The requirement under paragraphs (1) and
(2) applies to all records relating to the manufacture,
processing, packing, distribution, receipt, holding, or
importation of such article maintained by or on behalf of such
person

[[Page 124 STAT. 3887]]

in any format (including paper and electronic formats) and at
any location.”.

(b) Conforming Amendment.–Section 704(a)(1)(B) (21 U.S.C.
374(a)(1)(B)) is amended by striking “section 414 when” and all that
follows through “subject to” and inserting “section 414, when the
standard for records inspection under paragraph (1) or (2) of section
414(a) applies, subject to”.
SEC. 102. REGISTRATION OF FOOD FACILITIES.

(a) Updating of Food Category Regulations; Biennial Registration
Renewal.–Section 415(a) (21 U.S.C. 350d(a)) is amended–
(1) in paragraph (2), by–
(A) striking “conducts business and” and inserting
“conducts business, the e-mail address for the contact
person of the facility or, in the case of a foreign
facility, the United States agent for the facility,
and”; and
(B) inserting “, or any other food categories as
determined appropriate by the Secretary, including by
guidance” after “Code of Federal Regulations”;
(2) by redesignating paragraphs (3) and (4) as paragraphs
(4) and (5), respectively; and
(3) by inserting after paragraph (2) the following:
“(3) Biennial registration renewal. <> –During the period beginning on October 1 and ending
on December 31 of each even-numbered year, a registrant that has
submitted a registration under paragraph (1) shall submit to the
Secretary a renewal registration containing the information
described in paragraph (2). The Secretary shall provide for an
abbreviated registration renewal process for any registrant that
has not had any changes to such information since the registrant
submitted the preceding registration or registration renewal for
the facility involved.”.

(b) Suspension of Registration.–
(1) In general.–Section 415 (21 U.S.C. 350d) is amended–
(A) in subsection (a)(2), by inserting after the
first sentence the following: “The registration shall
contain an assurance that the Secretary will be
permitted to inspect such facility at the times and in
the manner permitted by this Act.”;
(B) by redesignating subsections (b) and (c) as
subsections (c) and (d), respectively; and
(C) by inserting after subsection (a) the following:

“(b) Suspension of Registration.–
“(1) In general.–If the Secretary determines that food
manufactured, processed, packed, received, or held by a facility
registered under this section has a reasonable probability of
causing serious adverse health consequences or death to humans
or animals, the Secretary may by order suspend the registration
of a facility–
“(A) that created, caused, or was otherwise
responsible for such reasonable probability; or
“(B)(i) that knew of, or had reason to know of,
such reasonable probability; and
“(ii) packed, received, or held such food.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3888]]

“(2) Hearing on suspension. <> –The
Secretary shall provide the registrant subject to an order under
paragraph (1) with an opportunity for an informal hearing, to be
held as soon as possible but not later than 2 business days
after the issuance of the order or such other time period, as
agreed upon by the Secretary and the registrant, on the actions
required for reinstatement of registration and why the
registration that is subject to suspension should be reinstated.
The Secretary shall reinstate a registration if the Secretary
determines, based on evidence presented, that adequate grounds
do not exist to continue the suspension of the registration.
“(3) Post-hearing corrective action plan; vacating of
order.–
“(A) Corrective action plan.–If, after providing
opportunity for an informal hearing under paragraph (2),
the Secretary determines that the suspension of
registration remains necessary, the Secretary shall
require the registrant to submit a corrective action
plan to demonstrate how the registrant plans to correct
the conditions found by the
Secretary. <> The Secretary shall
review such plan not later than 14 days after the
submission of the corrective action plan or such other
time period as determined by the Secretary.
“(B) Vacating of order.–Upon a determination by
the Secretary that adequate grounds do not exist to
continue the suspension actions required by the order,
or that such actions should be modified, the Secretary
shall promptly vacate the order and reinstate the
registration of the facility subject to the order or
modify the order, as appropriate.
“(4) Effect of suspension.–If the registration of a
facility is suspended under this subsection, no person shall
import or export food into the United States from such facility,
offer to import or export food into the United States from such
facility, or otherwise introduce food from such facility into
interstate or intrastate commerce in the United States.
“(5) Regulations.–
“(A) In general.–The Secretary shall promulgate
regulations to implement this subsection. The Secretary
may promulgate such regulations on an interim final
basis.
“(B) Registration requirement.–The Secretary may
require that registration under this section be
submitted in an electronic format. Such requirement may
not take effect before the date that is 5 years after
the date of enactment of the FDA Food Safety
Modernization Act.
“(6) Application date. <> —
Facilities shall be subject to the requirements of this
subsection beginning on the earlier of–
“(A) the date on which the Secretary issues
regulations under paragraph (5); or
“(B) 180 days after the date of enactment of the
FDA Food Safety Modernization Act.
“(7) No delegation.–The authority conferred by this
subsection to issue an order to suspend a registration or vacate
an order of suspension shall not be delegated to any officer or
employee other than the Commissioner.”.
(2) <> Small entity
compliance policy guide.–Not later than 180 days after the
issuance of the regulations promulgated

[[Page 124 STAT. 3889]]

under section 415(b)(5) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic
Act (as added by this section), the Secretary shall issue a
small entity compliance policy guide setting forth in plain
language the requirements of such regulations to assist small
entities in complying with registration requirements and other
activities required under such section.
(3) Imported food.–Section 801(l) (21 U.S.C. 381(l)) is
amended by inserting “(or for which a registration has been
suspended under such section)” after “section 415”.

(c) <> Clarification of Intent.–
(1) Retail food establishment.–The Secretary shall amend
the definition of the term “retail food establishment” in
section in 1.227(b)(11) of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations
to clarify that, in determining the primary function of an
establishment or a retail food establishment under such section,
the sale of food products directly to consumers by such
establishment and the sale of food directly to consumers by such
retail food establishment include–
(A) the sale of such food products or food directly
to consumers by such establishment at a roadside stand
or farmers’ market where such stand or market is located
other than where the food was manufactured or processed;
(B) the sale and distribution of such food through a
community supported agriculture program; and
(C) the sale and distribution of such food at any
other such direct sales platform as determined by the
Secretary.
(2) Definitions.–For purposes of paragraph (1)–
(A) the term “community supported agriculture
program” has the same meaning given the term
“community supported agriculture (CSA) program” in
section 249.2 of title 7, Code of Federal Regulations
(or any successor regulation); and
(B) the term “consumer” does not include a
business.

(d) Conforming Amendments.–
(1) Section 301(d) (21 U.S.C. 331(d)) is amended by
inserting “415,” after “404,”.
(2) Section 415(d), as redesignated by subsection
(b), <> is amended by adding at the end
before the period “for a facility to be registered, except with
respect to the reinstatement of a registration that is suspended
under subsection (b)”.
SEC. 103. HAZARD ANALYSIS AND RISK-BASED PREVENTIVE CONTROLS.

(a) In General.–Chapter IV (21 U.S.C. 341 et seq.) is amended by
adding at the end the following:
“SEC. 418. <> HAZARD ANALYSIS AND RISK-BASED
PREVENTIVE CONTROLS.

“(a) In General.–The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a
facility shall, in accordance with this section, evaluate the hazards
that could affect food manufactured, processed, packed, or held by such
facility, identify and implement preventive controls to significantly
minimize or prevent the occurrence of such hazards and provide
assurances that such food is not adulterated under section 402 or
misbranded under section 403(w), monitor the performance of those
controls, and maintain records of this monitoring as a matter of routine
practice.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3890]]

“(b) Hazard Analysis.–The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a
facility shall–
“(1) identify and evaluate known or reasonably foreseeable
hazards that may be associated with the facility, including–
“(A) biological, chemical, physical, and
radiological hazards, natural toxins, pesticides, drug
residues, decomposition, parasites, allergens, and
unapproved food and color additives; and
“(B) hazards that occur naturally, or may be
unintentionally introduced; and
“(2) identify and evaluate hazards that may be
intentionally introduced, including by acts of terrorism; and
“(3) develop a written analysis of the hazards.

“(c) Preventive Controls.–The owner, operator, or agent in charge
of a facility shall identify and implement preventive controls,
including at critical control points, if any, to provide assurances
that–
“(1) hazards identified in the hazard analysis conducted
under subsection (b)(1) will be significantly minimized or
prevented;
“(2) any hazards identified in the hazard analysis
conducted under subsection (b)(2) will be significantly
minimized or prevented and addressed, consistent with section
420, as applicable; and
“(3) the food manufactured, processed, packed, or held by
such facility will not be adulterated under section 402 or
misbranded under section 403(w).

“(d) Monitoring of Effectiveness.–The owner, operator, or agent in
charge of a facility shall monitor the effectiveness of the preventive
controls implemented under subsection (c) to provide assurances that the
outcomes described in subsection (c) shall be achieved.
“(e) Corrective Actions. <> –The owner,
operator, or agent in charge of a facility shall establish procedures to
ensure that, if the preventive controls implemented under subsection (c)
are not properly implemented or are found to be ineffective–
“(1) appropriate action is taken to reduce the likelihood
of recurrence of the implementation failure;
“(2) all affected food is evaluated for safety; and
“(3) all affected food is prevented from entering into
commerce if the owner, operator or agent in charge of such
facility cannot ensure that the affected food is not adulterated
under section 402 or misbranded under section 403(w).

“(f) Verification.–The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a
facility shall verify that–
“(1) the preventive controls implemented under subsection
(c) are adequate to control the hazards identified under
subsection (b);
“(2) the owner, operator, or agent is conducting monitoring
in accordance with subsection (d);
“(3) the owner, operator, or agent is making appropriate
decisions about corrective actions taken under subsection (e);
“(4) the preventive controls implemented under subsection
(c) are effectively and significantly minimizing or preventing
the occurrence of identified hazards, including through the use
of environmental and product testing programs and other
appropriate means; and

[[Page 124 STAT. 3891]]

“(5) there is documented, periodic reanalysis of the plan
under subsection (i) to ensure that the plan is still relevant
to the raw materials, conditions and processes in the facility,
and new and emerging threats.

“(g) Recordkeeping. <> –The owner, operator,
or agent in charge of a facility shall maintain, for not less than 2
years, records documenting the monitoring of the preventive controls
implemented under subsection (c), instances of nonconformance material
to food safety, the results of testing and other appropriate means of
verification under subsection (f)(4), instances when corrective actions
were implemented, and the efficacy of preventive controls and corrective
actions.

“(h) Written Plan and Documentation.–The owner, operator, or agent
in charge of a facility shall prepare a written plan that documents and
describes the procedures used by the facility to comply with the
requirements of this section, including analyzing the hazards under
subsection (b) and identifying the preventive controls adopted under
subsection (c) to address those hazards. Such written plan, together
with the documentation described in subsection (g), shall be made
promptly available to a duly authorized representative of the Secretary
upon oral or written request.
“(i) Requirement To Reanalyze. <> –The owner,
operator, or agent in charge of a facility shall conduct a reanalysis
under subsection (b) whenever a significant change is made in the
activities conducted at a facility operated by such owner, operator, or
agent if the change creates a reasonable potential for a new hazard or a
significant increase in a previously identified hazard or not less
frequently than once every 3 years, whichever is earlier. Such
reanalysis shall be completed and additional preventive controls needed
to address the hazard identified, if any, shall be implemented before
the change in activities at the facility is operative. Such owner,
operator, or agent shall revise the written plan required under
subsection (h) if such a significant change is made or document the
basis for the conclusion that no additional or revised preventive
controls are needed. The Secretary may require a reanalysis under this
section to respond to new hazards and developments in scientific
understanding, including, as appropriate, results from the Department of
Homeland Security biological, chemical, radiological, or other terrorism
risk assessment.

“(j) Exemption for Seafood, Juice, and Low-acid Canned Food
Facilities Subject to HACCP.–
“(1) In general.–This section shall not apply to a
facility if the owner, operator, or agent in charge of such
facility is required to comply with, and is in compliance with,
1 of the following standards and regulations with respect to
such facility:
“(A) The Seafood Hazard Analysis Critical Control
Points Program of the Food and Drug Administration.
“(B) The Juice Hazard Analysis Critical Control
Points Program of the Food and Drug Administration.
“(C) The Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods
Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers standards of
the Food and Drug Administration (or any successor
standards).
“(2) Applicability.–The exemption under paragraph (1)(C)
shall apply only with respect to microbiological hazards that
are regulated under the standards for Thermally Processed

[[Page 124 STAT. 3892]]

Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers under
part 113 of chapter 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any
successor regulations).

“(k) Exception for Activities of Facilities Subject to Section
419.–This section shall not apply to activities of a facility that are
subject to section 419.
“(l) Modified Requirements for Qualified Facilities.–
“(1) Qualified facilities.–
“(A) In general.–A facility is a qualified
facility for purposes of this subsection if the facility
meets the conditions under subparagraph (B) or (C).
“(B) Very small business.–A facility is a
qualified facility under this subparagraph–
“(i) if the facility, including any
subsidiary or affiliate of the facility, is,
collectively, a very small business (as defined in
the regulations promulgated under subsection (n));
and
“(ii) in the case where the facility is a
subsidiary or affiliate of an entity, if such
subsidiaries or affiliates, are, collectively, a
very small business (as so defined).
“(C) <> Limited annual
monetary value of sales.–
“(i) In general.–A facility is a qualified
facility under this subparagraph if clause (ii)
applies–
“(I) to the facility, including any
subsidiary or affiliate of the facility,
collectively; and
“(II) to the subsidiaries or
affiliates, collectively, of any entity
of which the facility is a subsidiary or
affiliate.
“(ii) Average annual monetary value.–This
clause applies if–
“(I) during the 3-year period
preceding the applicable calendar year,
the average annual monetary value of the
food manufactured, processed, packed, or
held at such facility (or the collective
average annual monetary value of such
food at any subsidiary or affiliate, as
described in clause (i)) that is sold
directly to qualified end-users during
such period exceeded the average annual
monetary value of the food manufactured,
processed, packed, or held at such
facility (or the collective average
annual monetary value of such food at
any subsidiary or affiliate, as so
described) sold by such facility (or
collectively by any such subsidiary or
affiliate) to all other purchasers
during such period; and
“(II) the average annual monetary
value of all food sold by such facility
(or the collective average annual
monetary value of such food sold by any
subsidiary or affiliate, as described in
clause (i)) during such period was less
than $500,000, adjusted for inflation.
“(2) Exemption.–A qualified facility–
“(A) shall not be subject to the requirements under
subsections (a) through (i) and subsection (n) in an
applicable calendar year; and
“(B) shall submit to the Secretary–

[[Page 124 STAT. 3893]]

“(i)(I) documentation that demonstrates that
the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the
facility has identified potential hazards
associated with the food being produced, is
implementing preventive controls to address the
hazards, and is monitoring the preventive controls
to ensure that such controls are effective; or
“(II) documentation (which may include
licenses, inspection reports, certificates,
permits, credentials, certification by an
appropriate agency (such as a State department of
agriculture), or other evidence of oversight), as
specified by the Secretary, that the facility is
in compliance with State, local, county, or other
applicable non-Federal food safety law; and
“(ii) <> documentation, as
specified by the Secretary in a guidance document
issued not later than 1 year after the date of
enactment of this section, that the facility is a
qualified facility under paragraph (1)(B) or
(1)(C).
“(3) Withdrawal; rule of construction.–
“(A) In general.–In the event of an active
investigation of a foodborne illness outbreak that is
directly linked to a qualified facility subject to an
exemption under this subsection, or if the Secretary
determines that it is necessary to protect the public
health and prevent or mitigate a foodborne illness
outbreak based on conduct or conditions associated with
a qualified facility that are material to the safety of
the food manufactured, processed, packed, or held at
such facility, the Secretary may withdraw the exemption
provided to such facility under this subsection.
“(B) Rule of construction.–Nothing in this
subsection shall be construed to expand or limit the
inspection authority of the Secretary.
“(4) Definitions.–In this subsection:
“(A) Affiliate.–The term `affiliate’ means any
facility that controls, is controlled by, or is under
common control with another facility.
“(B) Qualified end-user.–The term `qualified end-
user’, with respect to a food, means–
“(i) the consumer of the food; or
“(ii) a restaurant or retail food
establishment (as those terms are defined by the
Secretary for purposes of section 415) that–
“(I) is located–
“(aa) in the same State as
the qualified facility that sold
the food to such restaurant or
establishment; or
“(bb) not more than 275
miles from such facility; and
“(II) is purchasing the food for
sale directly to consumers at such
restaurant or retail food establishment.
“(C) Consumer.–For purposes of subparagraph (B),
the term `consumer’ does not include a business.
“(D) Subsidiary.–The term `subsidiary’ means any
company which is owned or controlled directly or
indirectly by another company.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3894]]

“(5) Study.–
“(A) In general.–The Secretary, in consultation
with the Secretary of Agriculture, shall conduct a study
of the food processing sector regulated by the Secretary
to determine–
“(i) the distribution of food production by
type and size of operation, including monetary
value of food sold;
“(ii) the proportion of food produced by each
type and size of operation;
“(iii) the number and types of food
facilities co-located on farms, including the
number and proportion by commodity and by
manufacturing or processing activity;
“(iv) the incidence of foodborne illness
originating from each size and type of operation
and the type of food facilities for which no
reported or known hazard exists; and
“(v) the effect on foodborne illness risk
associated with commingling, processing,
transporting, and storing food and raw
agricultural commodities, including differences in
risk based on the scale and duration of such
activities.
“(B) Size.–The results of the study conducted
under subparagraph (A) shall include the information
necessary to enable the Secretary to define the terms
`small business’ and `very small business’, for purposes
of promulgating the regulation under subsection (n). In
defining such terms, the Secretary shall include
consideration of harvestable acres, income, the number
of employees, and the volume of food harvested.
“(C) Submission of report.–Not later than 18
months after the date of enactment the FDA Food Safety
Modernization Act, the Secretary shall submit to
Congress a report that describes the results of the
study conducted under subparagraph (A).
“(6) No preemption.–Nothing in this subsection preempts
State, local, county, or other non-Federal law regarding the
safe production of food. Compliance with this subsection shall
not relieve any person from liability at common law or under
State statutory law.
“(7) Notification to consumers.–
“(A) In general.–A qualified facility that is
exempt from the requirements under subsections (a)
through (i) and subsection (n) and does not prepare
documentation under paragraph (2)(B)(i)(I) shall–
“(i) with respect to a food for which a food
packaging label is required by the Secretary under
any other provision of this Act, include
prominently and conspicuously on such label the
name and business address of the facility where
the food was manufactured or processed; or
“(ii) with respect to a food for which a food
packaging label is not required by the Secretary
under any other provisions of this Act,
prominently and conspicuously display, at the
point of purchase, the name and business address
of the facility where the

[[Page 124 STAT. 3895]]

food was manufactured or processed, on a label,
poster, sign, placard, or documents delivered
contemporaneously with the food in the normal
course of business, or, in the case of Internet
sales, in an electronic notice.
“(B) No additional label.–Subparagraph (A) does
not provide authority to the Secretary to require a
label that is in addition to any label required under
any other provision of this Act.

“(m) Authority With Respect to Certain Facilities.–The Secretary
may, by regulation, exempt or modify the requirements for compliance
under this section with respect to facilities that are solely engaged in
the production of food for animals other than man, the storage of raw
agricultural commodities (other than fruits and vegetables) intended for
further distribution or processing, or the storage of packaged foods
that are not exposed to the environment.
“(n) Regulations.–
“(1) In general. <> –Not later than 18
months after the date of enactment of the FDA Food Safety
Modernization Act, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations–
“(A) to establish science-based minimum standards
for conducting a hazard analysis, documenting hazards,
implementing preventive controls, and documenting the
implementation of the preventive controls under this
section; and
“(B) to define, for purposes of this section, the
terms `small business’ and `very small business’, taking
into consideration the study described in subsection
(l)(5).
“(2) Coordination.–In promulgating the regulations under
paragraph (1)(A), with regard to hazards that may be
intentionally introduced, including by acts of terrorism, the
Secretary shall coordinate with the Secretary of Homeland
Security, as appropriate.
“(3) Content.–The regulations promulgated under paragraph
(1)(A) shall–
“(A) provide sufficient flexibility to be
practicable for all sizes and types of facilities,
including small businesses such as a small food
processing facility co-located on a farm;
“(B) comply with chapter 35 of title 44, United
States Code (commonly known as the `Paperwork Reduction
Act’), with special attention to minimizing the burden
(as defined in section 3502(2) of such Act) on the
facility, and collection of information (as defined in
section 3502(3) of such Act), associated with such
regulations;
“(C) acknowledge differences in risk and minimize,
as appropriate, the number of separate standards that
apply to separate foods; and
“(D) not require a facility to hire a consultant or
other third party to identify, implement, certify, or
audit preventative controls, except in the case of
negotiated enforcement resolutions that may require such
a consultant or third party.
“(4) Rule of construction.–Nothing in this subsection
shall be construed to provide the Secretary with the authority
to prescribe specific technologies, practices, or critical
controls for an individual facility.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3896]]

“(5) Review.–In promulgating the regulations under
paragraph (1)(A), the Secretary shall review regulatory hazard
analysis and preventive control programs in existence on the
date of enactment of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act,
including the Grade `A’ Pasteurized Milk Ordinance to ensure
that such regulations are consistent, to the extent practicable,
with applicable domestic and internationally-recognized
standards in existence on such date.

“(o) Definitions.–For purposes of this section:
“(1) Critical control point.–The term `critical control
point’ means a point, step, or procedure in a food process at
which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or
eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce such hazard to an
acceptable level.
“(2) Facility.–The term `facility’ means a domestic
facility or a foreign facility that is required to register
under section 415.
“(3) Preventive controls.–The term `preventive controls’
means those risk-based, reasonably appropriate procedures,
practices, and processes that a person knowledgeable about the
safe manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of food
would employ to significantly minimize or prevent the hazards
identified under the hazard analysis conducted under subsection
(b) and that are consistent with the current scientific
understanding of safe food manufacturing, processing, packing,
or holding at the time of the analysis. Those procedures,
practices, and processes may include the following:
“(A) Sanitation procedures for food contact
surfaces and utensils and food-contact surfaces of
equipment.
“(B) Supervisor, manager, and employee hygiene
training.
“(C) An environmental monitoring program to verify
the effectiveness of pathogen controls in processes
where a food is exposed to a potential contaminant in
the environment.
“(D) A food allergen control program.
“(E) A recall plan.
“(F) Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs)
under part 110 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations
(or any successor regulations).
“(G) Supplier verification activities that relate
to the safety of food.”.

(b) <> Guidance Document.–The Secretary
shall issue a guidance document related to the regulations promulgated
under subsection (b)(1) with respect to the hazard analysis and
preventive controls under section 418 of the Federal Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act (as added by subsection (a)).

(c) <> Rulemaking.–
(1) Proposed rulemaking.–
(A) In general. <> –Not later than 9 months after
the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of
Health and Human Services (referred to in this
subsection as the “Secretary”) shall publish a notice
of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register to
promulgate regulations with respect to–
(i) activities that constitute on-farm packing
or holding of food that is not grown, raised, or
consumed

[[Page 124 STAT. 3897]]

on such farm or another farm under the same
ownership for purposes of section 415 of the
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C.
350d), as amended by this Act; and
(ii) activities that constitute on-farm
manufacturing or processing of food that is not
consumed on that farm or on another farm under
common ownership for purposes of such section 415.
(B) Clarification.–The rulemaking described under
subparagraph (A) shall enhance the implementation of
such section 415 and clarify the activities that are
included as part of the definition of the term
“facility” under such section 415. Nothing in this Act
authorizes the Secretary to modify the definition of the
term “facility” under such section.
(C) Science-based risk analysis.–In promulgating
regulations under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall
conduct a science-based risk analysis of–
(i) specific types of on-farm packing or
holding of food that is not grown, raised, or
consumed on such farm or another farm under the
same ownership, as such packing and holding
relates to specific foods; and
(ii) specific on-farm manufacturing and
processing activities as such activities relate to
specific foods that are not consumed on that farm
or on another farm under common ownership.
(D) Authority with respect to certain facilities.–
(i) In general.–In promulgating the
regulations under subparagraph (A), the Secretary
shall consider the results of the science-based
risk analysis conducted under subparagraph (C),
and shall exempt certain facilities from the
requirements in section 418 of the Federal Food,
Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by this section),
including hazard analysis and preventive controls,
and the mandatory inspection frequency in section
421 of such Act (as added by section 201), or
modify the requirements in such sections 418 or
421, as the Secretary determines appropriate, if
such facilities are engaged only in specific types
of on-farm manufacturing, processing, packing, or
holding activities that the Secretary determines
to be low risk involving specific foods the
Secretary determines to be low risk.
(ii) Limitation. <> —
The exemptions or modifications under clause (i)
shall not include an exemption from the
requirement to register under section 415 of the
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C.
350d), as amended by this Act, if applicable, and
shall apply only to small businesses and very
small businesses, as defined in the regulation
promulgated under section 418(n) of the Federal
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added under
subsection (a)).
(2) Final regulations.–Not later than 9 months after the
close of the comment period for the proposed rulemaking under
paragraph (1), the Secretary shall adopt final rules with
respect to–

[[Page 124 STAT. 3898]]

(A) activities that constitute on-farm packing or
holding of food that is not grown, raised, or consumed
on such farm or another farm under the same ownership
for purposes of section 415 of the Federal Food, Drug,
and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 350d), as amended by this
Act;
(B) activities that constitute on-farm manufacturing
or processing of food that is not consumed on that farm
or on another farm under common ownership for purposes
of such section 415; and
(C) the requirements under sections 418 and 421 of
the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as added by
this Act, from which the Secretary may issue exemptions
or modifications of the requirements for certain types
of facilities.

(d) Small Entity Compliance Policy Guide. <> –Not later than 180 days after the issuance of the
regulations promulgated under subsection (n) of section 418 of the
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by subsection (a)), the
Secretary shall issue a small entity compliance policy guide setting
forth in plain language the requirements of such section 418 and this
section to assist small entities in complying with the hazard analysis
and other activities required under such section 418 and this section.

(e) Prohibited Acts.–Section 301 (21 U.S.C. 331) is amended by
adding at the end the following:
“(uu) The operation of a facility that manufactures, processes,
packs, or holds food for sale in the United States if the owner,
operator, or agent in charge of such facility is not in compliance with
section 418.”.
(f) <> No Effect on HACCP Authorities.–
Nothing in the amendments made by this section limits the authority of
the Secretary under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C.
301 et seq.) or the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 201 et seq.) to
revise, issue, or enforce Hazard Analysis Critical Control programs and
the Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed
Containers standards.

(g) <> Dietary
Supplements.–Nothing in the amendments made by this section shall apply
to any facility with regard to the manufacturing, processing, packing,
or holding of a dietary supplement that is in compliance with the
requirements of sections 402(g)(2) and 761 of the Federal Food, Drug,
and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 342(g)(2), 379aa-1).

(h) <> Updating Guidance Relating to Fish
and Fisheries Products Hazards and Controls. <> –The
Secretary shall, not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of
this Act, update the Fish and Fisheries Products Hazards and Control
Guidance to take into account advances in technology that have occurred
since the previous publication of such Guidance by the Secretary.

(i) <> Effective Dates.–
(1) General rule.–The amendments made by this section shall
take effect 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act.
(2) <> Flexibility
for small businesses.–Notwithstanding paragraph (1)–
(A) the amendments made by this section shall apply
to a small business (as defined in the regulations
promulgated under section 418(n) of the Federal Food,
Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by this section))
beginning on the

[[Page 124 STAT. 3899]]

date that is 6 months after the effective date of such
regulations; and
(B) the amendments made by this section shall apply
to a very small business (as defined in such
regulations) beginning on the date that is 18 months
after the effective date of such regulations.
SEC. 104. <> PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.

(a) In General. <> –The Secretary shall, in
coordination with the Secretary of Agriculture, not less frequently than
every 2 years, review and evaluate relevant health data and other
relevant information, including from toxicological and epidemiological
studies and analyses, current Good Manufacturing Practices issued by the
Secretary relating to food, and relevant recommendations of relevant
advisory committees, including the Food Advisory Committee, to determine
the most significant foodborne contaminants.

(b) Guidance Documents and Regulations.–Based on the review and
evaluation conducted under subsection (a), and when appropriate to
reduce the risk of serious illness or death to humans or animals or to
prevent adulteration of the food under section 402 of the Federal Food,
Drug, or Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 342) or to prevent the spread by food
of communicable disease under section 361 of the Public Health Service
Act (42 U.S.C. 264), the Secretary shall issue contaminant-specific and
science-based guidance documents, including guidance documents regarding
action levels, or regulations. Such guidance, including guidance
regarding action levels, or regulations–
(1) <> shall apply to products or
product classes;
(2) shall, where appropriate, differentiate between food for
human consumption and food intended for consumption by animals
other than humans; and
(3) shall not be written to be facility-specific.

(c) No Duplication of Efforts.–The Secretary shall coordinate with
the Secretary of Agriculture to avoid issuing duplicative guidance on
the same contaminants.
(d) Review.–The Secretary shall periodically review and revise, as
appropriate, the guidance documents, including guidance documents
regarding action levels, or regulations promulgated under this section.
SEC. 105. STANDARDS FOR PRODUCE SAFETY.

(a) In General.–Chapter IV (21 U.S.C. 341 et seq.), as amended by
section 103, is amended by adding at the end the following:
“SEC. 419. <> STANDARDS FOR PRODUCE SAFETY.

“(a) Proposed Rulemaking.–
“(1) In general.–
“(A)
Rulemaking. <> —
Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the
FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, the Secretary, in
coordination with the Secretary of Agriculture and
representatives of State departments of agriculture
(including with regard to the national organic program
established under the Organic Foods Production Act of
1990), and in consultation with the Secretary of
Homeland Security, shall publish a notice of proposed
rulemaking to establish science-based minimum standards
for the safe production and harvesting of those types of
fruits

[[Page 124 STAT. 3900]]

and vegetables, including specific mixes or categories
of fruits and vegetables, that are raw agricultural
commodities for which the Secretary has determined that
such standards minimize the risk of serious adverse
health consequences or death.
“(B) Determination by secretary.–With respect to
small businesses and very small businesses (as such
terms are defined in the regulation promulgated under
subparagraph (A)) that produce and harvest those types
of fruits and vegetables that are raw agricultural
commodities that the Secretary has determined are low
risk and do not present a risk of serious adverse health
consequences or death, the Secretary may determine not
to include production and harvesting of such fruits and
vegetables in such rulemaking, or may modify the
applicable requirements of regulations promulgated
pursuant to this section.
“(2) Public input.–During the comment period on the notice
of proposed rulemaking under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall
conduct not less than 3 public meetings in diverse geographical
areas of the United States to provide persons in different
regions an opportunity to comment.
“(3) Content.–The proposed rulemaking under paragraph (1)
shall–
“(A) provide sufficient flexibility to be
applicable to various types of entities engaged in the
production and harvesting of fruits and vegetables that
are raw agricultural commodities, including small
businesses and entities that sell directly to consumers,
and be appropriate to the scale and diversity of the
production and harvesting of such commodities;
“(B) include, with respect to growing, harvesting,
sorting, packing, and storage operations, science-based
minimum standards related to soil amendments, hygiene,
packaging, temperature controls, animals in the growing
area, and water;
“(C) consider hazards that occur naturally, may be
unintentionally introduced, or may be intentionally
introduced, including by acts of terrorism;
“(D) take into consideration, consistent with
ensuring enforceable public health protection,
conservation and environmental practice standards and
policies established by Federal natural resource
conservation, wildlife conservation, and environmental
agencies;
“(E) in the case of production that is certified
organic, not include any requirements that conflict with
or duplicate the requirements of the national organic
program established under the Organic Foods Production
Act of 1990, while providing the same level of public
health protection as the requirements under guidance
documents, including guidance documents regarding action
levels, and regulations under the FDA Food Safety
Modernization Act; and
“(F) define, for purposes of this section, the
terms `small business’ and `very small business’.
“(4) Prioritization.–The Secretary shall prioritize the
implementation of the regulations under this section for
specific fruits and vegetables that are raw agricultural
commodities

[[Page 124 STAT. 3901]]

based on known risks which may include a history and severity of
foodborne illness outbreaks.

“(b) Final Regulation.–
“(1) In general. <> –Not later than 1
year after the close of the comment period for the proposed
rulemaking under subsection (a), the Secretary shall adopt a
final regulation to provide for minimum science-based standards
for those types of fruits and vegetables, including specific
mixes or categories of fruits or vegetables, that are raw
agricultural commodities, based on known safety risks, which may
include a history of foodborne illness outbreaks.
“(2) Final regulation.–The final regulation shall–
“(A) provide for coordination of education and
enforcement activities by State and local officials, as
designated by the Governors of the respective States or
the appropriate elected State official as recognized by
State statute; and
“(B) include a description of the variance process
under subsection (c) and the types of permissible
variances the Secretary may grant.
“(3) Flexibility for small
businesses. <> —
Notwithstanding paragraph (1)–
“(A) the regulations promulgated under this section
shall apply to a small business (as defined in the
regulation promulgated under subsection (a)(1)) after
the date that is 1 year after the effective date of the
final regulation under paragraph (1); and
“(B) the regulations promulgated under this section
shall apply to a very small business (as defined in the
regulation promulgated under subsection (a)(1)) after
the date that is 2 years after the effective date of the
final regulation under paragraph (1).

“(c) Criteria.–
“(1) In general.–The regulations adopted under subsection
(b) shall–
“(A) set forth those procedures, processes, and
practices that the Secretary determines to minimize the
risk of serious adverse health consequences or death,
including procedures, processes, and practices that the
Secretary determines to be reasonably necessary to
prevent the introduction of known or reasonably
foreseeable biological, chemical, and physical hazards,
including hazards that occur naturally, may be
unintentionally introduced, or may be intentionally
introduced, including by acts of terrorism, into fruits
and vegetables, including specific mixes or categories
of fruits and vegetables, that are raw agricultural
commodities and to provide reasonable assurances that
the produce is not adulterated under section 402;
“(B) provide sufficient flexibility to be
practicable for all sizes and types of businesses,
including small businesses such as a small food
processing facility co-located on a farm;
“(C) comply with chapter 35 of title 44, United
States Code (commonly known as the `Paperwork Reduction
Act’), with special attention to minimizing the burden
(as defined in section 3502(2) of such Act) on the
business, and collection of information (as defined in
section 3502(3) of such Act), associated with such
regulations;

[[Page 124 STAT. 3902]]

“(D) acknowledge differences in risk and minimize,
as appropriate, the number of separate standards that
apply to separate foods; and
“(E) not require a business to hire a consultant or
other third party to identify, implement, certify,
compliance with these procedures, processes, and
practices, except in the case of negotiated enforcement
resolutions that may require such a consultant or third
party; and
“(F) permit States and foreign countries from which
food is imported into the United States to request from
the Secretary variances from the requirements of the
regulations, subject to paragraph (2), where the State
or foreign country determines that the variance is
necessary in light of local growing conditions and that
the procedures, processes, and practices to be followed
under the variance are reasonably likely to ensure that
the produce is not adulterated under section 402 and to
provide the same level of public health protection as
the requirements of the regulations adopted under
subsection (b).
“(2) Variances.–
“(A) Requests for variances.–A State or foreign
country from which food is imported into the United
States may in writing request a variance from the
Secretary. Such request shall describe the variance
requested and present information demonstrating that the
variance does not increase the likelihood that the food
for which the variance is requested will be adulterated
under section 402, and that the variance provides the
same level of public health protection as the
requirements of the regulations adopted under subsection
(b). The Secretary shall review such requests in a
reasonable timeframe.
“(B) Approval of variances.–The Secretary may
approve a variance in whole or in part, as appropriate,
and may specify the scope of applicability of a variance
to other similarly situated persons.
“(C) Denial of variances.–The Secretary may deny a
variance request if the Secretary determines that such
variance is not reasonably likely to ensure that the
food is not adulterated under section 402 and is not
reasonably likely to provide the same level of public
health protection as the requirements of the regulation
adopted under subsection (b). <>
The Secretary shall notify the person requesting such
variance of the reasons for the denial.
“(D) Modification or revocation of a variance.–The
Secretary, after notice and an opportunity for a
hearing, may modify or revoke a variance if the
Secretary determines that such variance is not
reasonably likely to ensure that the food is not
adulterated under section 402 and is not reasonably
likely to provide the same level of public health
protection as the requirements of the regulations
adopted under subsection (b).

“(d) Enforcement. <> –The Secretary may
coordinate with the Secretary of Agriculture and, as appropriate, shall
contract and coordinate with the agency or department designated by the
Governor of each State to perform activities to ensure compliance with
this section.

“(e) Guidance.–

[[Page 124 STAT. 3903]]

“(1) In
general. <> –Not
later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the FDA Food
Safety Modernization Act, the Secretary shall publish, after
consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, representatives
of State departments of agriculture, farmer representatives, and
various types of entities engaged in the production and
harvesting or importing of fruits and vegetables that are raw
agricultural commodities, including small businesses, updated
good agricultural practices and guidance for the safe production
and harvesting of specific types of fresh produce under this
section.
“(2) Public meetings.–The Secretary shall conduct not
fewer than 3 public meetings in diverse geographical areas of
the United States as part of an effort to conduct education and
outreach regarding the guidance described in paragraph (1) for
persons in different regions who are involved in the production
and harvesting of fruits and vegetables that are raw
agricultural commodities, including persons that sell directly
to consumers and farmer representatives, and for importers of
fruits and vegetables that are raw agricultural commodities.
“(3) Paperwork reduction.–The Secretary shall ensure that
any updated guidance under this section will–
“(A) provide sufficient flexibility to be
practicable for all sizes and types of facilities,
including small businesses such as a small food
processing facility co-located on a farm; and
“(B) acknowledge differences in risk and minimize,
as appropriate, the number of separate standards that
apply to separate foods.

“(f) Exemption for Direct Farm Marketing.–
“(1) In general.–A farm shall be exempt from the
requirements under this section in a calendar year if–
“(A) during the previous 3-year period, the average
annual monetary value of the food sold by such farm
directly to qualified end-users during such period
exceeded the average annual monetary value of the food
sold by such farm to all other buyers during such
period; and
“(B) the average annual monetary value of all food
sold during such period was less than $500,000, adjusted
for inflation.
“(2) Notification to consumers.–
“(A) In general.–A farm that is exempt from the
requirements under this section shall–
“(i) with respect to a food for which a food
packaging label is required by the Secretary under
any other provision of this Act, include
prominently and conspicuously on such label the
name and business address of the farm where the
produce was grown; or
“(ii) with respect to a food for which a food
packaging label is not required by the Secretary
under any other provision of this Act, prominently
and conspicuously display, at the point of
purchase, the name and business address of the
farm where the produce was grown, on a label,
poster, sign, placard, or documents delivered
contemporaneously with the

[[Page 124 STAT. 3904]]

food in the normal course of business, or, in the
case of Internet sales, in an electronic notice.
“(B) No additional label.–Subparagraph (A) does
not provide authority to the Secretary to require a
label that is in addition to any label required under
any other provision of this Act.
“(3) Withdrawal; rule of construction.–
“(A) In general.–In the event of an active
investigation of a foodborne illness outbreak that is
directly linked to a farm subject to an exemption under
this subsection, or if the Secretary determines that it
is necessary to protect the public health and prevent or
mitigate a foodborne illness outbreak based on conduct
or conditions associated with a farm that are material
to the safety of the food produced or harvested at such
farm, the Secretary may withdraw the exemption provided
to such farm under this subsection.
“(B) Rule of construction.–Nothing in this
subsection shall be construed to expand or limit the
inspection authority of the Secretary.
“(4) Definitions.–
“(A) Qualified end-user.–In this subsection, the
term `qualified end-user’, with respect to a food
means–
“(i) the consumer of the food; or
“(ii) a restaurant or retail food
establishment (as those terms are defined by the
Secretary for purposes of section 415) that is
located–
“(I) in the same State as the farm
that produced the food; or
“(II) not more than 275 miles from
such farm.
“(B) Consumer.–For purposes of subparagraph (A),
the term `consumer’ does not include a business.
“(5) No preemption.–Nothing in this subsection preempts
State, local, county, or other non-Federal law regarding the
safe production, harvesting, holding, transportation, and sale
of fresh fruits and vegetables. Compliance with this subsection
shall not relieve any person from liability at common law or
under State statutory law.
“(6) Limitation of effect.–Nothing in this subsection
shall prevent the Secretary from exercising any authority
granted in the other sections of this Act.

“(g) Clarification.–This section shall not apply to produce that
is produced by an individual for personal consumption.
“(h) Exception for Activities of Facilities Subject to Section
418.–This section shall not apply to activities of a facility that are
subject to section 418.”.
(b) Small Entity Compliance Policy Guide. <> –Not later than 180 days after the issuance of regulations
under section 419 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added
by subsection (a)), the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall
issue a small entity compliance policy guide setting forth in plain
language the requirements of such section 419 and to assist small
entities in complying with standards for safe production and harvesting
and other activities required under such section.

(c) Prohibited Acts.–Section 301 (21 U.S.C. 331), as amended by
section 103, is amended by adding at the end the following:

[[Page 124 STAT. 3905]]

“(vv) The failure to comply with the requirements under section
419.”.
(d) <> No Effect on HACCP Authorities.–
Nothing in the amendments made by this section limits the authority of
the Secretary under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C.
301 et seq.) or the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 201 et seq.) to
revise, issue, or enforce product and category-specific regulations,
such as the Seafood Hazard Analysis Critical Controls Points Program,
the Juice Hazard Analysis Critical Control Program, and the Thermally
Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers
standards.
SEC. 106. PROTECTION AGAINST INTENTIONAL ADULTERATION.

(a) In General.–Chapter IV (21 U.S.C. 341 et seq.), as amended by
section 105, is amended by adding at the end the following:
“SEC. 420. <> PROTECTION AGAINST INTENTIONAL
ADULTERATION.

“(a) Determinations.–
“(1) In general.–The Secretary shall–
“(A) conduct a vulnerability assessment of the food
system, including by consideration of the Department of
Homeland Security biological, chemical, radiological, or
other terrorism risk assessments;
“(B) consider the best available understanding of
uncertainties, risks, costs, and benefits associated
with guarding against intentional adulteration of food
at vulnerable points; and
“(C) <> determine the types
of science-based mitigation strategies or measures that
are necessary to protect against the intentional
adulteration of food.
“(2) Limited distribution.–In the interest of national
security, the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of
Homeland Security, may determine the time, manner, and form in
which determinations made under paragraph (1) are made publicly
available.

“(b) Regulations. <> –Not later than 18 months
after the date of enactment of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act,
the Secretary, in coordination with the Secretary of Homeland Security
and in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, shall promulgate
regulations to protect against the intentional adulteration of food
subject to this Act. Such regulations shall–
“(1) specify how a person shall assess whether the person
is required to implement mitigation strategies or measures
intended to protect against the intentional adulteration of
food; and
“(2) specify appropriate science-based mitigation
strategies or measures to prepare and protect the food supply
chain at specific vulnerable points, as appropriate.

“(c) Applicability.–Regulations promulgated under subsection (b)
shall apply only to food for which there is a high risk of intentional
contamination, as determined by the Secretary, in consultation with the
Secretary of Homeland Security, under subsection (a), that could cause
serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals and
shall include those foods–
“(1) for which the Secretary has identified clear
vulnerabilities (including short shelf-life or susceptibility to
intentional contamination at critical control points); and

[[Page 124 STAT. 3906]]

“(2) in bulk or batch form, prior to being packaged for the
final consumer.

“(d) Exception.–This section shall not apply to farms, except for
those that produce milk.
“(e) Definition.–For purposes of this section, the term `farm’ has
the meaning given that term in section 1.227 of title 21, Code of
Federal Regulations (or any successor regulation).”.
(b) Guidance Documents.–
(1) In general. <> –Not later than 1 year
after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Health
and Human Services, in consultation with the Secretary of
Homeland Security and the Secretary of Agriculture, shall issue
guidance documents related to protection against the intentional
adulteration of food, including mitigation strategies or
measures to guard against such adulteration as required under
section 420 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as
added by subsection (a).
(2) Content.–The guidance documents issued under paragraph
(1) shall–
(A) include a model assessment for a person to use
under subsection (b)(1) of section 420 of the Federal
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as added by subsection
(a);
(B) include examples of mitigation strategies or
measures described in subsection (b)(2) of such section;
and
(C) specify situations in which the examples of
mitigation strategies or measures described in
subsection (b)(2) of such section are appropriate.
(3) Limited distribution.–In the interest of national
security, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, in
consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, may
determine the time, manner, and form in which the guidance
documents issued under paragraph (1) are made public, including
by releasing such documents to targeted audiences.

(c) <> Periodic Review.–The Secretary of
Health and Human Services shall periodically review and, as appropriate,
update the regulations under section 420(b) of the Federal Food, Drug,
and Cosmetic Act, as added by subsection (a), and the guidance documents
under subsection (b).

(d) Prohibited Acts.–Section 301 (21 U.S.C. 331 et seq.), as
amended by section 105, is amended by adding at the end the following:
“(ww) The failure to comply with section 420.”.
SEC. 107. AUTHORITY TO COLLECT FEES.

(a) Fees for Reinspection, Recall, and Importation Activities.–
Subchapter C of chapter VII (21 U.S.C. 379f et seq.) is amended by
adding at the end the following:

“PART 6–FEES RELATED TO FOOD

“SEC. 743. <> AUTHORITY TO COLLECT AND
USE FEES.

“(a) In General.–
“(1) Purpose and authority.–For fiscal year 2010 and each
subsequent fiscal year, the Secretary shall, in accordance with
this section, assess and collect fees from–
“(A) the responsible party for each domestic
facility (as defined in section 415(b)) and the United
States agent

[[Page 124 STAT. 3907]]

for each foreign facility subject to a reinspection in
such fiscal year, to cover reinspection-related costs
for such year;
“(B) the responsible party for a domestic facility
(as defined in section 415(b)) and an importer who does
not comply with a recall order under section 423 or
under section 412(f) in such fiscal year, to cover food
recall activities associated with such order performed
by the Secretary, including technical assistance,
follow-up effectiveness checks, and public
notifications, for such year;
“(C) each importer participating in the voluntary
qualified importer program under section 806 in such
year, to cover the administrative costs of such program
for such year; and
“(D) each importer subject to a reinspection in
such fiscal year, to cover reinspection-related costs
for such year.
“(2) Definitions.–For purposes of this section–
“(A) the term `reinspection’ means–
“(i) with respect to domestic facilities (as
defined in section 415(b)), 1 or more inspections
conducted under section 704 subsequent to an
inspection conducted under such provision which
identified noncompliance materially related to a
food safety requirement of this Act, specifically
to determine whether compliance has been achieved
to the Secretary’s satisfaction; and
“(ii) with respect to importers, 1 or more
examinations conducted under section 801
subsequent to an examination conducted under such
provision which identified noncompliance
materially related to a food safety requirement of
this Act, specifically to determine whether
compliance has been achieved to the Secretary’s
satisfaction;
“(B) the term `reinspection-related costs’ means
all expenses, including administrative expenses,
incurred in connection with–
“(i) arranging, conducting, and evaluating
the results of reinspections; and
“(ii) assessing and collecting reinspection
fees under this section; and
“(C) the term `responsible party’ has the meaning
given such term in section 417(a)(1).

“(b) Establishment of Fees.–
“(1) In general. <> –Subject to subsections (c)
and (d), the Secretary shall establish the fees to be collected
under this section for each fiscal year specified in subsection
(a)(1), based on the methodology described under paragraph (2),
and shall publish such fees in a Federal Register notice not
later than 60 days before the start of each such year.
“(2) Fee methodology.–
“(A) Fees.–Fees amounts established for
collection–
“(i) under subparagraph (A) of subsection
(a)(1) for a fiscal year shall be based on the
Secretary’s estimate of 100 percent of the costs
of the reinspection-related activities (including
by type or level of reinspection activity, as the
Secretary determines applicable) described in such
subparagraph (A) for such year;

[[Page 124 STAT. 3908]]

“(ii) under subparagraph (B) of subsection
(a)(1) for a fiscal year shall be based on the
Secretary’s estimate of 100 percent of the costs
of the activities described in such subparagraph
(B) for such year;
“(iii) under subparagraph (C) of subsection
(a)(1) for a fiscal year shall be based on the
Secretary’s estimate of 100 percent of the costs
of the activities described in such subparagraph
(C) for such year; and
“(iv) under subparagraph (D) of subsection
(a)(1) for a fiscal year shall be based on the
Secretary’s estimate of 100 percent of the costs
of the activities described in such subparagraph
(D) for such year.
“(B) Other considerations.–
“(i) Voluntary qualified importer program.–
In establishing the fee amounts under subparagraph
(A)(iii) for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall
provide for the number of importers who have
submitted to the Secretary a notice under section
806(c) informing the Secretary of the intent of
such importer to participate in the program under
section 806 in such fiscal year.
“(II) Recoupment.–In establishing
the fee amounts under subparagraph
(A)(iii) for the first 5 fiscal years
after the date of enactment of this
section, the Secretary shall include in
such fee a reasonable surcharge that
provides a recoupment of the costs
expended by the Secretary to establish
and implement the first year of the
program under section 806.
“(ii) Crediting of fees.–In establishing the
fee amounts under subparagraph (A) for a fiscal
year, the Secretary shall provide for the
crediting of fees from the previous year to the
next year if the Secretary overestimated the
amount of fees needed to carry out such
activities, and consider the need to account for
any adjustment of fees and such other factors as
the Secretary determines appropriate.
“(iii) Published
guidelines. <> –Not later than
180 days after the date of enactment of the FDA
Food Safety Modernization Act, the Secretary shall
publish in the Federal Register a proposed set of
guidelines in consideration of the burden of fee
amounts on small business. Such consideration may
include reduced fee amounts for small businesses.
The Secretary shall provide for a period of public
comment on such guidelines. The Secretary shall
adjust the fee schedule for small businesses
subject to such fees only through notice and
comment rulemaking.
“(3) Use of fees.–The Secretary shall make all of the fees
collected pursuant to clause (i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of
paragraph (2)(A) available solely to pay for the costs referred
to in such clause (i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of paragraph
(2)(A), respectively.

“(c) Limitations.–
“(1) In general.–Fees under subsection (a) shall be
refunded for a fiscal year beginning after fiscal year 2010
unless the amount of the total appropriations for food safety

[[Page 124 STAT. 3909]]

activities at the Food and Drug Administration for such fiscal
year (excluding the amount of fees appropriated for such fiscal
year) is equal to or greater than the amount of appropriations
for food safety activities at the Food and Drug Administration
for fiscal year 2009 (excluding the amount of fees appropriated
for such fiscal year), multiplied by the adjustment factor under
paragraph (3).
“(2) Authority.–If–
“(A) the Secretary does not assess fees under
subsection (a) for a portion of a fiscal year because
paragraph (1) applies; and
“(B) at a later date in such fiscal year, such
paragraph (1) ceases to apply,
the Secretary may assess and collect such fees under subsection
(a), without any modification to the rate of such fees,
notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) relating to the
date fees are to be paid.
“(3) Adjustment factor.–
“(A) In general.–The adjustment factor described
in paragraph (1) shall be the total percentage change
that occurred in the Consumer Price Index for all urban
consumers (all items; United States city average) for
the 12-month period ending June 30 preceding the fiscal
year, but in no case shall such adjustment factor be
negative.
“(B) Compounded basis.–The adjustment under
subparagraph (A) made each fiscal year shall be added on
a compounded basis to the sum of all adjustments made
each fiscal year after fiscal year 2009.
“(4) Limitation on amount of certain fees.–
“(A) In general.–Notwithstanding any other
provision of this section and subject to subparagraph
(B), the Secretary may not collect fees in a fiscal year
such that the amount collected–
“(i) under subparagraph (B) of subsection
(a)(1) exceeds $20,000,000; and
“(ii) under subparagraphs (A) and (D) of
subsection (a)(1) exceeds $25,000,000 combined.
“(B) Exception.–If a domestic facility (as defined
in section 415(b)) or an importer becomes subject to a
fee described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (D) of
subsection (a)(1) after the maximum amount of fees has
been collected by the Secretary under subparagraph (A),
the Secretary may collect a fee from such facility or
importer.

“(d) Crediting and Availability of Fees.–Fees authorized under
subsection (a) shall be collected and available for obligation only to
the extent and in the amount provided in appropriations Acts. Such fees
are authorized to remain available until expended. Such sums as may be
necessary may be transferred from the Food and Drug Administration
salaries and expenses account without fiscal year limitation to such
appropriation account for salaries and expenses with such fiscal year
limitation. The sums transferred shall be available solely for the
purpose of paying the operating expenses of the Food and Drug
Administration employees and contractors performing activities
associated with these food safety fees.
“(e) Collection of Fees.–
“(1) In general.–The Secretary shall specify in the
Federal Register notice described in subsection (b)(1) the time

[[Page 124 STAT. 3910]]

and manner in which fees assessed under this section shall be
collected.
“(2) Collection of unpaid fees. <> –In
any case where the Secretary does not receive payment of a fee
assessed under this section within 30 days after it is due, such
fee shall be treated as a claim of the United States Government
subject to provisions of subchapter II of chapter 37 of title
31, United States Code.

“(f) Annual Report to Congress.–Not later than 120 days after each
fiscal year for which fees are assessed under this section, the
Secretary shall submit a report to the Committee on Health, Education,
Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and the Committee on Energy and
Commerce of the House of Representatives, to include a description of
fees assessed and collected for each such year and a summary description
of the entities paying such fees and the types of business in which such
entities engage.
“(g) Authorization of Appropriations.–For fiscal year 2010 and
each fiscal year thereafter, there is authorized to be appropriated for
fees under this section an amount equal to the total revenue amount
determined under subsection (b) for the fiscal year, as adjusted or
otherwise affected under the other provisions of this section.”.
(b) Export Certification Fees for Foods and Animal Feed.–
(1) Authority for export certifications for food, including
animal feed.–Section 801(e)(4)(A) (21 U.S.C. 381(e)(4)(A)) is
amended–
(A) in the matter preceding clause (i), by striking
“a drug” and inserting “a food, drug”;
(B) in clause (i) by striking “exported drug” and
inserting “exported food, drug”; and
(C) in clause (ii) by striking “the drug” each
place it appears and inserting “the food, drug”.
(2) Clarification of certification.–Section 801(e)(4) (21
U.S.C. 381(e)(4)) is amended by inserting after subparagraph (B)
the following new subparagraph:
“(C) For purposes of this paragraph, a
certification by the Secretary shall be made on such
basis, and in such form (including a publicly available
listing) as the Secretary determines appropriate.”.
(3) Limitations on the use and amount of fees.–Paragraph
(4) of section 801(e) (21 U.S.C. 381(e)) is amended by adding at
the end the following:
“(D) With regard to fees pursuant to subparagraph
(B) in connection with written export certifications for
food:
“(i) Such fees shall be collected and
available solely for the costs of the Food and
Drug Administration associated with issuing such
certifications.
“(ii) Such fees may not be retained in an
amount that exceeds such costs for the respective
fiscal year.”
SEC. 108. <> NATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND FOOD
DEFENSE STRATEGY.

(a) Development and Submission of Strategy.–
(1) In general. <> –Not later
than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the
Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of
Agriculture, in coordination with the Secretary of Homeland
Security, shall prepare and transmit

[[Page 124 STAT. 3911]]

to the relevant committees of Congress, and make publicly
available on the Internet Web sites of the Department of Health
and Human Services and the Department of Agriculture, the
National Agriculture and Food Defense Strategy.
(2) Implementation plan.–The strategy shall include an
implementation plan for use by the Secretaries described under
paragraph (1) in carrying out the strategy.
(3) Research.–The strategy shall include a coordinated
research agenda for use by the Secretaries described under
paragraph (1) in conducting research to support the goals and
activities described in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection
(b).
(4) Revisions. <> –Not later than 4 years
after the date on which the strategy is submitted to the
relevant committees of Congress under paragraph (1), and not
less frequently than every 4 years thereafter, the Secretary of
Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture, in
coordination with the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall
revise and submit to the relevant committees of Congress the
strategy.
(5) Consistency with existing plans.–The strategy described
in paragraph (1) shall be consistent with–
(A) the National Incident Management System;
(B) the National Response Framework;
(C) the National Infrastructure Protection Plan;
(D) the National Preparedness Goals; and
(E) other relevant national strategies.

(b) Components.–
(1) In general.–The strategy shall include a description of
the process to be used by the Department of Health and Human
Services, the Department of Agriculture, and the Department of
Homeland Security–
(A) to achieve each goal described in paragraph (2);
and
(B) to evaluate the progress made by Federal, State,
local, and tribal governments towards the achievement of
each goal described in paragraph (2).
(2) Goals.–The strategy shall include a description of the
process to be used by the Department of Health and Human
Services, the Department of Agriculture, and the Department of
Homeland Security to achieve the following goals:
(A) Preparedness goal.–Enhance the preparedness of
the agriculture and food system by–
(i) conducting vulnerability assessments of
the agriculture and food system;
(ii) mitigating vulnerabilities of the system;
(iii) improving communication and training
relating to the system;
(iv) developing and conducting exercises to
test decontamination and disposal plans;
(v) developing modeling tools to improve event
consequence assessment and decision support; and
(vi) preparing risk communication tools and
enhancing public awareness through outreach.
(B) Detection goal.–Improve agriculture and food
system detection capabilities by–
(i) identifying contamination in food products
at the earliest possible time; and

[[Page 124 STAT. 3912]]

(ii) conducting surveillance to prevent the
spread of diseases.
(C) Emergency response goal.–Ensure an efficient
response to agriculture and food emergencies by–
(i) immediately investigating animal disease
outbreaks and suspected food contamination;
(ii) preventing additional human illnesses;
(iii) organizing, training, and equipping
animal, plant, and food emergency response teams
of–
(I) the Federal Government; and
(II) State, local, and tribal
governments;
(iv) designing, developing, and evaluating
training and exercises carried out under
agriculture and food defense plans; and
(v) ensuring consistent and organized risk
communication to the public by–
(I) the Federal Government;
(II) State, local, and tribal
governments; and
(III) the private sector.
(D) Recovery goal.–Secure agriculture and food
production after an agriculture or food emergency by–
(i) working with the private sector to develop
business recovery plans to rapidly resume
agriculture, food production, and international
trade;
(ii) conducting exercises of the plans
described in subparagraph (C) with the goal of
long-term recovery results;
(iii) rapidly removing, and effectively
disposing of–
(I) contaminated agriculture and
food products; and
(II) infected plants and animals;
and
(iv) decontaminating and restoring areas
affected by an agriculture or food emergency.
(3) Evaluation.–The Secretary, in coordination with the
Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Homeland Security,
shall–
(A) develop metrics to measure progress for the
evaluation process described in paragraph (1)(B); and
(B) <> report on the progress
measured in subparagraph (A) as part of the National
Agriculture and Food Defense strategy described in
subsection (a)(1).

(c) Limited Distribution.–In the interest of national security, the
Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture,
in coordination with the Secretary of Homeland Security, may determine
the manner and format in which the National Agriculture and Food Defense
strategy established under this section is made publicly available on
the Internet Web sites of the Department of Health and Human Services,
the Department of Homeland Security, and the Department of Agriculture,
as described in subsection (a)(1).
SEC. 109. <>
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE COORDINATING
COUNCILS.

The Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the
Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture,
shall within 180 days of enactment of this Act, and annually thereafter,
submit to the relevant committees of Congress,

[[Page 124 STAT. 3913]]

and make publicly available on the Internet Web site of the Department
of Homeland Security, a report on the activities of the Food and
Agriculture Government Coordinating Council and the Food and Agriculture
Sector Coordinating Council, including the progress of such Councils
on–
(1) facilitating partnerships between public and private
entities to help coordinate and enhance the protection of the
agriculture and food system of the United States;
(2) providing for the regular and timely interchange of
information between each council relating to the security of the
agriculture and food system (including intelligence
information);
(3) identifying best practices and methods for improving the
coordination among Federal, State, local, and private sector
preparedness and response plans for agriculture and food
defense; and
(4) recommending methods by which to protect the economy and
the public health of the United States from the effects of–
(A) animal or plant disease outbreaks;
(B) food contamination; and
(C) natural disasters affecting agriculture and
food.
SEC. 110. <> BUILDING DOMESTIC CAPACITY.

(a) In General.–
(1) Initial report.–The Secretary, in coordination with the
Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Homeland Security,
shall, not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of
this Act, submit to Congress a comprehensive report that
identifies programs and practices that are intended to promote
the safety and supply chain security of food and to prevent
outbreaks of foodborne illness and other food-related hazards
that can be addressed through preventive activities. Such report
shall include a description of the following:
(A) Analysis of the need for further regulations or
guidance to industry.
(B) Outreach to food industry sectors, including
through the Food and Agriculture Coordinating Councils
referred to in section 109, to identify potential
sources of emerging threats to the safety and security
of the food supply and preventive strategies to address
those threats.
(C) Systems to ensure the prompt distribution to the
food industry of information and technical assistance
concerning preventive strategies.
(D) Communication systems to ensure that information
about specific threats to the safety and security of the
food supply are rapidly and effectively disseminated.
(E) Surveillance systems and laboratory networks to
rapidly detect and respond to foodborne illness
outbreaks and other food-related hazards, including how
such systems and networks are integrated.
(F) Outreach, education, and training provided to
States and local governments to build State and local
food safety and food defense capabilities, including
progress implementing strategies developed under
sections 108 and 205.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3914]]

(G) The estimated resources needed to effectively
implement the programs and practices identified in the
report developed in this section over a 5-year period.
(H) The impact of requirements under this Act
(including amendments made by this Act) on certified
organic farms and facilities (as defined in section 415
(21 U.S.C. 350d).
(I) Specific efforts taken pursuant to the
agreements authorized under section 421(c) of the
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by
section 201), together with, as necessary, a description
of any additional authorities necessary to improve
seafood safety.
(2) Biennial reports.–On a biennial basis following the
submission of the report under paragraph (1), the Secretary
shall submit to Congress a report that–
(A) reviews previous food safety programs and
practices;
(B) outlines the success of those programs and
practices;
(C) identifies future programs and practices; and
(D) includes information related to any matter
described in subparagraphs (A) through (H) of paragraph
(1), as necessary.

(b) Risk-based Activities.–The report developed under subsection
(a)(1) shall describe methods that seek to ensure that resources
available to the Secretary for food safety-related activities are
directed at those actions most likely to reduce risks from food,
including the use of preventive strategies and allocation of inspection
resources. The Secretary shall promptly undertake those risk-based
actions that are identified during the development of the report as
likely to contribute to the safety and security of the food supply.
(c) Capability for Laboratory Analyses; Research.–The report
developed under subsection (a)(1) shall provide a description of methods
to increase capacity to undertake analyses of food samples promptly
after collection, to identify new and rapid analytical techniques,
including commercially-available techniques that can be employed at
ports of entry and by Food Emergency Response Network laboratories, and
to provide for well-equipped and staffed laboratory facilities and
progress toward laboratory accreditation under section 422 of the
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by section 202).
(d) Information Technology.–The report developed under subsection
(a)(1) shall include a description of such information technology
systems as may be needed to identify risks and receive data from
multiple sources, including foreign governments, State, local, and
tribal governments, other Federal agencies, the food industry,
laboratories, laboratory networks, and consumers. The information
technology systems that the Secretary describes shall also provide for
the integration of the facility registration system under section 415 of
the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 350d), and the prior
notice system under section 801(m) of such Act (21 U.S.C. 381(m)) with
other information technology systems that are used by the Federal
Government for the processing of food offered for import into the United
States.
(e) Automated Risk Assessment.–The report developed under
subsection (a)(1) shall include a description of progress toward

[[Page 124 STAT. 3915]]

developing and improving an automated risk assessment system for food
safety surveillance and allocation of resources.
(f) Traceback and Surveillance Report.–The Secretary shall include
in the report developed under subsection (a)(1) an analysis of the Food
and Drug Administration’s performance in foodborne illness outbreaks
during the 5-year period preceding the date of enactment of this Act
involving fruits and vegetables that are raw agricultural commodities
(as defined in section 201(r) (21 U.S.C. 321(r)) and recommendations for
enhanced surveillance, outbreak response, and traceability. Such
findings and recommendations shall address communication and
coordination with the public, industry, and State and local governments,
as such communication and coordination relates to outbreak
identification and traceback.
(g) Biennial Food Safety and Food Defense Research Plan.–The
Secretary, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Secretary of Homeland
Security shall, on a biennial basis, submit to Congress a joint food
safety and food defense research plan which may include studying the
long-term health effects of foodborne illness. Such biennial plan shall
include a list and description of projects conducted during the previous
2-year period and the plan for projects to be conducted during the
subsequent 2-year period.
(h) Effectiveness of Programs Administered by the Department of
Health and Human Services.–
(1) In general. <> –To determine whether
existing Federal programs administered by the Department of
Health and Human Services are effective in achieving the stated
goals of such programs, the Secretary shall, beginning not later
than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act–
(A) conduct an annual evaluation of each program of
such Department to determine the effectiveness of each
such program in achieving legislated intent, purposes,
and objectives; and
(B) <> submit to Congress a report
concerning such evaluation.
(2) Content.–The report described under paragraph (1)(B)
shall–
(A) include conclusions concerning the reasons that
such existing programs have proven successful or not
successful and what factors contributed to such
conclusions;
(B) include recommendations for consolidation and
elimination to reduce duplication and inefficiencies in
such programs at such Department as identified during
the evaluation conduct under this subsection; and
(C) <> be made publicly
available in a publication entitled “Guide to the U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services Programs”.

(i) Unique Identification Numbers.–
(1) In general. <> –Not later than
1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary,
acting through the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, shall conduct
a study regarding the need for, and challenges associated with,
development and implementation of a program that requires a
unique identification number for each food facility registered
with the Secretary and, as appropriate, each broker that imports
food into the United States. Such study shall include an
evaluation of the costs associated with development and
implementation

[[Page 124 STAT. 3916]]

of such a system, and make recommendations about what new
authorities, if any, would be necessary to develop and implement
such a system.
(2) Report.–Not later than 15 months after the date of
enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a
report that describes the findings of the study conducted under
paragraph (1) and that includes any recommendations determined
appropriate by the Secretary.
SEC. 111. SANITARY TRANSPORTATION OF FOOD.

(a) In General. <> –Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this
Act, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations described in section
416(b) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 350e(b)).

(b) Food Transportation Study.–The Secretary, acting through the
Commissioner of Food and Drugs, shall conduct a study of the
transportation of food for consumption in the United States, including
transportation by air, that includes an examination of the unique needs
of rural and frontier areas with regard to the delivery of safe food.
SEC. 112. <> FOOD ALLERGY AND ANAPHYLAXIS
MANAGEMENT.

(a) Definitions.–In this section:
(1) Early childhood education program.–The term “early
childhood education program” means–
(A) a Head Start program or an Early Head Start
program carried out under the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C.
9831 et seq.);
(B) a State licensed or regulated child care program
or school; or
(C) a State prekindergarten program that serves
children from birth through kindergarten.
(2) ESEA definitions.–The terms “local educational
agency”, “secondary school”, “elementary school”, and
“parent” have the meanings given the terms in section 9101 of
the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C.
7801).
(3) School.–The term “school” includes public–
(A) kindergartens;
(B) elementary schools; and
(C) secondary schools.
(4) Secretary.–The term “Secretary” means the Secretary
of Health and Human Services.

(b) Establishment of Voluntary Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis
Management Guidelines.–
(1) Establishment.–
(A) In general. <> –Not later than
1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the
Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of
Education, shall–
(i) develop guidelines to be used on a
voluntary basis to develop plans for individuals
to manage the risk of food allergy and anaphylaxis
in schools and early childhood education programs;
and
(ii) make such guidelines available to local
educational agencies, schools, early childhood
education programs, and other interested entities
and individuals to be implemented on a voluntary
basis only.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3917]]

(B) Applicability of ferpa.–Each plan described in
subparagraph (A) that is developed for an individual
shall be considered an education record for the purpose
of section 444 of the General Education Provisions Act
(commonly referred to as the “Family Educational Rights
and Privacy Act of 1974”) (20 U.S.C. 1232g).
(2) Contents.–The voluntary guidelines developed by the
Secretary under paragraph (1) shall address each of the
following and may be updated as the Secretary determines
necessary:
(A) Parental obligation to provide the school or
early childhood education program, prior to the start of
every school year, with–
(i) documentation from their child’s physician
or nurse–
(I) supporting a diagnosis of food
allergy, and any risk of anaphylaxis, if
applicable;
(II) identifying any food to which
the child is allergic;
(III) describing, if appropriate,
any prior history of anaphylaxis;
(IV) listing any medication
prescribed for the child for the
treatment of anaphylaxis;
(V) detailing emergency treatment
procedures in the event of a reaction;
(VI) listing the signs and symptoms
of a reaction; and
(VII) assessing the child’s
readiness for self-administration of
prescription medication; and
(ii) a list of substitute meals that may be
offered to the child by school or early childhood
education program food service personnel.
(B) The creation and maintenance of an individual
plan for food allergy management, in consultation with
the parent, tailored to the needs of each child with a
documented risk for anaphylaxis, including any
procedures for the self-administration of medication by
such children in instances where–
(i) the children are capable of self-
administering medication; and
(ii) such administration is not prohibited by
State law.
(C) Communication strategies between individual
schools or early childhood education programs and
providers of emergency medical services, including
appropriate instructions for emergency medical response.
(D) Strategies to reduce the risk of exposure to
anaphylactic causative agents in classrooms and common
school or early childhood education program areas such
as cafeterias.
(E) The dissemination of general information on
life-threatening food allergies to school or early
childhood education program staff, parents, and
children.
(F) Food allergy management training of school or
early childhood education program personnel who
regularly come into contact with children with life-
threatening food allergies.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3918]]

(G) The authorization and training of school or
early childhood education program personnel to
administer epinephrine when the nurse is not immediately
available.
(H) The timely accessibility of epinephrine by
school or early childhood education program personnel
when the nurse is not immediately available.
(I) The creation of a plan contained in each
individual plan for food allergy management that
addresses the appropriate response to an incident of
anaphylaxis of a child while such child is engaged in
extracurricular programs of a school or early childhood
education program, such as non-academic outings and
field trips, before- and after-school programs or
before- and after-early child education program
programs, and school-sponsored or early childhood
education program-sponsored programs held on weekends.
(J) Maintenance of information for each
administration of epinephrine to a child at risk for
anaphylaxis and prompt notification to parents.
(K) Other elements the Secretary determines
necessary for the management of food allergies and
anaphylaxis in schools and early childhood education
programs.
(3) Relation to state law.–Nothing in this section or the
guidelines developed by the Secretary under paragraph (1) shall
be construed to preempt State law, including any State law
regarding whether students at risk for anaphylaxis may self-
administer medication.

(c) School-based Food Allergy Management Grants.–
(1) In general.–The Secretary may award grants to local
educational agencies to assist such agencies with implementing
voluntary food allergy and anaphylaxis management guidelines
described in subsection (b).
(2) Application.–
(A) In general.–To be eligible to receive a grant
under this subsection, a local educational agency shall
submit an application to the Secretary at such time, in
such manner, and including such information as the
Secretary may reasonably require.
(B) Contents.–Each application submitted under
subparagraph (A) shall include–
(i) an assurance that the local educational
agency has developed plans in accordance with the
food allergy and anaphylaxis management guidelines
described in subsection (b);
(ii) a description of the activities to be
funded by the grant in carrying out the food
allergy and anaphylaxis management guidelines,
including–
(I) how the guidelines will be
carried out at individual schools served
by the local educational agency;
(II) how the local educational
agency will inform parents and students
of the guidelines in place;
(III) how school nurses, teachers,
administrators, and other school-based
staff will be made aware of, and given
training on, when applicable, the
guidelines in place; and

[[Page 124 STAT. 3919]]

(IV) any other activities that the
Secretary determines appropriate;
(iii) an itemization of how grant funds
received under this subsection will be expended;
(iv) a description of how adoption of the
guidelines and implementation of grant activities
will be monitored; and
(v) an agreement by the local educational
agency to report information required by the
Secretary to conduct evaluations under this
subsection.
(3) Use of funds.–Each local educational agency that
receives a grant under this subsection may use the grant funds
for the following:
(A) Purchase of materials and supplies, including
limited medical supplies such as epinephrine and
disposable wet wipes, to support carrying out the food
allergy and anaphylaxis management guidelines described
in subsection (b).
(B) In partnership with local health departments,
school nurse, teacher, and personnel training for food
allergy management.
(C) Programs that educate students as to the
presence of, and policies and procedures in place
related to, food allergies and anaphylactic shock.
(D) Outreach to parents.
(E) Any other activities consistent with the
guidelines described in subsection (b).
(4) Duration of awards.–The Secretary may award grants
under this subsection for a period of not more than 2 years. In
the event the Secretary conducts a program evaluation under this
subsection, funding in the second year of the grant, where
applicable, shall be contingent on a successful program
evaluation by the Secretary after the first year.
(5) Limitation on grant funding.–The Secretary may not
provide grant funding to a local educational agency under this
subsection after such local educational agency has received 2
years of grant funding under this subsection.
(6) Maximum amount of annual awards.–A grant awarded under
this subsection may not be made in an amount that is more than
$50,000 annually.
(7) Priority.–In awarding grants under this subsection, the
Secretary shall give priority to local educational agencies with
the highest percentages of children who are counted under
section 1124(c) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of
1965 (20 U.S.C. 6333(c)).
(8) Matching funds.–
(A) In general.–The Secretary may not award a grant
under this subsection unless the local educational
agency agrees that, with respect to the costs to be
incurred by such local educational agency in carrying
out the grant activities, the local educational agency
shall make available (directly or through donations from
public or private entities) non-Federal funds toward
such costs in an amount equal to not less than 25
percent of the amount of the grant.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3920]]

(B) Determination of amount of non-federal
contribution.–Non-Federal funds required under
subparagraph (A) may be cash or in kind, including
plant, equipment, or services. Amounts provided by the
Federal Government, and any portion of any service
subsidized by the Federal Government, may not be
included in determining the amount of such non-Federal
funds.
(9) Administrative funds.–A local educational agency that
receives a grant under this subsection may use not more than 2
percent of the grant amount for administrative costs related to
carrying out this subsection.
(10) Progress and evaluations.–At the completion of the
grant period referred to in paragraph (4), a local educational
agency shall provide the Secretary with information on how grant
funds were spent and the status of implementation of the food
allergy and anaphylaxis management guidelines described in
subsection (b).
(11) Supplement, not supplant.–Grant funds received under
this subsection shall be used to supplement, and not supplant,
non-Federal funds and any other Federal funds available to carry
out the activities described in this subsection.
(12) Authorization of appropriations.–There is authorized
to be appropriated to carry out this subsection $30,000,000 for
fiscal year 2011 and such sums as may be necessary for each of
the 4 succeeding fiscal years.

(d) Voluntary Nature of Guidelines.–
(1) In general.–The food allergy and anaphylaxis management
guidelines developed by the Secretary under subsection (b) are
voluntary. Nothing in this section or the guidelines developed
by the Secretary under subsection (b) shall be construed to
require a local educational agency to implement such guidelines.
(2) Exception.–Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the Secretary
may enforce an agreement by a local educational agency to
implement food allergy and anaphylaxis management guidelines as
a condition of the receipt of a grant under subsection (c).
SEC. 113. NEW DIETARY INGREDIENTS.

(a) In General.–Section 413 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic
Act (21 U.S.C. 350b) is amended–
(1) by redesignating subsection (c) as subsection (d); and
(2) by inserting after subsection (b) the following:

“(c) Notification.–
“(1) In general.–If the Secretary determines that the
information in a new dietary ingredient notification submitted
under this section for an article purported to be a new dietary
ingredient is inadequate to establish that a dietary supplement
containing such article will reasonably be expected to be safe
because the article may be, or may contain, an anabolic steroid
or an analogue of an anabolic steroid, the Secretary shall
notify the Drug Enforcement Administration of such
determination. Such notification by the Secretary shall include,
at a minimum, the name of the dietary supplement or article, the
name of the person or persons who marketed the product or made

[[Page 124 STAT. 3921]]

the submission of information regarding the article to the
Secretary under this section, and any contact information for
such person or persons that the Secretary has.
“(2) Definitions.–For purposes of this subsection–
“(A) the term `anabolic steroid’ has the meaning
given such term in section 102(41) of the Controlled
Substances Act; and
“(B) the term `analogue of an anabolic steroid’
means a substance whose chemical structure is
substantially similar to the chemical structure of an
anabolic steroid.”.

(b) Guidance. <> —
Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the
Secretary shall publish guidance that clarifies when a dietary
supplement ingredient is a new dietary ingredient, when the manufacturer
or distributor of a dietary ingredient or dietary supplement should
provide the Secretary with information as described in section 413(a)(2)
of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the evidence needed to
document the safety of new dietary ingredients, and appropriate methods
for establishing the identify of a new dietary ingredient.
SEC. 114. <> REQUIREMENT FOR GUIDANCE
RELATING TO POST HARVEST PROCESSING OF RAW
OYSTERS.

(a) In General. <> –Not later than 90
days prior to the issuance of any guidance, regulation, or suggested
amendment by the Food and Drug Administration to the National Shellfish
Sanitation Program’s Model Ordinance, or the issuance of any guidance or
regulation by the Food and Drug Administration relating to the Seafood
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points Program of the Food and Drug
Administration (parts 123 and 1240 of title 21, Code of Federal
Regulations (or any successor regulations), where such guidance,
regulation or suggested amendment relates to post harvest processing for
raw oysters, the Secretary shall prepare and submit to the Committee on
Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and the Committee
on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a report which
shall include–
(1) an assessment of how post harvest processing or other
equivalent controls feasibly may be implemented in the fastest,
safest, and most economical manner;
(2) the projected public health benefits of any proposed
post harvest processing;
(3) the projected costs of compliance with such post harvest
processing measures;
(4) the impact post harvest processing is expected to have
on the sales, cost, and availability of raw oysters;
(5) criteria for ensuring post harvest processing standards
will be applied equally to shellfish imported from all nations
of origin;
(6) an evaluation of alternative measures to prevent,
eliminate, or reduce to an acceptable level the occurrence of
foodborne illness; and
(7) the extent to which the Food and Drug Administration has
consulted with the States and other regulatory agencies, as
appropriate, with regard to post harvest processing measures.

(b) Limitation.–Subsection (a) shall not apply to the guidance
described in section 103(h).

[[Page 124 STAT. 3922]]

(c) Review and Evaluation.–Not later than 30 days after the
Secretary issues a proposed regulation or guidance described in
subsection (a), the Comptroller General of the United States shall–
(1) review and evaluate the report described in (a) and
report to Congress on the findings of the estimates and analysis
in the report;
(2) compare such proposed regulation or guidance to similar
regulations or guidance with respect to other regulated foods,
including a comparison of risks the Secretary may find
associated with seafood and the instances of those risks in such
other regulated foods; and
(3) evaluate the impact of post harvest processing on the
competitiveness of the domestic oyster industry in the United
States and in international markets.

(d) Waiver.–The requirement of preparing a report under subsection
(a) shall be waived if the Secretary issues a guidance that is adopted
as a consensus agreement between Federal and State regulators and the
oyster industry, acting through the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation
Conference.
(e) Public Access.–Any report prepared under this section shall be
made available to the public.
SEC. 115. <> PORT SHOPPING.

<> Until the date on which the Secretary
promulgates a final rule that implements the amendments made by section
308 of the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and
Response Act of 2002, (Public Law 107-188), the Secretary shall notify
the Secretary of Homeland Security of all instances in which the
Secretary refuses to admit a food into the United States under section
801(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 381(a)) so
that the Secretary of Homeland Security, acting through the Commissioner
of Customs and Border Protection, may prevent food refused admittance
into the United States by a United States port of entry from being
admitted by another United States port of entry, through the
notification of other such United States ports of entry.
SEC. 116. <> ALCOHOL-RELATED FACILITIES.

(a) In General.–Except as provided by sections 102, 206, 207, 302,
304, 402, 403, and 404 of this Act, and the amendments made by such
sections, nothing in this Act, or the amendments made by this Act, shall
be construed to apply to a facility that–
(1) under the Federal Alcohol Administration Act (27 U.S.C.
201 et seq.) or chapter 51 of subtitle E of the Internal Revenue
Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 5001 et seq.) is required to obtain a
permit or to register with the Secretary of the Treasury as a
condition of doing business in the United States; and
(2) under section 415 of the Federal Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 350d) is required to register as a
facility because such facility is engaged in manufacturing,
processing, packing, or holding 1 or more alcoholic beverages,
with respect to the activities of such facility that relate to
the manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of alcoholic
beverages.

(b) Limited Receipt and Distribution of Non-alcohol
Food. <> –Subsection (a) shall not apply to a
facility engaged in the receipt and distribution of any non-alcohol
food, except that such paragraph shall apply to a facility described in
such paragraph

[[Page 124 STAT. 3923]]

that receives and distributes non-alcohol food, provided such food is
received and distributed–
(1) in a prepackaged form that prevents any direct human
contact with such food; and
(2) in amounts that constitute not more than 5 percent of
the overall sales of such facility, as determined by the
Secretary of the Treasury.

(c) Rule of Construction.–Except as provided in subsections (a) and
(b), this section shall not be construed to exempt any food, other than
alcoholic beverages, as defined in section 214 of the Federal Alcohol
Administration Act (27 U.S.C. 214), from the requirements of this Act
(including the amendments made by this Act).

TITLE II–IMPROVING CAPACITY TO DETECT AND RESPOND TO FOOD SAFETY
PROBLEMS

SEC. 201. TARGETING OF INSPECTION RESOURCES FOR DOMESTIC
FACILITIES, FOREIGN FACILITIES, AND PORTS
OF ENTRY; ANNUAL REPORT.

(a) Targeting of Inspection Resources for Domestic Facilities,
Foreign Facilities, and Ports of Entry.–Chapter IV (21 U.S.C. 341 et
seq.), as amended by section 106, is amended by adding at the end the
following:
“SEC. 421. <> TARGETING OF INSPECTION
RESOURCES FOR DOMESTIC FACILITIES, FOREIGN
FACILITIES, AND PORTS OF ENTRY; ANNUAL
REPORT.

“(a) Identification and Inspection of Facilities.–
“(1) Identification.–The Secretary shall identify high-
risk facilities and shall allocate resources to inspect
facilities according to the known safety risks of the
facilities, which shall be based on the following factors:
“(A) The known safety risks of the food
manufactured, processed, packed, or held at the
facility.
“(B) The compliance history of a facility,
including with regard to food recalls, outbreaks of
foodborne illness, and violations of food safety
standards.
“(C) The rigor and effectiveness of the facility’s
hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls.
“(D) Whether the food manufactured, processed,
packed, or held at the facility meets the criteria for
priority under section 801(h)(1).
“(E) Whether the food or the facility that
manufactured, processed, packed, or held such food has
received a certification as described in section 801(q)
or 806, as appropriate.
“(F) Any other criteria deemed necessary and
appropriate by the Secretary for purposes of allocating
inspection resources.
“(2) Inspections.–
“(A) In general. <> —
Beginning on the date of enactment of the FDA Food
Safety Modernization Act, the Secretary shall increase
the frequency of inspection of all facilities.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3924]]

“(B) Domestic high-risk
facilities. <> –The Secretary shall
increase the frequency of inspection of domestic
facilities identified under paragraph (1) as high-risk
facilities such that each such facility is inspected–
“(i) not less often than once in the 5-year
period following the date of enactment of the FDA
Food Safety Modernization Act; and
“(ii) not less often than once every 3 years
thereafter.
“(C) Domestic non-high-risk
facilities. <> –The Secretary shall
ensure that each domestic facility that is not
identified under paragraph (1) as a high-risk facility
is inspected–
“(i) not less often than once in the 7-year
period following the date of enactment of the FDA
Food Safety Modernization Act; and
“(ii) not less often than once every 5 years
thereafter.
“(D) <> Foreign facilities.–
“(i) Year 1.–In the 1-year period following
the date of enactment of the FDA Food Safety
Modernization Act, the Secretary shall inspect not
fewer than 600 foreign facilities.
“(ii) Subsequent years.–In each of the 5
years following the 1-year period described in
clause (i), the Secretary shall inspect not fewer
than twice the number of foreign facilities
inspected by the Secretary during the previous
year.
“(E) Reliance on federal, state, or local
inspections.–In meeting the inspection requirements
under this subsection for domestic facilities, the
Secretary may rely on inspections conducted by other
Federal, State, or local agencies under interagency
agreement, contract, memoranda of understanding, or
other obligation.

“(b) Identification and Inspection at Ports of Entry.–The
Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security,
shall allocate resources to inspect any article of food imported into
the United States according to the known safety risks of the article of
food, which shall be based on the following factors:
“(1) The known safety risks of the food imported.
“(2) The known safety risks of the countries or regions of
origin and countries through which such article of food is
transported.
“(3) The compliance history of the importer, including with
regard to food recalls, outbreaks of foodborne illness, and
violations of food safety standards.
“(4) The rigor and effectiveness of the activities
conducted by the importer of such article of food to satisfy the
requirements of the foreign supplier verification program under
section 805.
“(5) Whether the food importer participates in the
voluntary qualified importer program under section 806.
“(6) Whether the food meets the criteria for priority under
section 801(h)(1).

[[Page 124 STAT. 3925]]

“(7) Whether the food or the facility that manufactured,
processed, packed, or held such food received a certification as
described in section 801(q) or 806.
“(8) Any other criteria deemed necessary and appropriate by
the Secretary for purposes of allocating inspection resources.

“(c) Interagency Agreements With Respect to Seafood.–
“(1) In general.–The Secretary of Health and Human
Services, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Homeland
Security, the Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission, and the
heads of other appropriate agencies may enter into such
agreements as may be necessary or appropriate to improve seafood
safety.
“(2) Scope of agreements.–The agreements under paragraph
(1) may include–
“(A) cooperative arrangements for examining and
testing seafood imports that leverage the resources,
capabilities, and authorities of each party to the
agreement;
“(B) coordination of inspections of foreign
facilities to increase the percentage of imported
seafood and seafood facilities inspected;
“(C) standardization of data on seafood names,
inspection records, and laboratory testing to improve
interagency coordination;
“(D) coordination to detect and investigate
violations under applicable Federal law;
“(E) a process, including the use or modification
of existing processes, by which officers and employees
of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
may be duly designated by the Secretary to carry out
seafood examinations and investigations under section
801 of this Act or section 203 of the Food Allergen
Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004;
“(F) the sharing of information concerning observed
non-compliance with United States food requirements
domestically and in foreign nations and new regulatory
decisions and policies that may affect the safety of
food imported into the United States;
“(G) conducting joint training on subjects that
affect and strengthen seafood inspection effectiveness
by Federal authorities; and
“(H) outreach on Federal efforts to enhance seafood
safety and compliance with Federal food safety
requirements.

“(d) Coordination.–The Secretary shall improve coordination and
cooperation with the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of
Homeland Security to target food inspection resources.
“(e) Facility. <> –For purposes of this
section, the term `facility’ means a domestic facility or a foreign
facility that is required to register under section 415.”.

(b) Annual Report.–Section 1003 (21 U.S.C. 393) is amended by
adding at the end the following:
“(h) Annual Report Regarding Food.–Not later than February 1 of
each year, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report, including
efforts to coordinate and cooperate with other Federal agencies with
responsibilities for food inspections, regarding–
“(1) information about food facilities including–

[[Page 124 STAT. 3926]]

“(A) the appropriations used to inspect facilities
registered pursuant to section 415 in the previous
fiscal year;
“(B) the average cost of both a non-high-risk food
facility inspection and a high-risk food facility
inspection, if such a difference exists, in the previous
fiscal year;
“(C) the number of domestic facilities and the
number of foreign facilities registered pursuant to
section 415 that the Secretary inspected in the previous
fiscal year;
“(D) the number of domestic facilities and the
number of foreign facilities registered pursuant to
section 415 that were scheduled for inspection in the
previous fiscal year and which the Secretary did not
inspect in such year;
“(E) the number of high-risk facilities identified
pursuant to section 421 that the Secretary inspected in
the previous fiscal year; and
“(F) the number of high-risk facilities identified
pursuant to section 421 that were scheduled for
inspection in the previous fiscal year and which the
Secretary did not inspect in such year.
“(2) information about food imports including–
“(A) the number of lines of food imported into the
United States that the Secretary physically inspected or
sampled in the previous fiscal year;
“(B) the number of lines of food imported into the
United States that the Secretary did not physically
inspect or sample in the previous fiscal year; and
“(C) the average cost of physically inspecting or
sampling a line of food subject to this Act that is
imported or offered for import into the United States;
and
“(3) information on the foreign offices of the Food and
Drug Administration including–
“(A) the number of foreign offices established; and
“(B) the number of personnel permanently stationed
in each foreign office.

“(i) Public Availability of Annual Food Reports. <> –The Secretary shall make the reports required under
subsection (h) available to the public on the Internet Web site of the
Food and Drug Administration.”.

(c) <> Advisory Committee Consultation.–
In allocating inspection resources as described in section 421 of the
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by subsection (a)), the
Secretary may, as appropriate, consult with any relevant advisory
committee within the Department of Health and Human Services.
SEC. 202. LABORATORY ACCREDITATION FOR ANALYSES OF FOODS.

(a) In General.–Chapter IV (21 U.S.C. 341 et seq.), as amended by
section 201, is amended by adding at the end the following:
“SEC. 422. <> LABORATORY ACCREDITATION FOR
ANALYSES OF FOODS.

“(a) Recognition of Laboratory Accreditation.–
“(1) In general. <> –Not later than 2
years after the date of enactment of the FDA Food Safety
Modernization Act, the Secretary shall–
“(A) establish a program for the testing of food by
accredited laboratories;
“(B) <> establish a publicly
available registry of accreditation bodies recognized by
the Secretary and laboratories

[[Page 124 STAT. 3927]]

accredited by a recognized accreditation body, including
the name of, contact information for, and other
information deemed appropriate by the Secretary about
such bodies and laboratories; and
“(C) require, as a condition of recognition or
accreditation, as appropriate, that recognized
accreditation bodies and accredited laboratories report
to the Secretary any changes that would affect the
recognition of such accreditation body or the
accreditation of such laboratory.
“(2) Program requirements.–The program established under
paragraph (1)(A) shall provide for the recognition of laboratory
accreditation bodies that meet criteria established by the
Secretary for accreditation of laboratories, including
independent private laboratories and laboratories run and
operated by a Federal agency (including the Department of
Commerce), State, or locality with a demonstrated capability to
conduct 1 or more sampling and analytical testing methodologies
for food.
“(3) Increasing the number of qualified laboratories.–The
Secretary shall work with the laboratory accreditation bodies
recognized under paragraph (1), as appropriate, to increase the
number of qualified laboratories that are eligible to perform
testing under subparagraph (b) beyond the number so qualified on
the date of enactment of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act.
“(4) Limited distribution.–In the interest of national
security, the Secretary, in coordination with the Secretary of
Homeland Security, may determine the time, manner, and form in
which the registry established under paragraph (1)(B) is made
publicly available.
“(5) Foreign laboratories.–Accreditation bodies recognized
by the Secretary under paragraph (1) may accredit laboratories
that operate outside the United States, so long as such
laboratories meet the accreditation standards applicable to
domestic laboratories accredited under this section.
“(6) Model laboratory standards.–The Secretary shall
develop model standards that a laboratory shall meet to be
accredited by a recognized accreditation body for a specified
sampling or analytical testing methodology and included in the
registry provided for under paragraph (1). In developing the
model standards, the Secretary shall consult existing standards
for guidance. The model standards shall include–
“(A) methods to ensure that–
“(i) appropriate sampling, analytical
procedures (including rapid analytical
procedures), and commercially available techniques
are followed and reports of analyses are certified
as true and accurate;
“(ii) internal quality systems are
established and maintained;
“(iii) procedures exist to evaluate and
respond promptly to complaints regarding analyses
and other activities for which the laboratory is
accredited; and
“(iv) individuals who conduct the sampling
and analyses are qualified by training and
experience to do so; and
“(B) any other criteria determined appropriate by
the Secretary.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3928]]

“(7) Review of recognition.–To ensure compliance with the
requirements of this section, the Secretary–
“(A) shall periodically, and in no case less than
once every 5 years, reevaluate accreditation bodies
recognized under paragraph (1) and may accompany
auditors from an accreditation body to assess whether
the accreditation body meets the criteria for
recognition; and
“(B) shall promptly revoke the recognition of any
accreditation body found not to be in compliance with
the requirements of this section, specifying, as
appropriate, any terms and conditions necessary for
laboratories accredited by such body to continue to
perform testing as described in this section.

“(b) Testing Procedures.–
“(1) In general.–Not later than 30 months after the date
of enactment of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, food
testing shall be conducted by Federal laboratories or non-
Federal laboratories that have been accredited for the
appropriate sampling or analytical testing methodology or
methodologies by a recognized accreditation body on the registry
established by the Secretary under subsection (a)(1)(B) whenever
such testing is conducted–
“(A) by or on behalf of an owner or consignee–
“(i) in response to a specific testing
requirement under this Act or implementing
regulations, when applied to address an identified
or suspected food safety problem; and
“(ii) as required by the Secretary, as the
Secretary deems appropriate, to address an
identified or suspected food safety problem; or
“(B) on behalf of an owner or consignee–
“(i) in support of admission of an article of
food under section 801(a); and
“(ii) under an Import Alert that requires
successful consecutive tests.
“(2) Results of testing.–The results of any such testing
shall be sent directly to the Food and Drug Administration,
except the Secretary may by regulation exempt test results from
such submission requirement if the Secretary determines that
such results do not contribute to the protection of public
health. Test results required to be submitted may be submitted
to the Food and Drug Administration through electronic means.
“(3) Exception. <> –The Secretary
may waive requirements under this subsection if–
“(A) a new methodology or methodologies have been
developed and validated but a laboratory has not yet
been accredited to perform such methodology or
methodologies; and
“(B) the use of such methodology or methodologies
are necessary to prevent, control, or mitigate a food
emergency or foodborne illness outbreak.

“(c) Review by Secretary.–If food sampling and testing performed
by a laboratory run and operated by a State or locality that is
accredited by a recognized accreditation body on the registry
established by the Secretary under subsection (a) result in a State
recalling a food, the Secretary shall review the sampling and testing

[[Page 124 STAT. 3929]]

results for the purpose of determining the need for a national recall or
other compliance and enforcement activities.
“(d) No Limit on Secretarial Authority.–Nothing in this section
shall be construed to limit the ability of the Secretary to review and
act upon information from food testing, including determining the
sufficiency of such information and testing.”.
(b) Food Emergency Response Network. <> –The Secretary, in coordination with
the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and
State, local, and tribal governments shall, not later than 180 days
after the date of enactment of this Act, and biennially thereafter,
submit to the relevant committees of Congress, and make publicly
available on the Internet Web site of the Department of Health and Human
Services, a report on the progress in implementing a national food
emergency response laboratory network that–
(1) provides ongoing surveillance, rapid detection, and
surge capacity for large-scale food-related emergencies,
including intentional adulteration of the food supply;
(2) coordinates the food laboratory capacities of State,
local, and tribal food laboratories, including the adoption of
novel surveillance and identification technologies and the
sharing of data between Federal agencies and State laboratories
to develop national situational awareness;
(3) provides accessible, timely, accurate, and consistent
food laboratory services throughout the United States;
(4) develops and implements a methods repository for use by
Federal, State, and local officials;
(5) responds to food-related emergencies; and
(6) is integrated with relevant laboratory networks
administered by other Federal agencies.
SEC. 203. <> INTEGRATED CONSORTIUM OF
LABORATORY NETWORKS.

(a) In General. <> –The Secretary of Homeland
Security, in coordination with the Secretary of Health and Human
Services, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, and
the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall maintain
an agreement through which relevant laboratory network members, as
determined by the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall–
(1) agree on common laboratory methods in order to reduce
the time required to detect and respond to foodborne illness
outbreaks and facilitate the sharing of knowledge and
information relating to animal health, agriculture, and human
health;
(2) identify means by which laboratory network members could
work cooperatively–
(A) to optimize national laboratory preparedness;
and
(B) to provide surge capacity during emergencies;
and
(3) engage in ongoing dialogue and build relationships that
will support a more effective and integrated response during
emergencies.

(b) Reporting Requirement. <> –The Secretary of
Homeland Security shall, on a biennial basis, submit to the relevant
committees of Congress, and make publicly available on the Internet Web
site of the Department of Homeland Security, a report on the progress of
the integrated consortium of laboratory networks, as established under
subsection (a), in carrying out this section.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3930]]

SEC. 204. <> ENHANCING TRACKING AND TRACING
OF FOOD AND RECORDKEEPING.

(a) Pilot Projects.–
(1) In general.–Not later than 270 days after the date of
enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Health and Human
Services (referred to in this section as the “Secretary”),
taking into account recommendations from the Secretary of
Agriculture and representatives of State departments of health
and agriculture, shall establish pilot projects in coordination
with the food industry to explore and evaluate methods to
rapidly and effectively identify recipients of food to prevent
or mitigate a foodborne illness outbreak and to address credible
threats of serious adverse health consequences or death to
humans or animals as a result of such food being adulterated
under section 402 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
(21 U.S.C. 342) or misbranded under section 403(w) of such Act
(21 U.S.C. 343(w)).
(2) Content.–The Secretary shall conduct 1 or more pilot
projects under paragraph (1) in coordination with the processed
food sector and 1 or more such pilot projects in coordination
with processors or distributors of fruits and vegetables that
are raw agricultural commodities. The Secretary shall ensure
that the pilot projects under paragraph (1) reflect the
diversity of the food supply and include at least 3 different
types of foods that have been the subject of significant
outbreaks during the 5-year period preceding the date of
enactment of this Act, and are selected in order to–
(A) develop and demonstrate methods for rapid and
effective tracking and tracing of foods in a manner that
is practicable for facilities of varying sizes,
including small businesses;
(B) develop and demonstrate appropriate
technologies, including technologies existing on the
date of enactment of this Act, that enhance the tracking
and tracing of food; and
(C) inform the promulgation of regulations under
subsection (d).
(3) Report. <> –Not later than 18
months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary
shall report to Congress on the findings of the pilot projects
under this subsection together with recommendations for
improving the tracking and tracing of food.

(b) Additional Data Gathering.–
(1) In general.–The Secretary, in coordination with the
Secretary of Agriculture and multiple representatives of State
departments of health and agriculture, shall assess–
(A) the costs and benefits associated with the
adoption and use of several product tracing
technologies, including technologies used in the pilot
projects under subsection (a);
(B) the feasibility of such technologies for
different sectors of the food industry, including small
businesses; and
(C) whether such technologies are compatible with
the requirements of this subsection.
(2) Requirements.–To the extent practicable, in carrying
out paragraph (1), the Secretary shall–

[[Page 124 STAT. 3931]]

(A) evaluate domestic and international product
tracing practices in commercial use;
(B) consider international efforts, including an
assessment of whether product tracing requirements
developed under this section are compatible with global
tracing systems, as appropriate; and
(C) <> consult with a diverse
and broad range of experts and stakeholders, including
representatives of the food industry, agricultural
producers, and nongovernmental organizations that
represent the interests of consumers.

(c) Product Tracing System.–The Secretary, in consultation with the
Secretary of Agriculture, shall, as appropriate, establish within the
Food and Drug Administration a product tracing system to receive
information that improves the capacity of the Secretary to effectively
and rapidly track and trace food that is in the United States or offered
for import into the United States. Prior to the establishment of such
product tracing system, the Secretary shall examine the results of
applicable pilot projects and shall ensure that the activities of such
system are adequately supported by the results of such pilot projects.
(d) Additional Recordkeeping Requirements for High Risk Foods.–
(1) In general. <> —
In order to rapidly and effectively identify recipients of a
food to prevent or mitigate a foodborne illness outbreak and to
address credible threats of serious adverse health consequences
or death to humans or animals as a result of such food being
adulterated under section 402 of the Federal Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act or misbranded under section 403(w) of such Act, not
later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the
Secretary shall publish a notice of proposed rulemaking to
establish recordkeeping requirements, in addition to the
requirements under section 414 of the Federal Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 350c) and subpart J of part 1 of title
21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulations),
for facilities that manufacture, process, pack, or hold foods
that the Secretary designates under paragraph (2) as high-risk
foods. The Secretary shall set an appropriate effective date of
such additional requirements for foods designated as high risk
that takes into account the length of time necessary to comply
with such requirements. Such requirements shall–
(A) relate only to information that is reasonably
available and appropriate;
(B) be science-based;
(C) not prescribe specific technologies for the
maintenance of records;
(D) ensure that the public health benefits of
imposing additional recordkeeping requirements outweigh
the cost of compliance with such requirements;
(E) be scale-appropriate and practicable for
facilities of varying sizes and capabilities with
respect to costs and recordkeeping burdens, and not
require the creation and maintenance of duplicate
records where the information is contained in other
company records kept in the normal course of business;

[[Page 124 STAT. 3932]]

(F) minimize the number of different recordkeeping
requirements for facilities that handle more than 1 type
of food;
(G) to the extent practicable, not require a
facility to change business systems to comply with such
requirements;
(H) allow any person subject to this subsection to
maintain records required under this subsection at a
central or reasonably accessible location provided that
such records can be made available to the Secretary not
later than 24 hours after the Secretary requests such
records; and
(I) include a process by which the Secretary may
issue a waiver of the requirements under this subsection
if the Secretary determines that such requirements would
result in an economic hardship for an individual
facility or a type of facility;
(J) be commensurate with the known safety risks of
the designated food;
(K) take into account international trade
obligations;
(L) not require–
(i) a full pedigree, or a record of the
complete previous distribution history of the food
from the point of origin of such food;
(ii) records of recipients of a food beyond
the immediate subsequent recipient of such food;
or
(iii) product tracking to the case level by
persons subject to such requirements; and
(M) include a process by which the Secretary may
remove a high-risk food designation developed under
paragraph (2) for a food or type of food.
(2) Designation of high-risk foods.–
(A) In general. <> –Not later than
1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, and
thereafter as the Secretary determines necessary, the
Secretary shall designate high-risk foods for which the
additional recordkeeping requirements described in
paragraph (1) are appropriate and necessary to protect
the public health. Each such designation shall be based
on–
(i) the known safety risks of a particular
food, including the history and severity of
foodborne illness outbreaks attributed to such
food, taking into consideration foodborne illness
data collected by the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention;
(ii) the likelihood that a particular food has
a high potential risk for microbiological or
chemical contamination or would support the growth
of pathogenic microorganisms due to the nature of
the food or the processes used to produce such
food;
(iii) the point in the manufacturing process
of the food where contamination is most likely to
occur;
(iv) the likelihood of contamination and steps
taken during the manufacturing process to reduce
the possibility of contamination;
(v) the likelihood that consuming a particular
food will result in a foodborne illness due to
contamination of the food; and

[[Page 124 STAT. 3933]]

(vi) the likely or known severity, including
health and economic impacts, of a foodborne
illness attributed to a particular food.
(B) List of high-risk foods. <> –At the time the Secretary promulgates the
final rules under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall
publish the list of the foods designated under
subparagraph (A) as high-risk foods on the Internet
website of the Food and Drug
Administration. <> The Secretary may update the
list to designate new high-risk foods and to remove
foods that are no longer deemed to be high-risk foods,
provided that each such update to the list is consistent
with the requirements of this subsection and notice of
such update is published in the Federal Register.
(3) Protection of sensitive information.–In promulgating
regulations under this subsection, the Secretary shall take
appropriate measures to ensure that there are effective
procedures to prevent the unauthorized disclosure of any trade
secret or confidential information that is obtained by the
Secretary pursuant to this section, including periodic risk
assessment and planning to prevent unauthorized release and
controls to–
(A) prevent unauthorized reproduction of trade
secret or confidential information;
(B) prevent unauthorized access to trade secret or
confidential information; and
(C) maintain records with respect to access by any
person to trade secret or confidential information
maintained by the agency.
(4) Public input.–During the comment period in the notice
of proposed rulemaking under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall
conduct not less than 3 public meetings in diverse geographical
areas of the United States to provide persons in different
regions an opportunity to comment.
(5) Retention of records.–Except as otherwise provided in
this subsection, the Secretary may require that a facility
retain records under this subsection for not more than 2 years,
taking into consideration the risk of spoilage, loss of value,
or loss of palatability of the applicable food when determining
the appropriate timeframes.
(6) Limitations.–
(A) Farm to school programs.–In establishing
requirements under this subsection, the Secretary shall,
in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture,
consider the impact of requirements on farm to school or
farm to institution programs of the Department of
Agriculture and other farm to school and farm to
institution programs outside such agency, and shall
modify the requirements under this subsection, as
appropriate, with respect to such programs so that the
requirements do not place undue burdens on farm to
school or farm to institution programs.
(B) Identity-preserved labels with respect to farm
sales of food that is produced and packaged on a farm.–
The requirements under this subsection shall not apply
to a food that is produced and packaged on a farm if–

[[Page 124 STAT. 3934]]

(i) the packaging of the food maintains the
integrity of the product and prevents subsequent
contamination or alteration of the product; and
(ii) the labeling of the food includes the
name, complete address (street address, town,
State, country, and zip or other postal code), and
business phone number of the farm, unless the
Secretary waives the requirement to include a
business phone number of the farm, as appropriate,
in order to accommodate a religious belief of the
individual in charge of such farm.
(C) Fishing vessels.–The requirements under this
subsection with respect to a food that is produced
through the use of a fishing vessel (as defined in
section 3(18) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery
Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1802(18)))
shall be limited to the requirements under subparagraph
(F) until such time as the food is sold by the owner,
operator, or agent in charge of such fishing vessel.
(D) Commingled raw agricultural commodities.–
(i) Limitation on extent of tracing.–
Recordkeeping requirements under this subsection
with regard to any commingled raw agricultural
commodity shall be limited to the requirements
under subparagraph (F).
(ii) Definitions.–For the purposes of this
subparagraph–
(I) the term “commingled raw
agricultural commodity” means any
commodity that is combined or mixed
after harvesting, but before processing;
(II) the term “commingled raw
agricultural commodity” shall not
include types of fruits and vegetables
that are raw agricultural commodities
for which the Secretary has determined
that standards promulgated under section
419 of the Federal Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act (as added by section 105)
would minimize the risk of serious
adverse health consequences or death;
and
(III) the term “processing” means
operations that alter the general state
of the commodity, such as canning,
cooking, freezing, dehydration, milling,
grinding, pasteurization, or
homogenization.
(E) Exemption of other foods.–The Secretary may, by
notice in the Federal Register, modify the requirements
under this subsection with respect to, or exempt a food
or a type of facility from, the requirements of this
subsection (other than the requirements under
subparagraph (F), if applicable) if the Secretary
determines that product tracing requirements for such
food (such as bulk or commingled ingredients that are
intended to be processed to destroy pathogens) or type
of facility is not necessary to protect the public
health.
(F) Recordkeeping regarding previous sources and
subsequent recipients.–In the case of a person or food
to which a limitation or exemption under subparagraph
(C), (D), or (E) applies, if such person, or a person
who

[[Page 124 STAT. 3935]]

manufactures, processes, packs, or holds such food, is
required to register with the Secretary under section
415 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21
U.S.C. 350d) with respect to the manufacturing,
processing, packing, or holding of the applicable food,
the Secretary shall require such person to maintain
records that identify the immediate previous source of
such food and the immediate subsequent recipient of such
food.
(G) Grocery stores. <> –With
respect to a sale of a food described in subparagraph
(H) to a grocery store, the Secretary shall not require
such grocery store to maintain records under this
subsection other than records documenting the farm that
was the source of such food. The Secretary shall not
require that such records be kept for more than 180
days.
(H) Farm sales to consumers.–The Secretary shall
not require a farm to maintain any distribution records
under this subsection with respect to a sale of a food
described in subparagraph (I) (including a sale of a
food that is produced and packaged on such farm), if
such sale is made by the farm directly to a consumer.
(I) Sale of a food.–A sale of a food described in
this subparagraph is a sale of a food in which–
(i) the food is produced on a farm; and
(ii) the sale is made by the owner, operator,
or agent in charge of such farm directly to a
consumer or grocery store.
(7) No impact on non-high-risk foods.–The recordkeeping
requirements established under paragraph (1) shall have no
effect on foods that are not designated by the Secretary under
paragraph (2) as high-risk foods. Foods described in the
preceding sentence shall be subject solely to the recordkeeping
requirements under section 414 of the Federal Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 350c) and subpart J of part 1 of title
21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulations).

(e) Evaluation and Recommendations.–
(1) Report.–Not later than 1 year after the effective date
of the final rule promulgated under subsection (d)(1), the
Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to
Congress a report, taking into consideration the costs of
compliance and other regulatory burdens on small businesses and
Federal, State, and local food safety practices and
requirements, that evaluates the public health benefits and
risks, if any, of limiting–
(A) the product tracing requirements under
subsection (d) to foods identified under paragraph (2)
of such subsection, including whether such requirements
provide adequate assurance of traceability in the event
of intentional adulteration, including by acts of
terrorism; and
(B) the participation of restaurants in the
recordkeeping requirements.
(2) Determination and recommendations.–In conducting the
evaluation and report under paragraph (1), if the Comptroller
General of the United States determines that the limitations
described in such paragraph do not adequately protect the public
health, the Comptroller General shall submit

[[Page 124 STAT. 3936]]

to Congress recommendations, if appropriate, regarding
recordkeeping requirements for restaurants and additional foods,
in order to protect the public health.

(f) Farms.–
(1) Request for information.–Notwithstanding subsection
(d), during an active investigation of a foodborne illness
outbreak, or if the Secretary determines it is necessary to
protect the public health and prevent or mitigate a foodborne
illness outbreak, the Secretary, in consultation and
coordination with State and local agencies responsible for food
safety, as appropriate, may request that the owner, operator, or
agent of a farm identify potential immediate recipients, other
than consumers, of an article of the food that is the subject of
such investigation if the Secretary reasonably believes such
article of food–
(A) is adulterated under section 402 of the Federal
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act;
(B) presents a threat of serious adverse health
consequences or death to humans or animals; and
(C) was adulterated as described in subparagraph (A)
on a particular farm (as defined in section 1.227 of
chapter 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any
successor regulation)).
(2) Manner of request. <> –In making a
request under paragraph (1), the Secretary, in consultation and
coordination with State and local agencies responsible for food
safety, as appropriate, shall issue a written notice to the
owner, operator, or agent of the farm to which the article of
food has been traced. The individual providing such notice shall
present to such owner, operator, or agent appropriate
credentials and shall deliver such notice at reasonable times
and within reasonable limits and in a reasonable manner.
(3) Delivery of information requested.–The owner, operator,
or agent of a farm shall deliver the information requested under
paragraph (1) in a prompt and reasonable manner. Such
information may consist of records kept in the normal course of
business, and may be in electronic or non-electronic format.
(4) Limitation.–A request made under paragraph (1) shall
not include a request for information relating to the finances,
pricing of commodities produced, personnel, research, sales
(other than information relating to shipping), or other
disclosures that may reveal trade secrets or confidential
information from the farm to which the article of food has been
traced, other than information necessary to identify potential
immediate recipients of such food. <>
Section 301(j) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and
the Freedom of Information Act shall apply with respect to any
confidential commercial information that is disclosed to the
Food and Drug Administration in the course of responding to a
request under paragraph (1).
(5) Records.–Except with respect to identifying potential
immediate recipients in response to a request under this
subsection, nothing in this subsection shall require the
establishment or maintenance by farms of new records.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3937]]

(g) No Limitation on Commingling of Food.–Nothing in this section
shall be construed to authorize the Secretary to impose any limitation
on the commingling of food.
(h) Small Entity Compliance Guide. <> –Not later
than 180 days after promulgation of a final rule under subsection (d),
the Secretary shall issue a small entity compliance guide setting forth
in plain language the requirements of the regulations under such
subsection in order to assist small entities, including farms and small
businesses, in complying with the recordkeeping requirements under such
subsection.

(i) Flexibility for Small
Businesses. <> —
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the regulations promulgated
under subsection (d) shall apply–
(1) to small businesses (as defined by the Secretary in
section 103, not later than 90 days after the date of enactment
of this Act) beginning on the date that is 1 year after the
effective date of the final regulations promulgated under
subsection (d); and
(2) to very small businesses (as defined by the Secretary in
section 103, not later than 90 days after the date of enactment
of this Act) beginning on the date that is 2 years after the
effective date of the final regulations promulgated under
subsection (d).

(j) Enforcement.–
(1) Prohibited acts.–Section 301(e) (21 U.S.C. 331(e)) is
amended by inserting “; or the violation of any recordkeeping
requirement under section 204 of the FDA Food Safety
Modernization Act (except when such violation is committed by a
farm)” before the period at the end.
(2) Imports.–Section 801(a) (21 U.S.C. 381(a)) is amended
by inserting “or (4) the recordkeeping requirements under
section 204 of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (other than
the requirements under subsection (f) of such section) have not
been complied with regarding such article,” in the third
sentence before “then such article shall be refused
admission”.
SEC. 205. <> SURVEILLANCE.

(a) Definition of Foodborne Illness Outbreak.–In this Act, the term
“foodborne illness outbreak” means the occurrence of 2 or more cases
of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a certain food.
(b) Foodborne Illness Surveillance Systems.–
(1) In general.–The Secretary, acting through the Director
of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, shall enhance
foodborne illness surveillance systems to improve the
collection, analysis, reporting, and usefulness of data on
foodborne illnesses by–
(A) coordinating Federal, State and local foodborne
illness surveillance systems, including complaint
systems, and increasing participation in national
networks of public health and food regulatory agencies
and laboratories;
(B) facilitating sharing of surveillance information
on a more timely basis among governmental agencies,
including the Food and Drug Administration, the
Department of Agriculture, the Department of Homeland
Security, and State and local agencies, and with the
public;

[[Page 124 STAT. 3938]]

(C) developing improved epidemiological tools for
obtaining quality exposure data and microbiological
methods for classifying cases;
(D) augmenting such systems to improve attribution
of a foodborne illness outbreak to a specific food;
(E) expanding capacity of such systems, including
working toward automatic electronic searches, for
implementation of identification practices, including
fingerprinting strategies, for foodborne infectious
agents, in order to identify new or rarely documented
causes of foodborne illness and submit standardized
information to a centralized database;
(F) allowing timely public access to aggregated, de-
identified surveillance data;
(G) at least annually, publishing current reports on
findings from such systems;
(H) establishing a flexible mechanism for rapidly
initiating scientific research by academic institutions;
(I) integrating foodborne illness surveillance
systems and data with other biosurveillance and public
health situational awareness capabilities at the
Federal, State, and local levels, including by sharing
foodborne illness surveillance data with the National
Biosurveillance Integration Center; and
(J) other activities as determined appropriate by
the Secretary.
(2) Working group.–The Secretary shall support and maintain
a diverse working group of experts and stakeholders from
Federal, State, and local food safety and health agencies, the
food and food testing industries, consumer organizations, and
academia. <> Such
working group shall provide the Secretary, through at least
annual meetings of the working group and an annual public
report, advice and recommendations on an ongoing and regular
basis regarding the improvement of foodborne illness
surveillance and implementation of this section, including
advice and recommendations on–
(A) the priority needs of regulatory agencies, the
food industry, and consumers for information and
analysis on foodborne illness and its causes;
(B) opportunities to improve the effectiveness of
initiatives at the Federal, State, and local levels,
including coordination and integration of activities
among Federal agencies, and between the Federal, State,
and local levels of government;
(C) improvement in the timeliness and depth of
access by regulatory and health agencies, the food
industry, academic researchers, and consumers to
foodborne illness aggregated, de-identified surveillance
data collected by government agencies at all levels,
including data compiled by the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention;
(D) key barriers at Federal, State, and local levels
to improving foodborne illness surveillance and the
utility of such surveillance for preventing foodborne
illness;
(E) the capabilities needed for establishing
automatic electronic searches of surveillance data; and
(F) specific actions to reduce barriers to
improvement, implement the working group’s
recommendations, and

[[Page 124 STAT. 3939]]

achieve the purposes of this section, with measurable
objectives and timelines, and identification of resource
and staffing needs.
(3) Authorization of appropriations.–To carry out the
activities described in paragraph (1), there is authorized to be
appropriated $24,000,000 for each fiscal years 2011 through
2015.

(c) Improving Food Safety and Defense Capacity at the State and
Local Level.–
(1) In general. <> –The Secretary shall
develop and implement strategies to leverage and enhance the
food safety and defense capacities of State and local agencies
in order to achieve the following goals:
(A) Improve foodborne illness outbreak response and
containment.
(B) Accelerate foodborne illness surveillance and
outbreak investigation, including rapid shipment of
clinical isolates from clinical laboratories to
appropriate State laboratories, and conducting more
standardized illness outbreak interviews.
(C) Strengthen the capacity of State and local
agencies to carry out inspections and enforce safety
standards.
(D) Improve the effectiveness of Federal, State, and
local partnerships to coordinate food safety and defense
resources and reduce the incidence of foodborne illness.
(E) Share information on a timely basis among public
health and food regulatory agencies, with the food
industry, with health care providers, and with the
public.
(F) Strengthen the capacity of State and local
agencies to achieve the goals described in section 108.
(2) Review. <> –In developing of the
strategies required by paragraph (1), the Secretary shall, not
later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the FDA Food
Safety Modernization Act, complete a review of State and local
capacities, and needs for enhancement, which may include a
survey with respect to–
(A) staffing levels and expertise available to
perform food safety and defense functions;
(B) laboratory capacity to support surveillance,
outbreak response, inspection, and enforcement
activities;
(C) information systems to support data management
and sharing of food safety and defense information among
State and local agencies and with counterparts at the
Federal level; and
(D) other State and local activities and needs as
determined appropriate by the Secretary.

(d) Food Safety Capacity Building Grants.–Section 317R(b) of the
Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 247b-20(b)) is amended–
(1) by striking “2002” and inserting “2010”; and
(2) by striking “2003 through 2006” and inserting “2011
through 2015”.
SEC. 206. MANDATORY RECALL AUTHORITY.

(a) In General.–Chapter IV (21 U.S.C. 341 et seq.), as amended by
section 202, is amended by adding at the end the following:

[[Page 124 STAT. 3940]]

“SEC. 423. <> MANDATORY RECALL AUTHORITY.

“(a) Voluntary Procedures. <> –If the
Secretary determines, based on information gathered through the
reportable food registry under section 417 or through any other means,
that there is a reasonable probability that an article of food (other
than infant formula) is adulterated under section 402 or misbranded
under section 403(w) and the use of or exposure to such article will
cause serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals,
the Secretary shall provide the responsible party (as defined in section
417) with an opportunity to cease distribution and recall such article.

“(b) Prehearing Order To Cease Distribution and Give Notice.–
“(1) In general.–If the responsible party refuses to or
does not voluntarily cease distribution or recall such article
within the time and in the manner prescribed by the Secretary
(if so prescribed), the Secretary may, by order require, as the
Secretary deems necessary, such person to–
“(A) immediately cease distribution of such
article; and
“(B) as applicable, immediately notify all
persons–
“(i) manufacturing, processing, packing,
transporting, distributing, receiving, holding, or
importing and selling such article; and
“(ii) to which such article has been
distributed, transported, or sold, to immediately
cease distribution of such article.
“(2) Required additional information.–
“(A) In general.–If an article of food covered by
a recall order issued under paragraph (1)(B) has been
distributed to a warehouse-based third party logistics
provider without providing such provider sufficient
information to know or reasonably determine the precise
identity of the article of food covered by a recall
order that is in its possession, the notice provided by
the responsible party subject to the order issued under
paragraph (1)(B) shall include such information as is
necessary for the warehouse-based third party logistics
provider to identify the food.
“(B) Rules of construction.–Nothing in this
paragraph shall be construed–
“(i) to exempt a warehouse-based third party
logistics provider from the requirements of this
Act, including the requirements in this section
and section 414; or
“(ii) to exempt a warehouse-based third party
logistics provider from being the subject of a
mandatory recall order.
“(3) Determination to limit areas affected.–If the
Secretary requires a responsible party to cease distribution
under paragraph (1)(A) of an article of food identified in
subsection (a), the Secretary may limit the size of the
geographic area and the markets affected by such cessation if
such limitation would not compromise the public health.

“(c) Hearing on Order. <> –The Secretary shall
provide the responsible party subject to an order under subsection (b)
with an opportunity for an informal hearing, to be held as soon as
possible, but not later than 2 days after the issuance of the order,

[[Page 124 STAT. 3941]]

on the actions required by the order and on why the article that is the
subject of the order should not be recalled.

“(d) Post-hearing Recall Order and Modification of Order.–
“(1) Amendment of order.–If, after providing opportunity
for an informal hearing under subsection (c), the Secretary
determines that removal of the article from commerce is
necessary, the Secretary shall, as appropriate–
“(A) amend the order to require recall of such
article or other appropriate action;
“(B) specify a timetable in which the recall shall
occur;
“(C) require periodic reports to the Secretary
describing the progress of the recall; and
“(D) provide notice to consumers to whom such
article was, or may have been, distributed.
“(2) Vacating of order.–If, after such hearing, the
Secretary determines that adequate grounds do not exist to
continue the actions required by the order, or that such actions
should be modified, the Secretary shall vacate the order or
modify the order.

“(e) Rule Regarding Alcoholic Beverages.–The Secretary shall not
initiate a mandatory recall or take any other action under this section
with respect to any alcohol beverage until the Secretary has provided
the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau with a reasonable
opportunity to cease distribution and recall such article under the
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau authority.
“(f) Cooperation and Consultation.–The Secretary shall work with
State and local public health officials in carrying out this section, as
appropriate.
“(g) Public Notification.–In conducting a recall under this
section, the Secretary shall–
“(1) <> ensure that a press
release is published regarding the recall, as well as alerts and
public notices, as appropriate, in order to provide
notification–
“(A) of the recall to consumers and retailers to
whom such article was, or may have been, distributed;
and
“(B) that includes, at a minimum–
“(i) the name of the article of food subject
to the recall;
“(ii) a description of the risk associated
with such article; and
“(iii) to the extent practicable, information
for consumers about similar articles of food that
are not affected by the recall;
“(2) consult the policies of the Department of Agriculture
regarding providing to the public a list of retail consignees
receiving products involved in a Class I recall and shall
consider providing such a list to the public, as determined
appropriate by the Secretary; and
“(3) <> if available, publish on the
Internet Web site of the Food and Drug Administration an image
of the article that is the subject of the press release
described in (1).

“(h) No Delegation.–The authority conferred by this section to
order a recall or vacate a recall order shall not be delegated to any
officer or employee other than the Commissioner.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3942]]

“(i) Effect.–Nothing in this section shall affect the authority of
the Secretary to request or participate in a voluntary recall, or to
issue an order to cease distribution or to recall under any other
provision of this Act or under the Public Health Service Act.
“(j) Coordinated Communication.–
“(1) In general.–To assist in carrying out the
requirements of this subsection, the Secretary shall establish
an incident command operation or a similar operation within the
Department of Health and Human Services that will operate not
later than 24 hours after the initiation of a mandatory recall
or the recall of an article of food for which the use of, or
exposure to, such article will cause serious adverse health
consequences or death to humans or animals.
“(2) Requirements.–To reduce the potential for
miscommunication during recalls or regarding investigations of a
food borne illness outbreak associated with a food that is
subject to a recall, each incident command operation or similar
operation under paragraph (1) shall use regular staff and
resources of the Department of Health and Human Services to–
“(A) ensure timely and coordinated communication
within the Department, including enhanced communication
and coordination between different agencies and
organizations within the Department;
“(B) ensure timely and coordinated communication
from the Department, including public statements,
throughout the duration of the investigation and related
foodborne illness outbreak;
“(C) identify a single point of contact within the
Department for public inquiries regarding any actions by
the Secretary related to a recall;
“(D) coordinate with Federal, State, local, and
tribal authorities, as appropriate, that have
responsibilities related to the recall of a food or a
foodborne illness outbreak associated with a food that
is subject to the recall, including notification of the
Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Education
in the event such recalled food is a commodity intended
for use in a child nutrition program (as identified in
section 25(b) of the Richard B. Russell National School
Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1769f(b))); and
“(E) conclude operations at such time as the
Secretary determines appropriate.
“(3) Multiple recalls.–The Secretary may establish
multiple or concurrent incident command operations or similar
operations in the event of multiple recalls or foodborne illness
outbreaks necessitating such action by the Department of Health
and Human Services.”.

(b) Search Engine. <> –Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this
Act, the Secretary shall modify the Internet Web site of the Food and
Drug Administration to include a search engine that–
(1) is consumer-friendly, as determined by the Secretary;
and
(2) provides a means by which an individual may locate
relevant information regarding each article of food subject to a
recall under section 423 of the Federal Food, Drug, and

[[Page 124 STAT. 3943]]

Cosmetic Act and the status of such recall (such as whether a
recall is ongoing or has been completed).

(c) Civil Penalty.–Section 303(f)(2)(A) (21 U.S.C. 333(f)(2)(A)) is
amended by inserting “or any person who does not comply with a recall
order under section 423” after “section 402(a)(2)(B)”.
(d) Prohibited Acts.–Section 301 (21 U.S.C. 331 et seq.), as
amended by section 106, is amended by adding at the end the following:
“(xx) The refusal or failure to follow an order under section
423.”.
(e) GAO Review.–
(1) In general. <> –Not later
than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the
Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to
Congress a report that–
(A) identifies State and local agencies with the
authority to require the mandatory recall of food, and
evaluates use of such authority with regard to
frequency, effectiveness, and appropriateness, including
consideration of any new or existing mechanisms
available to compensate persons for general and specific
recall-related costs when a recall is subsequently
determined by the relevant authority to have been an
error;
(B) identifies Federal agencies, other than the
Department of Health and Human Services, with mandatory
recall authority and examines use of that authority with
regard to frequency, effectiveness, and appropriateness,
including any new or existing mechanisms available to
compensate persons for general and specific recall-
related costs when a recall is subsequently determined
by the relevant agency to have been an error;
(C) considers models for farmer restitution
implemented in other nations in cases of erroneous
recalls; and
(D) makes recommendations to the Secretary regarding
use of the authority under section 423 of the Federal
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by this section)
to protect the public health while seeking to minimize
unnecessary economic costs.
(2) Effect of review. <> –If the
Comptroller General of the United States finds, after the review
conducted under paragraph (1), that the mechanisms described in
such paragraph do not exist or are inadequate, then, not later
than 90 days after the conclusion of such review, the Secretary
of Agriculture shall conduct a study of the feasibility of
implementing a farmer indemnification program to provide
restitution to agricultural producers for losses sustained as a
result of a mandatory recall of an agricultural commodity by a
Federal or State regulatory agency that is subsequently
determined to be in error. <> The Secretary of
Agriculture shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the
House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture,
Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report that describes
the results of the study, including any recommendations.

(f) <> Annual Report to Congress.–
(1) In general.–Not later than 2 years after the date of
enactment of this Act and annually thereafter, the Secretary of
Health and Human Services (referred to in this subsection as the
“Secretary”) shall submit a report to the Committee

[[Page 124 STAT. 3944]]

on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and the
Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives
on the use of recall authority under section 423 of the Federal
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by subsection (a)) and
any public health advisories issued by the Secretary that advise
against the consumption of an article of food on the ground that
the article of food is adulterated and poses an imminent danger
to health.
(2) Content.–The report under paragraph (1) shall include,
with respect to the report year–
(A) the identity of each article of food that was
the subject of a public health advisory described in
paragraph (1), an opportunity to cease distribution and
recall under subsection (a) of section 423 of the
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or a mandatory
recall order under subsection (b) of such section;
(B) the number of responsible parties, as defined in
section 417 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act,
formally given the opportunity to cease distribution of
an article of food and recall such article, as described
in section 423(a) of such Act;
(C) the number of responsible parties described in
subparagraph (B) who did not cease distribution of or
recall an article of food after given the opportunity to
cease distribution or recall under section 423(a) of the
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act;
(D) the number of recall orders issued under section
423(b) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; and
(E) a description of any instances in which there
was no testing that confirmed adulteration of an article
of food that was the subject of a recall under section
423(b) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or a
public health advisory described in paragraph (1).
SEC. 207. ADMINISTRATIVE DETENTION OF FOOD.

(a) In General.–Section 304(h)(1)(A) (21 U.S.C. 334(h)(1)(A)) is
amended by–
(1) striking “credible evidence or information indicating”
and inserting “reason to believe”; and
(2) striking “presents a threat of serious adverse health
consequences or death to humans or animals” and inserting “is
adulterated or misbranded”.

(b) Regulations.– <> Not later
than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary
shall issue an interim final rule amending subpart K of part 1 of title
21, Code of Federal Regulations, to implement the amendment made by this
section.

(c) <> Effective Date.–The amendment made
by this section shall take effect 180 days after the date of enactment
of this Act.
SEC. 208. <> DECONTAMINATION AND DISPOSAL
STANDARDS AND PLANS.

(a) In General.–The Administrator of the Environmental Protection
Agency (referred to in this section as the “Administrator”), in
coordination with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, Secretary
of Homeland Security, and Secretary of Agriculture, shall provide
support for, and technical assistance to, State, local, and tribal
governments in preparing for, assessing, decontaminating, and recovering
from an agriculture or food emergency.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3945]]

(b) Development of Standards.–In carrying out subsection (a), the
Administrator, in coordination with the Secretary of Health and Human
Services, Secretary of Homeland Security, Secretary of Agriculture, and
State, local, and tribal governments, shall develop and disseminate
specific standards and protocols to undertake clean-up, clearance, and
recovery activities following the decontamination and disposal of
specific threat agents and foreign animal diseases.
(c) Development of Model Plans.–In carrying out subsection (a), the
Administrator, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and the
Secretary of Agriculture shall jointly develop and disseminate model
plans for–
(1) the decontamination of individuals, equipment, and
facilities following an intentional contamination of agriculture
or food; and
(2) the disposal of large quantities of animals, plants, or
food products that have been infected or contaminated by
specific threat agents and foreign animal diseases.

(d) Exercises. <> –In carrying out subsection (a),
the Administrator, in coordination with the entities described under
subsection (b), shall conduct exercises at least annually to evaluate
and identify weaknesses in the decontamination and disposal model plans
described in subsection (c). Such exercises shall be carried out, to the
maximum extent practicable, as part of the national exercise program
under section 648(b)(1) of the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform
Act of 2006 (6 U.S.C. 748(b)(1)).

(e) Modifications.–Based on the exercises described in subsection
(d), the Administrator, in coordination with the entities described in
subsection (b), shall review and modify as necessary the plans described
in subsection (c) not less frequently than biennially.
(f) Prioritization.–The Administrator, in coordination with the
entities described in subsection (b), shall develop standards and plans
under subsections (b) and (c) in an identified order of priority that
takes into account–
(1) highest-risk biological, chemical, and radiological
threat agents;
(2) agents that could cause the greatest economic
devastation to the agriculture and food system; and
(3) agents that are most difficult to clean or remediate.
SEC. 209. IMPROVING THE TRAINING OF STATE, LOCAL, TERRITORIAL, AND
TRIBAL FOOD SAFETY OFFICIALS.

(a) Improving Training.–Chapter X (21 U.S.C. 391 et seq.) is
amended by adding at the end the following:
“SEC. 1011. <> IMPROVING THE TRAINING OF
STATE, LOCAL, TERRITORIAL, AND TRIBAL
FOOD SAFETY OFFICIALS.

“(a) Training.–The Secretary shall set standards and administer
training and education programs for the employees of State, local,
territorial, and tribal food safety officials relating to the regulatory
responsibilities and policies established by this Act, including
programs for–
“(1) scientific training;
“(2) training to improve the skill of officers and
employees authorized to conduct inspections under sections 702
and 704;
“(3) training to achieve advanced product or process
specialization in such inspections;

[[Page 124 STAT. 3946]]

“(4) training that addresses best practices;
“(5) training in administrative process and procedure and
integrity issues;
“(6) training in appropriate sampling and laboratory
analysis methodology; and
“(7) training in building enforcement actions following
inspections, examinations, testing, and investigations.

“(b) Partnerships With State and Local Officials.–
“(1) In general.–The Secretary, pursuant to a contract or
memorandum of understanding between the Secretary and the head
of a State, local, territorial, or tribal department or agency,
is authorized and encouraged to conduct examinations, testing,
and investigations for the purposes of determining compliance
with the food safety provisions of this Act through the officers
and employees of such State, local, territorial, or tribal
department or agency.
“(2) Content.–A contract or memorandum described under
paragraph (1) shall include provisions to ensure adequate
training of such officers and employees to conduct such
examinations, testing, and investigations. The contract or
memorandum shall contain provisions regarding reimbursement.
Such provisions may, at the sole discretion of the head of the
other department or agency, require reimbursement, in whole or
in part, from the Secretary for the examinations, testing, or
investigations performed pursuant to this section by the
officers or employees of the State, territorial, or tribal
department or agency.
“(3) Effect.–Nothing in this subsection shall be construed
to limit the authority of the Secretary under section 702.

“(c) Extension Service.–The Secretary shall ensure coordination
with the extension activities of the National Institute of Food and
Agriculture of the Department of Agriculture in advising producers and
small processors transitioning into new practices required as a result
of the enactment of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act and assisting
regulated industry with compliance with such Act.
“(d) National Food Safety Training, Education, Extension, Outreach
and Technical Assistance Program.–
“(1) In general. <> —
In order to improve food safety and reduce the incidence of
foodborne illness, the Secretary shall, not later than 180 days
after the date of enactment of the FDA Food Safety Modernization
Act, enter into one or more memoranda of understanding, or enter
into other cooperative agreements, with the Secretary of
Agriculture to establish a competitive grant program within the
National Institute for Food and Agriculture to provide food
safety training, education, extension, outreach, and technical
assistance to–
“(A) owners and operators of farms;
“(B) small food processors; and
“(C) small fruit and vegetable merchant
wholesalers.
“(2) Implementation.–The competitive grant program
established under paragraph (1) shall be carried out in
accordance with section 405 of the Agricultural Research,
Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998.

“(e) Authorization of Appropriations.–There are authorized to be
appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section for
fiscal years 2011 through 2015.”.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3947]]

(b) National Food Safety Training, Education, Extension, Outreach,
and Technical Assistance Program.–Title IV of the Agricultural
Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998 is amended by
inserting after section 404 (7 U.S.C. 7624) the following:
“SEC. 405. <> NATIONAL FOOD SAFETY TRAINING,
EDUCATION, EXTENSION, OUTREACH, AND
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM.

“(a) In General. <> –The Secretary shall award
grants under this section to carry out the competitive grant program
established under section 1011(d) of the Federal Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act, pursuant to any memoranda of understanding entered into
under such section.

“(b) Integrated Approach.–The grant program described under
subsection (a) shall be carried out under this section in a manner that
facilitates the integration of food safety standards and guidance with
the variety of agricultural production systems, encompassing
conventional, sustainable, organic, and conservation and environmental
practices.
“(c) Priority.–In awarding grants under this section, the
Secretary shall give priority to projects that target small and medium-
sized farms, beginning farmers, socially disadvantaged farmers, small
processors, or small fresh fruit and vegetable merchant wholesalers.
“(d) Program Coordination.–
“(1) In general.–The Secretary shall coordinate
implementation of the grant program under this section with the
National Integrated Food Safety Initiative.
“(2) Interaction.–The Secretary shall–
“(A) in carrying out the grant program under this
section, take into consideration applied research,
education, and extension results obtained from the
National Integrated Food Safety Initiative; and
“(B) in determining the applied research agenda for
the National Integrated Food Safety Initiative, take
into consideration the needs articulated by participants
in projects funded by the program under this section.

“(e) Grants.–
“(1) In general.–In carrying out this section, the
Secretary shall make competitive grants to support training,
education, extension, outreach, and technical assistance
projects that will help improve public health by increasing the
understanding and adoption of established food safety standards,
guidance, and protocols.
“(2) Encouraged features.–The Secretary shall encourage
projects carried out using grant funds under this section to
include co-management of food safety, conservation systems, and
ecological health.
“(3) Maximum term and size of grant.–
“(A) In general.–A grant under this section shall
have a term that is not more than 3 years.
“(B) Limitation on grant funding.–The Secretary
may not provide grant funding to an entity under this
section after such entity has received 3 years of grant
funding under this section.

“(f) Grant Eligibility.–

[[Page 124 STAT. 3948]]

“(1) In general.–To be eligible for a grant under this
section, an entity shall be–
“(A) a State cooperative extension service;
“(B) a Federal, State, local, or tribal agency, a
nonprofit community-based or non-governmental
organization, or an organization representing owners and
operators of farms, small food processors, or small
fruit and vegetable merchant wholesalers that has a
commitment to public health and expertise in
administering programs that contribute to food safety;
“(C) an institution of higher education (as defined
in section 101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965
(20 U.S.C. 1001(a))) or a foundation maintained by an
institution of higher education;
“(D) a collaboration of 2 of more eligible entities
described in this subsection; or
“(E) such other appropriate entity, as determined
by the Secretary.
“(2) Multistate partnerships.–Grants under this section
may be made for projects involving more than 1 State.

“(g) Regional Balance.–In making grants under this section, the
Secretary shall, to the maximum extent practicable, ensure–
“(1) geographic diversity; and
“(2) diversity of types of agricultural production.

“(h) Technical Assistance.–The Secretary may use funds made
available under this section to provide technical assistance to grant
recipients to further the purposes of this section.
“(i) Best Practices and Model Programs.–Based on evaluations of,
and responses arising from, projects funded under this section, the
Secretary may issue a set of recommended best practices and models for
food safety training programs for agricultural producers, small food
processors, and small fresh fruit and vegetable merchant wholesalers.
“(j) Authorization of Appropriations.–For the purposes of making
grants under this section, there are authorized to be appropriated such
sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2011 through 2015.”.
SEC. 210. ENHANCING FOOD SAFETY.

(a) Grants To Enhance Food Safety.–Section 1009 of the Federal
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 399) is amended to read as
follows:
“SEC. 1009. GRANTS TO ENHANCE FOOD SAFETY.

“(a) In General.–The Secretary is authorized to make grants to
eligible entities to–
“(1) undertake examinations, inspections, and
investigations, and related food safety activities under section
702;
“(2) train to the standards of the Secretary for the
examination, inspection, and investigation of food
manufacturing, processing, packing, holding, distribution, and
importation, including as such examination, inspection, and
investigation relate to retail food establishments;
“(3) build the food safety capacity of the laboratories of
such eligible entity, including the detection of zoonotic
diseases;
“(4) build the infrastructure and capacity of the food
safety programs of such eligible entity to meet the standards as
outlined in the grant application; and

[[Page 124 STAT. 3949]]

“(5) take appropriate action to protect the public health
in response to–
“(A) a notification under section 1008, including
planning and otherwise preparing to take such action; or
“(B) a recall of food under this Act.

“(b) Eligible Entities; Application.–
“(1) In general. <> –In this section,
the term `eligible entity’ means an entity–
“(A) that is–
“(i) a State;
“(ii) a locality;
“(iii) a territory;
“(iv) an Indian tribe (as defined in section
4(e) of the Indian Self-Determination and
Education Assistance Act); or
“(v) a nonprofit food safety training entity
that collaborates with 1 or more institutions of
higher education; and
“(B) that submits an application to the Secretary
at such time, in such manner, and including such
information as the Secretary may reasonably require.
“(2) Contents.–Each application submitted under paragraph
(1) shall include–
“(A) an assurance that the eligible entity has
developed plans to engage in the types of activities
described in subsection (a);
“(B) a description of the types of activities to be
funded by the grant;
“(C) an itemization of how grant funds received
under this section will be expended;
“(D) a description of how grant activities will be
monitored; and
“(E) an agreement by the eligible entity to report
information required by the Secretary to conduct
evaluations under this section.

“(c) Limitations.–The funds provided under subsection (a) shall be
available to an eligible entity that receives a grant under this section
only to the extent such entity funds the food safety programs of such
entity independently of any grant under this section in each year of the
grant at a level equal to the level of such funding in the previous
year, increased by the Consumer Price Index. Such non-Federal matching
funds may be provided directly or through donations from public or
private entities and may be in cash or in-kind, fairly evaluated,
including plant, equipment, or services.
“(d) Additional Authority.–The Secretary may–
“(1) award a grant under this section in each subsequent
fiscal year without reapplication for a period of not more than
3 years, provided the requirements of subsection (c) are met for
the previous fiscal year; and
“(2) award a grant under this section in a fiscal year for
which the requirement of subsection (c) has not been met only if
such requirement was not met because such funding was diverted
for response to 1 or more natural disasters or in other
extenuating circumstances that the Secretary may determine
appropriate.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3950]]

“(e) Duration of Awards.–The Secretary may award grants to an
individual grant recipient under this section for periods of not more
than 3 years. In the event the Secretary conducts a program evaluation,
funding in the second year or third year of the grant, where applicable,
shall be contingent on a successful program evaluation by the Secretary
after the first year.
“(f) Progress and Evaluation.–
“(1) In general.–The Secretary shall measure the status
and success of each grant program authorized under the FDA Food
Safety Modernization Act (and any amendment made by such Act),
including the grant program under this section. A recipient of a
grant described in the preceding sentence shall, at the end of
each grant year, provide the Secretary with information on how
grant funds were spent and the status of the efforts by such
recipient to enhance food safety. To the extent practicable, the
Secretary shall take the performance of such a grant recipient
into account when determining whether to continue funding for
such recipient.
“(2) No duplication.–In carrying out paragraph (1), the
Secretary shall not duplicate the efforts of the Secretary under
other provisions of this Act or the FDA Food Safety
Modernization Act that require measurement and review of the
activities of grant recipients under either such Act.

“(g) Supplement Not Supplant.–Grant funds received under this
section shall be used to supplement, and not supplant, non-Federal funds
and any other Federal funds available to carry out the activities
described in this section.
“(h) Authorization of Appropriations.–For the purpose of making
grants under this section, there are authorized to be appropriated such
sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2011 through 2015.”.
(b) Centers of Excellence.–Part P of the Public Health Service Act
(42 U.S.C. 280g et seq.) is amended by adding at the end the following:
“SEC. 399V-5. <> FOOD SAFETY INTEGRATED
CENTERS OF EXCELLENCE.

“(a) In General. <> –Not later than
1 year after the date of enactment of the FDA Food Safety Modernization
Act, the Secretary, acting through the Director of the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention and in consultation with the working
group described in subsection (b)(2), shall designate 5 Integrated Food
Safety Centers of Excellence (referred to in this section as the
`Centers of Excellence’) to serve as resources for Federal, State, and
local public health professionals to respond to foodborne illness
outbreaks. The Centers of Excellence shall be headquartered at selected
State health departments.

“(b) Selection of Centers of Excellence.–
“(1) Eligible entities.–To be eligible to be designated as
a Center of Excellence under subsection (a), an entity shall–
“(A) be a State health department;
“(B) partner with 1 or more institutions of higher
education that have demonstrated knowledge, expertise,
and meaningful experience with regional or national food
production, processing, and distribution, as well as
leadership in the laboratory, epidemiological, and
environmental detection and investigation of foodborne
illness; and

[[Page 124 STAT. 3951]]

“(C) provide to the Secretary such information, at
such time, and in such manner, as the Secretary may
require.
“(2) Working group. <> –Not later than
180 days after the date of enactment of the FDA Food Safety
Modernization Act, the Secretary shall establish a diverse
working group of experts and stakeholders from Federal, State,
and local food safety and health agencies, the food industry,
including food retailers and food manufacturers, consumer
organizations, and academia to make recommendations to the
Secretary regarding designations of the Centers of Excellence.
“(3) Additional centers of excellence.–The Secretary may
designate eligible entities to be regional Food Safety Centers
of Excellence, in addition to the 5 Centers designated under
subsection (a).

“(c) Activities.–Under the leadership of the Director of the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, each Center of Excellence
shall be based out of a selected State health department, which shall
provide assistance to other regional, State, and local departments of
health through activities that include–
“(1) providing resources, including timely information
concerning symptoms and tests, for frontline health
professionals interviewing individuals as part of routine
surveillance and outbreak investigations;
“(2) providing analysis of the timeliness and effectiveness
of foodborne disease surveillance and outbreak response
activities;
“(3) providing training for epidemiological and
environmental investigation of foodborne illness, including
suggestions for streamlining and standardizing the investigation
process;
“(4) establishing fellowships, stipends, and scholarships
to train future epidemiological and food-safety leaders and to
address critical workforce shortages;
“(5) training and coordinating State and local personnel;
“(6) strengthening capacity to participate in existing or
new foodborne illness surveillance and environmental assessment
information systems; and
“(7) conducting research and outreach activities focused on
increasing prevention, communication, and education regarding
food safety.

“(d) Report to Congress.–Not later than 2 years after the date of
enactment of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, the Secretary shall
submit to Congress a report that–
“(1) describes the effectiveness of the Centers of
Excellence; and
“(2) provides legislative recommendations or describes
additional resources required by the Centers of Excellence.

“(e) Authorization of Appropriations.–There is authorized to be
appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.
“(f) No Duplication of Effort.–In carrying out activities of the
Centers of Excellence or other programs under this section, the
Secretary shall not duplicate other Federal foodborne illness response
efforts.”.
SEC. 211. IMPROVING THE REPORTABLE FOOD REGISTRY.

(a) In General.–Section 417 (21 U.S.C. 350f) is amended–

[[Page 124 STAT. 3952]]

(1) by redesignating subsections (f) through (k) as
subsections (i) through (n), respectively; and
(2) by inserting after subsection (e) the following:

“(f) Critical Information. <> –Except with
respect to fruits and vegetables that are raw agricultural commodities,
not more than 18 months after the date of enactment of the FDA Food
Safety Modernization Act, the Secretary may require a responsible party
to submit to the Secretary consumer-oriented information regarding a
reportable food, which shall include–
“(1) a description of the article of food as provided in
subsection (e)(3);
“(2) as provided in subsection (e)(7), affected product
identification codes, such as UPC, SKU, or lot or batch numbers
sufficient for the consumer to identify the article of food;
“(3) contact information for the responsible party as
provided in subsection (e)(8); and
“(4) any other information the Secretary determines is
necessary to enable a consumer to accurately identify whether
such consumer is in possession of the reportable food.

“(g) Grocery Store Notification.–
“(1) Action by secretary.–The Secretary shall–
“(A) prepare the critical information described
under subsection (f) for a reportable food as a
standardized one-page summary;
“(B) <> publish such one-page summary
on the Internet website of the Food and Drug
Administration in a format that can be easily printed by
a grocery store for purposes of consumer notification.
“(2) Action by grocery store.–A notification described
under paragraph (1)(B) shall include the date and time such
summary was posted on the Internet website of the Food and Drug
Administration.

“(h) <> Consumer Notification.–
“(1) In general. <> –If a grocery
store sold a reportable food that is the subject of the posting
and such establishment is part of chain of establishments with
15 or more physical locations, then such establishment shall,
not later than 24 hours after a one page summary described in
subsection (g) is published, prominently display such summary or
the information from such summary via at least one of the
methods identified under paragraph (2) and maintain the display
for 14 days.
“(2) List of conspicuous
locations. <> –Not more than 1 year after
the date of enactment of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act,
the Secretary shall develop and publish a list of acceptable
conspicuous locations and manners, from which grocery stores
shall select at least one, for providing the notification
required in paragraph (1). Such list shall include–
“(A) posting the notification at or near the
register;
“(B) providing the location of the reportable food;
“(C) providing targeted recall information given to
customers upon purchase of a food; and
“(D) other such prominent and conspicuous locations
and manners utilized by grocery stores as of the date of
the enactment of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act
to provide notice of such recalls to consumers as
considered appropriate by the Secretary.”.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3953]]

(b) Prohibited Act.–Section 301 (21 U.S.C. 331), as amended by
section 206, is amended by adding at the end the following:
“(yy) The knowing and willful failure to comply with the
notification requirement under section 417(h).”.
(c) Conforming Amendment.–Section 301(e) (21 U.S.C. 331(e)) is
amended by striking “417(g)” and inserting “417(j)”.

TITLE III–IMPROVING THE SAFETY OF IMPORTED FOOD

SEC. 301. FOREIGN SUPPLIER VERIFICATION PROGRAM.

(a) In General.–Chapter VIII (21 U.S.C. 381 et seq.) is amended by
adding at the end the following:
“SEC. 805. <> FOREIGN SUPPLIER VERIFICATION
PROGRAM.

“(a) In General.–
“(1) Verification requirement.–Except as provided under
subsections (e) and (f), each importer shall perform risk-based
foreign supplier verification activities for the purpose of
verifying that the food imported by the importer or agent of an
importer is–
“(A) produced in compliance with the requirements
of section 418 or section 419, as appropriate; and
“(B) is not adulterated under section 402 or
misbranded under section 403(w).
“(2) Importer defined.–For purposes of this section, the
term `importer’ means, with respect to an article of food–
“(A) the United States owner or consignee of the
article of food at the time of entry of such article
into the United States; or
“(B) in the case when there is no United States
owner or consignee as described in subparagraph (A), the
United States agent or representative of a foreign owner
or consignee of the article of food at the time of entry
of such article into the United States.

“(b) Guidance.–Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment
of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, the Secretary shall issue
guidance to assist importers in developing foreign supplier verification
programs.
“(c) Regulations.–
“(1) In general.–Not later than 1 year after the date of
enactment of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, the
Secretary shall promulgate regulations to provide for the
content of the foreign supplier verification program established
under subsection (a).
“(2) Requirements.–The regulations promulgated under
paragraph (1)–
“(A) shall require that the foreign supplier
verification program of each importer be adequate to
provide assurances that each foreign supplier to the
importer produces the imported food in compliance with–
“(i) processes and procedures, including
reasonably appropriate risk-based preventive
controls, that provide the same level of public
health protection as those required under section
418 or section 419 (taking into

[[Page 124 STAT. 3954]]

consideration variances granted under section
419), as appropriate; and
“(ii) section 402 and section 403(w).
“(B) shall include such other requirements as the
Secretary deems necessary and appropriate to verify that
food imported into the United States is as safe as food
produced and sold within the United States.
“(3) Considerations.–In promulgating regulations under
this subsection, the Secretary shall, as appropriate, take into
account differences among importers and types of imported foods,
including based on the level of risk posed by the imported food.
“(4) Activities.–Verification activities under a foreign
supplier verification program under this section may include
monitoring records for shipments, lot-by-lot certification of
compliance, annual on-site inspections, checking the hazard
analysis and risk-based preventive control plan of the foreign
supplier, and periodically testing and sampling shipments.

“(d) Record Maintenance and Access. <> —
Records of an importer related to a foreign supplier verification
program shall be maintained for a period of not less than 2 years and
shall be made available promptly to a duly authorized representative of
the Secretary upon request.

“(e) Exemption of Seafood, Juice, and Low-acid Canned Food
Facilities in Compliance With HACCP.–This section shall not apply to a
facility if the owner, operator, or agent in charge of such facility is
required to comply with, and is in compliance with, 1 of the following
standards and regulations with respect to such facility:
“(1) The Seafood Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
Program of the Food and Drug Administration.
“(2) The Juice Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
Program of the Food and Drug Administration.
“(3) The Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in
Hermetically Sealed Containers standards of the Food and Drug
Administration (or any successor standards).

<> The exemption under paragraph (3) shall apply
only with respect to microbiological hazards that are regulated under
the standards for Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in
Hermetically Sealed Containers under part 113 of chapter 21, Code of
Federal Regulations (or any successor regulations).

“(f) Additional Exemptions. <> –The Secretary, by notice published in the Federal
Register, shall establish an exemption from the requirements of this
section for articles of food imported in small quantities for research
and evaluation purposes or for personal consumption, provided that such
foods are not intended for retail sale and are not sold or distributed
to the public.

“(g) Publication of List of Participants. <> —
The Secretary shall publish and maintain on the Internet Web site of the
Food and Drug Administration a current list that includes the name of,
location of, and other information deemed necessary by the Secretary
about, importers participating under this section.”.

(b) Prohibited Act.–Section 301 (21 U.S.C. 331), as amended by
section 211, is amended by adding at the end the following:
“(zz) The importation or offering for importation of a food if the
importer (as defined in section 805) does not have in place

[[Page 124 STAT. 3955]]

a foreign supplier verification program in compliance with such section
805.”.
(c) Imports.–Section 801(a) (21 U.S.C. 381(a)) is amended by adding
“or the importer (as defined in section 805) is in violation of such
section 805” after “or in violation of section 505”.
(d) <> Effective Date.–The amendments made
by this section shall take effect 2 years after the date of enactment of
this Act.
SEC. 302. VOLUNTARY QUALIFIED IMPORTER PROGRAM.

Chapter VIII (21 U.S.C. 381 et seq.), as amended by section 301, is
amended by adding at the end the following:
“SEC. 806. <> VOLUNTARY QUALIFIED IMPORTER
PROGRAM.

“(a) In General. <> –Beginning not later than 18
months after the date of enactment of the FDA Food Safety Modernization
Act, the Secretary shall–
“(1) establish a program, in consultation with the
Secretary of Homeland Security–
“(A) to provide for the expedited review and
importation of food offered for importation by importers
who have voluntarily agreed to participate in such
program; and
“(B) consistent with section 808, establish a
process for the issuance of a facility certification to
accompany food offered for importation by importers who
have voluntarily agreed to participate in such program;
and
“(2) <> issue a guidance document
related to participation in, revocation of such participation
in, reinstatement in, and compliance with, such program.

“(b) Voluntary Participation.–An importer may request the
Secretary to provide for the expedited review and importation of
designated foods in accordance with the program established by the
Secretary under subsection (a).
“(c) Notice of Intent To Participate.–An importer that intends to
participate in the program under this section in a fiscal year shall
submit a notice and application to the Secretary of such intent at the
time and in a manner established by the Secretary.
“(d) Eligibility.–Eligibility shall be limited to an importer
offering food for importation from a facility that has a certification
described in subsection (a). In reviewing the applications and making
determinations on such applications, the Secretary shall consider the
risk of the food to be imported based on factors, such as the following:
“(1) The known safety risks of the food to be imported.
“(2) The compliance history of foreign suppliers used by
the importer, as appropriate.
“(3) The capability of the regulatory system of the country
of export to ensure compliance with United States food safety
standards for a designated food.
“(4) The compliance of the importer with the requirements
of section 805.
“(5) The recordkeeping, testing, inspections and audits of
facilities, traceability of articles of food, temperature
controls, and sourcing practices of the importer.
“(6) The potential risk for intentional adulteration of the
food.
“(7) Any other factor that the Secretary determines
appropriate.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3956]]

“(e) Review and Revocation. <> –Any importer
qualified by the Secretary in accordance with the eligibility criteria
set forth in this section shall be reevaluated not less often than once
every 3 years and the Secretary shall promptly revoke the qualified
importer status of any importer found not to be in compliance with such
criteria.

“(f) False Statements.–Any statement or representation made by an
importer to the Secretary shall be subject to section 1001 of title 18,
United States Code.
“(g) Definition.–For purposes of this section, the term `importer’
means the person that brings food, or causes food to be brought, from a
foreign country into the customs territory of the United States.”.
SEC. 303. AUTHORITY TO REQUIRE IMPORT CERTIFICATIONS FOR FOOD.

(a) In General.–Section 801(a) (21 U.S.C. 381(a)) is amended by
inserting after the third sentence the following: “With respect to an
article of food, if importation of such food is subject to, but not
compliant with, the requirement under subsection (q) that such food be
accompanied by a certification or other assurance that the food meets
applicable requirements of this Act, then such article shall be refused
admission.”.
(b) Addition of Certification Requirement.–Section 801 (21 U.S.C.
381) is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
“(q) Certifications Concerning Imported Foods.–
“(1) In general.–The Secretary may require, as a condition
of granting admission to an article of food imported or offered
for import into the United States, that an entity described in
paragraph (3) provide a certification, or such other assurances
as the Secretary determines appropriate, that the article of
food complies with applicable requirements of this Act. Such
certification or assurances may be provided in the form of
shipment-specific certificates, a listing of certified
facilities that manufacture, process, pack, or hold such food,
or in such other form as the Secretary may specify.
“(2) Factors to be considered in requiring certification.–
The Secretary shall base the determination that an article of
food is required to have a certification described in paragraph
(1) on the risk of the food, including–
“(A) known safety risks associated with the food;
“(B) known food safety risks associated with the
country, territory, or region of origin of the food;
“(C) a finding by the Secretary, supported by
scientific, risk-based evidence, that–
“(i) the food safety programs, systems, and
standards in the country, territory, or region of
origin of the food are inadequate to ensure that
the article of food is as safe as a similar
article of food that is manufactured, processed,
packed, or held in the United States in accordance
with the requirements of this Act; and
“(ii) the certification would assist the
Secretary in determining whether to refuse or
admit the article of food under subsection (a);
and

[[Page 124 STAT. 3957]]

“(D) information submitted to the Secretary in
accordance with the process established in paragraph
(7).
“(3) Certifying entities.–For purposes of paragraph (1),
entities that shall provide the certification or assurances
described in such paragraph are–
“(A) an agency or a representative of the
government of the country from which the article of food
at issue originated, as designated by the Secretary; or
“(B) such other persons or entities accredited
pursuant to section 808 to provide such certification or
assurance.
“(4) Renewal and refusal of certifications.–The Secretary
may–
“(A) require that any certification or other
assurance provided by an entity specified in paragraph
(2) be renewed by such entity at such times as the
Secretary determines appropriate; and
“(B) refuse to accept any certification or
assurance if the Secretary determines that such
certification or assurance is not valid or reliable.
“(5) Electronic submission.–The Secretary shall provide
for the electronic submission of certifications under this
subsection.
“(6) False statements.–Any statement or representation
made by an entity described in paragraph (2) to the Secretary
shall be subject to section 1001 of title 18, United States
Code.
“(7) Assessment of food safety programs, systems, and
standards.–If the Secretary determines that the food safety
programs, systems, and standards in a foreign region, country,
or territory are inadequate to ensure that an article of food is
as safe as a similar article of food that is manufactured,
processed, packed, or held in the United States in accordance
with the requirements of this Act, the Secretary shall, to the
extent practicable, identify such inadequacies and establish a
process by which the foreign region, country, or territory may
inform the Secretary of improvements made to such food safety
program, system, or standard and demonstrate that those controls
are adequate to ensure that an article of food is as safe as a
similar article of food that is manufactured, processed, packed,
or held in the United States in accordance with the requirements
of this Act.”.

(c) Conforming Technical Amendment.–Section 801(b) (21 U.S.C.
381(b)) is amended in the second sentence by striking “with respect to
an article included within the provision of the fourth sentence of
subsection (a)” and inserting “with respect to an article described in
subsection (a) relating to the requirements of sections 760 or 761,”.
(d) <> No Limit on Authority.–Nothing in
the amendments made by this section shall limit the authority of the
Secretary to conduct inspections of imported food or to take such other
steps as the Secretary deems appropriate to determine the admissibility
of imported food.
SEC. 304. PRIOR NOTICE OF IMPORTED FOOD SHIPMENTS.

(a) In General.–Section 801(m)(1) (21 U.S.C. 381(m)(1)) is amended
by inserting “any country to which the article has been refused
entry;” after “the country from which the article is shipped;”.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3958]]

(b) Regulations. <> –Not later
than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary
shall issue an interim final rule amending subpart I of part 1 of title
21, Code of Federal Regulations, to implement the amendment made by this
section.

(c) <> Effective Date.–The amendment made
by this section shall take effect 180 days after the date of enactment
of this Act.
SEC. 305. BUILDING CAPACITY OF FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS WITH RESPECT TO
FOOD SAFETY.

(a) In General. <> –The Secretary shall, not later
than 2 years of the date of enactment of this Act, develop a
comprehensive plan to expand the technical, scientific, and regulatory
food safety capacity of foreign governments, and their respective food
industries, from which foods are exported to the United States.

(b) Consultation.–In developing the plan under subsection (a), the
Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of Agriculture, Secretary of
State, Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security,
the United States Trade Representative, and the Secretary of Commerce,
representatives of the food industry, appropriate foreign government
officials, nongovernmental organizations that represent the interests of
consumers, and other stakeholders.
(c) Plan.–The plan developed under subsection (a) shall include, as
appropriate, the following:
(1) Recommendations for bilateral and multilateral
arrangements and agreements, including provisions to provide for
responsibility of exporting countries to ensure the safety of
food.
(2) Provisions for secure electronic data sharing.
(3) Provisions for mutual recognition of inspection reports.
(4) Training of foreign governments and food producers on
United States requirements for safe food.
(5) Recommendations on whether and how to harmonize
requirements under the Codex Alimentarius.
(6) Provisions for the multilateral acceptance of laboratory
methods and testing and detection techniques.

(d) Rule of Construction.–Nothing in this section shall be
construed to affect the regulation of dietary supplements under the
Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-
417).
SEC. 306. INSPECTION OF FOREIGN FOOD FACILITIES.

(a) In General.–Chapter VIII (21 U.S.C. 381 et seq.), as amended by
section 302, is amended by inserting at the end the following:
“SEC. 807. <> INSPECTION OF FOREIGN FOOD
FACILITIES.

“(a) Inspection.–The Secretary–
“(1) may enter into arrangements and agreements with
foreign governments to facilitate the inspection of foreign
facilities registered under section 415; and
“(2) shall direct resources to inspections of foreign
facilities, suppliers, and food types, especially such
facilities, suppliers, and food types that present a high risk
(as identified by the Secretary), to help ensure the safety and
security of the food supply of the United States.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3959]]

“(b) Effect of Inability To Inspect.–Notwithstanding any other
provision of law, food shall be refused admission into the United States
if it is from a foreign factory, warehouse, or other establishment of
which the owner, operator, or agent in charge, or the government of the
foreign country, refuses to permit entry of United States inspectors or
other individuals duly designated by the Secretary, upon request, to
inspect such factory, warehouse, or other establishment. For purposes of
this subsection, such an owner, operator, or agent in charge shall be
considered to have refused an inspection if such owner, operator, or
agent in charge does not permit an inspection of a factory, warehouse,
or other establishment during the 24-hour period after such request is
submitted, or after such other time period, as agreed upon by the
Secretary and the foreign factory, warehouse, or other establishment.”.
(b) <> Inspection by the Secretary of
Commerce.–
(1) In general.–The Secretary of Commerce, in coordination
with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, may send 1 or
more inspectors to a country or facility of an exporter from
which seafood imported into the United States originates. The
inspectors shall assess practices and processes used in
connection with the farming, cultivation, harvesting,
preparation for market, or transportation of such seafood and
may provide technical assistance related to such activities.
(2) Inspection report.–
(A) In general.–The Secretary of Health and Human
Services, in coordination with the Secretary of
Commerce, shall–
(i) prepare an inspection report for each
inspection conducted under paragraph (1);
(ii) provide the report to the country or
exporter that is the subject of the report; and
(iii) <> provide a 30-day
period during which the country or exporter may
provide a rebuttal or other comments on the
findings of the report to the Secretary of Health
and Human Services.
(B) Distribution and use of report.–The Secretary
of Health and Human Services shall consider the
inspection reports described in subparagraph (A) in
distributing inspection resources under section 421 of
the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as added by
section 201.
SEC. 307. ACCREDITATION OF THIRD-PARTY AUDITORS.

Chapter VIII (21 U.S.C. 381 et seq.), as amended by section 306, is
amended by adding at the end the following:
“SEC. 808. <> ACCREDITATION OF THIRD-PARTY
AUDITORS.

“(a) Definitions.–In this section:
“(1) Audit agent.–The term `audit agent’ means an
individual who is an employee or agent of an accredited third-
party auditor and, although not individually accredited, is
qualified to conduct food safety audits on behalf of an
accredited third-party auditor.
“(2) Accreditation body.–The term `accreditation body’
means an authority that performs accreditation of third-party
auditors.
“(3) Third-party auditor.–The term `third-party auditor’
means a foreign government, agency of a foreign government,

[[Page 124 STAT. 3960]]

foreign cooperative, or any other third party, as the Secretary
determines appropriate in accordance with the model standards
described in subsection (b)(2), that is eligible to be
considered for accreditation to conduct food safety audits to
certify that eligible entities meet the applicable requirements
of this section. A third-party auditor may be a single
individual. A third-party auditor may employ or use audit agents
to help conduct consultative and regulatory audits.
“(4) Accredited third-party auditor.–The term `accredited
third-party auditor’ means a third-party auditor accredited by
an accreditation body to conduct audits of eligible entities to
certify that such eligible entities meet the applicable
requirements of this section. An accredited third-party auditor
may be an individual who conducts food safety audits to certify
that eligible entities meet the applicable requirements of this
section.
“(5) Consultative audit.–The term `consultative audit’
means an audit of an eligible entity–
“(A) to determine whether such entity is in
compliance with the provisions of this Act and with
applicable industry standards and practices; and
“(B) the results of which are for internal purposes
only.
“(6) Eligible entity.–The term `eligible entity’ means a
foreign entity, including a foreign facility registered under
section 415, in the food import supply chain that chooses to be
audited by an accredited third-party auditor or the audit agent
of such accredited third-party auditor.
“(7) Regulatory audit.–The term `regulatory audit’ means
an audit of an eligible entity–
“(A) to determine whether such entity is in
compliance with the provisions of this Act; and
“(B) the results of which determine–
“(i) whether an article of food manufactured,
processed, packed, or held by such entity is
eligible to receive a food certification under
section 801(q); or
“(ii) whether a facility is eligible to
receive a facility certification under section
806(a) for purposes of participating in the
program under section 806.

“(b) Accreditation System.–
“(1) Accreditation bodies.–
“(A) Recognition of accreditation bodies.–
“(i) In general. <> –Not
later than 2 years after the date of enactment of
the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, the
Secretary shall establish a system for the
recognition of accreditation bodies that accredit
third-party auditors to certify that eligible
entities meet the applicable requirements of this
section.
“(ii) Direct accreditation.–If, by the date
that is 2 years after the date of establishment of
the system described in clause (i), the Secretary
has not identified and recognized an accreditation
body to meet the requirements of this section, the
Secretary may directly accredit third-party
auditors.
“(B) Notification.–Each accreditation body
recognized by the Secretary shall submit to the
Secretary a

[[Page 124 STAT. 3961]]

list of all accredited third-party auditors accredited
by such body and the audit agents of such auditors.
“(C) Revocation of recognition as an accreditation
body.–The Secretary shall promptly revoke the
recognition of any accreditation body found not to be in
compliance with the requirements of this section.
“(D) Reinstatement. <> –The
Secretary shall establish procedures to reinstate
recognition of an accreditation body if the Secretary
determines, based on evidence presented by such
accreditation body, that revocation was inappropriate or
that the body meets the requirements for recognition
under this section.
“(2) Model accreditation standards. <> —
Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the FDA
Food Safety Modernization Act, the Secretary shall develop model
standards, including requirements for regulatory audit reports,
and each recognized accreditation body shall ensure that third-
party auditors and audit agents of such auditors meet such
standards in order to qualify such third-party auditors as
accredited third-party auditors under this section. In
developing the model standards, the Secretary shall look to
standards in place on the date of the enactment of this section
for guidance, to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts and
costs.

“(c) Third-party Auditors.–
“(1) Requirements for accreditation as a third-party
auditor.–
“(A) Foreign governments.–Prior to accrediting a
foreign government or an agency of a foreign government
as an accredited third-party auditor, the accreditation
body (or, in the case of direct accreditation under
subsection (b)(1)(A)(ii), the Secretary) shall perform
such reviews and audits of food safety programs,
systems, and standards of the government or agency of
the government as the Secretary deems necessary,
including requirements under the model standards
developed under subsection (b)(2), to determine that the
foreign government or agency of the foreign government
is capable of adequately ensuring that eligible entities
or foods certified by such government or agency meet the
requirements of this Act with respect to food
manufactured, processed, packed, or held for import into
the United States.
“(B) Foreign cooperatives and other third
parties.–Prior to accrediting a foreign cooperative
that aggregates the products of growers or processors,
or any other third party to be an accredited third-party
auditor, the accreditation body (or, in the case of
direct accreditation under subsection (b)(1)(A)(ii), the
Secretary) shall perform such reviews and audits of the
training and qualifications of audit agents used by that
cooperative or party and conduct such reviews of
internal systems and such other investigation of the
cooperative or party as the Secretary deems necessary,
including requirements under the model standards
developed under subsection (b)(2), to determine that
each eligible entity certified by the cooperative or
party has systems and standards in use to ensure that
such entity or food meets the requirements of this Act.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3962]]

“(2) Requirement to issue certification of eligible
entities or foods.–
“(A) In general.–An accreditation body (or, in the
case of direct accreditation under subsection
(b)(1)(A)(ii), the Secretary) may not accredit a third-
party auditor unless such third-party auditor agrees to
issue a written and, as appropriate, electronic food
certification, described in section 801(q), or facility
certification under section 806(a), as appropriate, to
accompany each food shipment for import into the United
States from an eligible entity, subject to requirements
set forth by the Secretary. Such written or electronic
certification may be included with other documentation
regarding such food shipment. The Secretary shall
consider certifications under section 801(q) and
participation in the voluntary qualified importer
program described in section 806 when targeting
inspection resources under section 421.
“(B) Purpose of certification.–The Secretary shall
use certification provided by accredited third-party
auditors to–
“(i) determine, in conjunction with any other
assurances the Secretary may require under section
801(q), whether a food satisfies the requirements
of such section; and
“(ii) determine whether a facility is
eligible to be a facility from which food may be
offered for import under the voluntary qualified
importer program under section 806.
“(C) Requirements for issuing certification.–
“(i) In general. <> –An
accredited third-party auditor shall issue a food
certification under section 801(q) or a facility
certification described under subparagraph (B)
only after conducting a regulatory audit and such
other activities that may be necessary to
establish compliance with the requirements of such
sections.
“(ii) Provision of certification.–Only an
accredited third-party auditor or the Secretary
may provide a facility certification under section
806(a). Only those parties described in 801(q)(3)
or the Secretary may provide a food certification
under 301(g).
“(3) Audit report submission requirements.–
“(A) Requirements in general.–As a condition of
accreditation, not later than 45 days after conducting
an audit, an accredited third-party auditor or audit
agent of such auditor shall prepare, and, in the case of
a regulatory audit, submit, the audit report for each
audit conducted, in a form and manner designated by the
Secretary, which shall include–
“(i) the identity of the persons at the
audited eligible entity responsible for compliance
with food safety requirements;
“(ii) the dates of the audit;
“(iii) the scope of the audit; and
“(iv) any other information required by the
Secretary that relates to or may influence an
assessment of compliance with this Act.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3963]]

“(B) Records.–Following any accreditation of a
third-party auditor, the Secretary may, at any time,
require the accredited third-party auditor to submit to
the Secretary an onsite audit report and such other
reports or documents required as part of the audit
process, for any eligible entity certified by the third-
party auditor or audit agent of such auditor. Such
report may include documentation that the eligible
entity is in compliance with any applicable registration
requirements.
“(C) Limitation.–The requirement under
subparagraph (B) shall not include any report or other
documents resulting from a consultative audit by the
accredited third-party auditor, except that the
Secretary may access the results of a consultative audit
in accordance with section 414.
“(4) Requirements of accredited third-party auditors and
audit agents of such auditors.–
“(A) Risks to public
health. <> –If, at any time during
an audit, an accredited third-party auditor or audit
agent of such auditor discovers a condition that could
cause or contribute to a serious risk to the public
health, such auditor shall immediately notify the
Secretary of–
“(i) the identification of the eligible
entity subject to the audit; and
“(ii) such condition.
“(B) Types of audits.–An accredited third-party
auditor or audit agent of such auditor may perform
consultative and regulatory audits of eligible entities.
“(C) Limitations.–
“(i) In general.–An accredited third party
auditor may not perform a regulatory audit of an
eligible entity if such agent has performed a
consultative audit or a regulatory audit of such
eligible entity during the previous 13-month
period.
“(ii) Waiver.–The Secretary may waive the
application of clause (i) if the Secretary
determines that there is insufficient access to
accredited third-party auditors in a country or
region.
“(5) Conflicts of interest.–
“(A) Third-party auditors.–An accredited third-
party auditor shall–
“(i) not be owned, managed, or controlled by
any person that owns or operates an eligible
entity to be certified by such auditor;
“(ii) in carrying out audits of eligible
entities under this section, have procedures to
ensure against the use of any officer or employee
of such auditor that has a financial conflict of
interest regarding an eligible entity to be
certified by such auditor; and
“(iii) <> annually make
available to the Secretary disclosures of the
extent to which such auditor and the officers and
employees of such auditor have maintained
compliance with clauses (i) and (ii) relating to
financial conflicts of interest.
“(B) Audit agents.–An audit agent shall–
“(i) not own or operate an eligible entity to
be audited by such agent;

[[Page 124 STAT. 3964]]

“(ii) in carrying out audits of eligible
entities under this section, have procedures to
ensure that such agent does not have a financial
conflict of interest regarding an eligible entity
to be audited by such agent; and
“(iii) <> annually make
available to the Secretary disclosures of the
extent to which such agent has maintained
compliance with clauses (i) and (ii) relating to
financial conflicts of interest.
“(C) Regulations. <> –The
Secretary shall promulgate regulations not later than 18
months after the date of enactment of the FDA Food
Safety Modernization Act to implement this section and
to ensure that there are protections against conflicts
of interest between an accredited third-party auditor
and the eligible entity to be certified by such auditor
or audited by such audit agent. Such regulations shall
include–
“(i) requiring that audits performed under
this section be unannounced;
“(ii) a structure to decrease the potential
for conflicts of interest, including timing and
public disclosure, for fees paid by eligible
entities to accredited third-party auditors; and
“(iii) appropriate limits on financial
affiliations between an accredited third-party
auditor or audit agents of such auditor and any
person that owns or operates an eligible entity to
be certified by such auditor, as described in
subparagraphs (A) and (B).
“(6) Withdrawal of accreditation.–
“(A) In general.–The Secretary shall withdraw
accreditation from an accredited third-party auditor–
“(i) if food certified under section 801(q)
or from a facility certified under paragraph
(2)(B) by such third-party auditor is linked to an
outbreak of foodborne illness that has a
reasonable probability of causing serious adverse
health consequences or death in humans or animals;
“(ii) following an evaluation and finding by
the Secretary that the third-party auditor no
longer meets the requirements for accreditation;
or
“(iii) following a refusal to allow United
States officials to conduct such audits and
investigations as may be necessary to ensure
continued compliance with the requirements set
forth in this section.
“(B) Additional basis for withdrawal of
accreditation.–The Secretary may withdraw accreditation
from an accredited third-party auditor in the case that
such third-party auditor is accredited by an
accreditation body for which recognition as an
accreditation body under subsection (b)(1)(C) is
revoked, if the Secretary determines that there is good
cause for the withdrawal.
“(C) Exception. <> –The
Secretary may waive the application of subparagraph
(A)(i) if the Secretary–
“(i) conducts an investigation of the
material facts related to the outbreak of human or
animal illness; and

[[Page 124 STAT. 3965]]

“(ii) reviews the steps or actions taken by
the third party auditor to justify the
certification and determines that the accredited
third-party auditor satisfied the requirements
under section 801(q) of certifying the food, or
the requirements under paragraph (2)(B) of
certifying the entity.
“(7) Reaccreditation. <> –The Secretary
shall establish procedures to reinstate the accreditation of a
third-party auditor for which accreditation has been withdrawn
under paragraph (6)–
“(A) if the Secretary determines, based on evidence
presented, that the third-party auditor satisfies the
requirements of this section and adequate grounds for
revocation no longer exist; and
“(B) in the case of a third-party auditor
accredited by an accreditation body for which
recognition as an accreditation body under subsection
(b)(1)(C) is revoked–
“(i) <> if the third-party
auditor becomes accredited not later than 1 year
after revocation of accreditation under paragraph
(6)(A), through direct accreditation under
subsection (b)(1)(A)(ii) or by an accreditation
body in good standing; or
“(ii) under such conditions as the Secretary
may require for a third-party auditor under
paragraph (6)(B).
“(8) Neutralizing costs. <> –The
Secretary shall establish by regulation a reimbursement (user
fee) program, similar to the method described in section 203(h)
of the Agriculture Marketing Act of 1946, by which the Secretary
assesses fees and requires accredited third-party auditors and
audit agents to reimburse the Food and Drug Administration for
the work performed to establish and administer the accreditation
system under this section. The Secretary shall make operating
this program revenue-neutral and shall not generate surplus
revenue from such a reimbursement mechanism. Fees authorized
under this paragraph shall be collected and available for
obligation only to the extent and in the amount provided in
advance in appropriation Acts. Such fees are authorized to
remain available until expended.

“(d) Recertification of Eligible
Entities. <> –An eligible entity shall apply for
annual recertification by an accredited third-party auditor if such
entity–
“(1) intends to participate in voluntary qualified importer
program under section 806; or
“(2) is required to provide to the Secretary a
certification under section 801(q) for any food from such
entity.

“(e) False Statements.–Any statement or representation made–
“(1) by an employee or agent of an eligible entity to an
accredited third-party auditor or audit agent; or
“(2) by an accredited third-party auditor to the Secretary,

shall be subject to section 1001 of title 18, United States Code.
“(f) Monitoring.–To ensure compliance with the requirements of
this section, the Secretary shall–
“(1) <> periodically, or at least once
every 4 years, reevaluate the accreditation bodies described in
subsection (b)(1);

[[Page 124 STAT. 3966]]

“(2) <> periodically, or at least once
every 4 years, evaluate the performance of each accredited
third-party auditor, through the review of regulatory audit
reports by such auditors, the compliance history as available of
eligible entities certified by such auditors, and any other
measures deemed necessary by the Secretary;
“(3) at any time, conduct an onsite audit of any eligible
entity certified by an accredited third-party auditor, with or
without the auditor present; and
“(4) take any other measures deemed necessary by the
Secretary.

“(g) Publicly Available Registry.–The Secretary shall establish a
publicly available registry of accreditation bodies and of accredited
third-party auditors, including the name of, contact information for,
and other information deemed necessary by the Secretary about such
bodies and auditors.
“(h) Limitations.–
“(1) No effect on section 704 inspections.–The audits
performed under this section shall not be considered inspections
under section 704.
“(2) No effect on inspection authority.–Nothing in this
section affects the authority of the Secretary to inspect any
eligible entity pursuant to this Act.”.
SEC. 308. <> FOREIGN OFFICES OF THE FOOD AND
DRUG ADMINISTRATION.

(a) In General. <> –The Secretary shall
establish offices of the Food and Drug Administration in foreign
countries selected by the Secretary, to provide assistance to the
appropriate governmental entities of such countries with respect to
measures to provide for the safety of articles of food and other
products regulated by the Food and Drug Administration exported by such
country to the United States, including by directly conducting risk-
based inspections of such articles and supporting such inspections by
such governmental entity.

(b) Consultation.–In establishing the foreign offices described in
subsection (a), the Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of State,
the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the United States Trade
Representative.
(c) Report.–Not later than October 1, 2011, the Secretary shall
submit to Congress a report on the basis for the selection by the
Secretary of the foreign countries in which the Secretary established
offices, the progress which such offices have made with respect to
assisting the governments of such countries in providing for the safety
of articles of food and other products regulated by the Food and Drug
Administration exported to the United States, and the plans of the
Secretary for establishing additional foreign offices of the Food and
Drug Administration, as appropriate.
SEC. 309. <> SMUGGLED FOOD.

(a) In General. <> –Not later than 180
days after the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall, in
coordination with the Secretary of Homeland Security, develop and
implement a strategy to better identify smuggled food and prevent entry
of such food into the United States.

(b) Notification to Homeland Security. <> –Not
later than 10 days after the Secretary identifies a smuggled food that
the Secretary believes would cause serious adverse health consequences

[[Page 124 STAT. 3967]]

or death to humans or animals, the Secretary shall provide to the
Secretary of Homeland Security a notification under section 417(n) of
the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 350f(k)) describing
the smuggled food and, if available, the names of the individuals or
entities that attempted to import such food into the United States.

(c) Public Notification.–If the Secretary–
(1) identifies a smuggled food;
(2) reasonably believes exposure to the food would cause
serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or
animals; and
(3) reasonably believes that the food has entered domestic
commerce and is likely to be consumed,

the Secretary shall promptly issue a press release describing that food
and shall use other emergency communication or recall networks, as
appropriate, to warn consumers and vendors about the potential threat.
(d) Effect of Section.–Nothing in this section shall affect the
authority of the Secretary to issue public notifications under other
circumstances.
(e) Definition.–In this subsection, the term “smuggled food”
means any food that a person introduces into the United States through
fraudulent means or with the intent to defraud or mislead.

TITLE IV–MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

SEC. 401. FUNDING FOR FOOD SAFETY.

(a) In General.–There are authorized to be appropriated to carry
out the activities of the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition,
the Center for Veterinary Medicine, and related field activities in the
Office of Regulatory Affairs of the Food and Drug Administration such
sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2011 through 2015.
(b) Increased Number of Field Staff.–
(1) In general.–To carry out the activities of the Center
for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, the Center for Veterinary
Medicine, and related field activities of the Office of
Regulatory Affairs of the Food and Drug Administration, the
Secretary of Health and Human Services shall increase the field
staff of such Centers and Office with a goal of not fewer than–
(A) 4,000 staff members in fiscal year 2011;
(B) 4,200 staff members in fiscal year 2012;
(C) 4,600 staff members in fiscal year 2013; and
(D) 5,000 staff members in fiscal year 2014.
(2) Field staff for food defense.–The goal under paragraph
(1) shall include an increase of 150 employees by fiscal year
2011 to–
(A) provide additional detection of and response to
food defense threats; and
(B) detect, track, and remove smuggled food (as
defined in section 309) from commerce.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3968]]

SEC. 402. EMPLOYEE PROTECTIONS.

Chapter X of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 391
et seq.), as amended by section 209, is further amended by adding at the
end the following:
“SEC. 1012. <> EMPLOYEE PROTECTIONS.

“(a) In General.–No entity engaged in the manufacture, processing,
packing, transporting, distribution, reception, holding, or importation
of food may discharge an employee or otherwise discriminate against an
employee with respect to compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges
of employment because the employee, whether at the employee’s initiative
or in the ordinary course of the employee’s duties (or any person acting
pursuant to a request of the employee)–
“(1) provided, caused to be provided, or is about to
provide or cause to be provided to the employer, the Federal
Government, or the attorney general of a State information
relating to any violation of, or any act or omission the
employee reasonably believes to be a violation of any provision
of this Act or any order, rule, regulation, standard, or ban
under this Act, or any order, rule, regulation, standard, or ban
under this Act;
“(2) testified or is about to testify in a proceeding
concerning such violation;
“(3) assisted or participated or is about to assist or
participate in such a proceeding; or
“(4) objected to, or refused to participate in, any
activity, policy, practice, or assigned task that the employee
(or other such person) reasonably believed to be in violation of
any provision of this Act, or any order, rule, regulation,
standard, or ban under this Act.

“(b) Process.–
“(1) In general. <> –A person who
believes that he or she has been discharged or otherwise
discriminated against by any person in violation of subsection
(a) may, not later than 180 days after the date on which such
violation occurs, file (or have any person file on his or her
behalf) a complaint with the Secretary of Labor (referred to in
this section as the `Secretary’) alleging such discharge or
discrimination and identifying the person responsible for such
act. <> Upon receipt of such a complaint,
the Secretary shall notify, in writing, the person named in the
complaint of the filing of the complaint, of the allegations
contained in the complaint, of the substance of evidence
supporting the complaint, and of the opportunities that will be
afforded to such person under paragraph (2).
“(2) Investigation.–
“(A) In
general. <> –Not later
than 60 days after the date of receipt of a complaint
filed under paragraph (1) and after affording the
complainant and the person named in the complaint an
opportunity to submit to the Secretary a written
response to the complaint and an opportunity to meet
with a representative of the Secretary to present
statements from witnesses, the Secretary shall initiate
an investigation and determine whether there is
reasonable cause to believe that the complaint has merit
and notify, in writing, the complainant and the person
alleged to have

[[Page 124 STAT. 3969]]

committed a violation of subsection (a) of the
Secretary’s findings.
“(B) Reasonable cause found; preliminary order.–If
the Secretary concludes that there is reasonable cause
to believe that a violation of subsection (a) has
occurred, the Secretary shall accompany the Secretary’s
findings with a preliminary order providing the relief
prescribed by paragraph (3)(B). <> Not
later than 30 days after the date of notification of
findings under this paragraph, the person alleged to
have committed the violation or the complainant may file
objections to the findings or preliminary order, or
both, and request a hearing on the record. The filing of
such objections shall not operate to stay any
reinstatement remedy contained in the preliminary order.
Any such hearing shall be conducted expeditiously. If a
hearing is not requested in such 30-day period, the
preliminary order shall be deemed a final order that is
not subject to judicial review.
“(C) Dismissal of complaint.–
“(i) Standard for complainant.–The Secretary
shall dismiss a complaint filed under this
subsection and shall not conduct an investigation
otherwise required under subparagraph (A) unless
the complainant makes a prima facie showing that
any behavior described in paragraphs (1) through
(4) of subsection (a) was a contributing factor in
the unfavorable personnel action alleged in the
complaint.
“(ii) Standard for employer.–Notwithstanding
a finding by the Secretary that the complainant
has made the showing required under clause (i), no
investigation otherwise required under
subparagraph (A) shall be conducted if the
employer demonstrates, by clear and convincing
evidence, that the employer would have taken the
same unfavorable personnel action in the absence
of that behavior.
“(iii) Violation standard.–The Secretary may
determine that a violation of subsection (a) has
occurred only if the complainant demonstrates that
any behavior described in paragraphs (1) through
(4) of subsection (a) was a contributing factor in
the unfavorable personnel action alleged in the
complaint.
“(iv) Relief standard.–Relief may not be
ordered under subparagraph (A) if the employer
demonstrates by clear and convincing evidence that
the employer would have taken the same unfavorable
personnel action in the absence of that behavior.
“(3) Final order.–
“(A) In general. <> –Not later
than 120 days after the date of conclusion of any
hearing under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall issue a
final order providing the relief prescribed by this
paragraph or denying the complaint. At any time before
issuance of a final order, a proceeding under this
subsection may be terminated on the basis of a
settlement agreement entered into by the Secretary, the
complainant, and the person alleged to have committed
the violation.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3970]]

“(B) Content of order.–If, in response to a
complaint filed under paragraph (1), the Secretary
determines that a violation of subsection (a) has
occurred, the Secretary shall order the person who
committed such violation–
“(i) to take affirmative action to abate the
violation;
“(ii) to reinstate the complainant to his or
her former position together with compensation
(including back pay) and restore the terms,
conditions, and privileges associated with his or
her employment; and
“(iii) to provide compensatory damages to the
complainant.
“(C) Penalty.–If such an order is issued under
this paragraph, the Secretary, at the request of the
complainant, shall assess against the person against
whom the order is issued a sum equal to the aggregate
amount of all costs and expenses (including attorneys’
and expert witness fees) reasonably incurred, as
determined by the Secretary, by the complainant for, or
in connection with, the bringing of the complaint upon
which the order was issued.
“(D) Bad faith claim.–If the Secretary finds that
a complaint under paragraph (1) is frivolous or has been
brought in bad faith, the Secretary may award to the
prevailing employer a reasonable attorneys’ fee, not
exceeding $1,000, to be paid by the complainant.
“(4) Action in court.–
“(A) In general. <> –If the
Secretary has not issued a final decision within 210
days after the filing of the complaint, or within 90
days after receiving a written determination, the
complainant may bring an action at law or equity for de
novo review in the appropriate district court of the
United States with jurisdiction, which shall have
jurisdiction over such an action without regard to the
amount in controversy, and which action shall, at the
request of either party to such action, be tried by the
court with a jury. The proceedings shall be governed by
the same legal burdens of proof specified in paragraph
(2)(C).
“(B) Relief.–The court shall have jurisdiction to
grant all relief necessary to make the employee whole,
including injunctive relief and compensatory damages,
including–
“(i) reinstatement with the same seniority
status that the employee would have had, but for
the discharge or discrimination;
“(ii) the amount of back pay, with interest;
and
“(iii) compensation for any special damages
sustained as a result of the discharge or
discrimination, including litigation costs, expert
witness fees, and reasonable attorney’s fees.
“(5) Review.–
“(A) In general.–Unless the complainant brings an
action under paragraph (4), any person adversely
affected or aggrieved by a final order issued under
paragraph (3) may obtain review of the order in the
United States Court of Appeals for the circuit in which
the violation, with respect to which the order was
issued, allegedly occurred or the circuit in which the
complainant resided on the

[[Page 124 STAT. 3971]]

date of such violation. <> The
petition for review must be filed not later than 60 days
after the date of the issuance of the final order of the
Secretary. Review shall conform to chapter 7 of title 5,
United States Code. The commencement of proceedings
under this subparagraph shall not, unless ordered by the
court, operate as a stay of the order.
“(B) No judicial review.–An order of the Secretary
with respect to which review could have been obtained
under subparagraph (A) shall not be subject to judicial
review in any criminal or other civil proceeding.
“(6) Failure to comply with order.–Whenever any person has
failed to comply with an order issued under paragraph (3), the
Secretary may file a civil action in the United States district
court for the district in which the violation was found to
occur, or in the United States district court for the District
of Columbia, to enforce such order. In actions brought under
this paragraph, the district courts shall have jurisdiction to
grant all appropriate relief including, but not limited to,
injunctive relief and compensatory damages.
“(7) Civil action to require compliance.–
“(A) In general.–A person on whose behalf an order
was issued under paragraph (3) may commence a civil
action against the person to whom such order was issued
to require compliance with such order. The appropriate
United States district court shall have jurisdiction,
without regard to the amount in controversy or the
citizenship of the parties, to enforce such order.
“(B) Award.–The court, in issuing any final order
under this paragraph, may award costs of litigation
(including reasonable attorneys’ and expert witness
fees) to any party whenever the court determines such
award is appropriate.

“(c) Effect of Section.–
“(1) Other laws.–Nothing in this section preempts or
diminishes any other safeguards against discrimination,
demotion, discharge, suspension, threats, harassment, reprimand,
retaliation, or any other manner of discrimination provided by
Federal or State law.
“(2) Rights of employees.–Nothing in this section shall be
construed to diminish the rights, privileges, or remedies of any
employee under any Federal or State law or under any collective
bargaining agreement. The rights and remedies in this section
may not be waived by any agreement, policy, form, or condition
of employment.

“(d) Enforcement.–Any nondiscretionary duty imposed by this
section shall be enforceable in a mandamus proceeding brought under
section 1361 of title 28, United States Code.
“(e) Limitation.–Subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to an
employee of an entity engaged in the manufacture, processing, packing,
transporting, distribution, reception, holding, or importation of food
who, acting without direction from such entity (or such entity’s agent),
deliberately causes a violation of any requirement relating to any
violation or alleged violation of any order, rule, regulation, standard,
or ban under this Act.”.

[[Page 124 STAT. 3972]]

SEC. 403. <> JURISDICTION; AUTHORITIES.

Nothing in this Act, or an amendment made by this Act, shall be
construed to–
(1) alter the jurisdiction between the Secretary of
Agriculture and the Secretary of Health and Human Services,
under applicable statutes, regulations, or agreements regarding
voluntary inspection of non-amenable species under the
Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.);
(2) alter the jurisdiction between the Alcohol and Tobacco
Tax and Trade Bureau and the Secretary of Health and Human
Services, under applicable statutes and regulations;
(3) limit the authority of the Secretary of Health and Human
Services under–
(A) the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21
U.S.C. 301 et seq.) as in effect on the day before the
date of enactment of this Act; or
(B) the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 301 et
seq.) as in effect on the day before the date of
enactment of this Act;
(4) alter or limit the authority of the Secretary of
Agriculture under the laws administered by such Secretary,
including–
(A) the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601
et seq.);
(B) the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C.
451 et seq.);
(C) the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031
et seq.);
(D) the United States Grain Standards Act (7 U.S.C.
71 et seq.);
(E) the Packers and Stockyards Act, 1921 (7 U.S.C.
181 et seq.);
(F) the United States Warehouse Act (7 U.S.C. 241 et
seq.);
(G) the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (7 U.S.C.
1621 et seq.); and
(H) the Agricultural Adjustment Act (7 U.S.C. 601 et
seq.), reenacted with the amendments made by the
Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937; or
(5) alter, impede, or affect the authority of the Secretary
of Homeland Security under the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6
U.S.C. 101 et seq.) or any other statute, including any
authority related to securing the borders of the United States,
managing ports of entry, or agricultural import and entry
inspection activities.
SEC. 404. <> COMPLIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL
AGREEMENTS.

Nothing in this Act (or an amendment made by this Act) shall be
construed in a manner inconsistent with the agreement establishing the
World Trade Organization or any other treaty or international agreement
to which the United States is a party.
SEC. 405. DETERMINATION OF BUDGETARY EFFECTS.

The budgetary effects of this Act, for the purpose of complying with
the Statutory Pay-As-You-Go Act of 2010, shall be determined by
reference to the latest statement titled “Budgetary Effects of PAYGO
Legislation” for this Act, submitted for printing in the

[[Page 124 STAT. 3973]]

Congressional Record by the Chairman of the Senate Budget Committee,
provided that such statement has been submitted prior to the vote on
passage.

Approved January 4, 2011.

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY–H.R. 2751:
—————————————————————————

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD:
Vol. 155 (2009):
June 9, considered and passed House.
Vol. 156 (2010):
Dec. 19, considered and passed
Senate, amended.
Dec. 21, House concurred in Senate
amendments.

Mantcunanjin

Standing Bear (1834(?) – 1908) (Páⁿka iyé official orthography: Maⁿchú-Naⁿzhíⁿ/Macunajin;[1] other spellings: Ma-chú-nu-zhe, Ma-chú-na-zhe or Mantcunanjin pronounced [mãtʃuꜜnãʒĩꜜ]) was a Ponca Native American chief who successfully argued in U.S. District Court in 1879 in Omaha that Native Americans are “persons within the meaning of the law” and have the right of habeas corpus. His wife Susette Primeau was also a signatory on the 1879 writ that initiated the famous court case.

In 1875, the Ponca paramount chief White Eagle, Standing Bear, and other Ponca leaders met with US Indian Agent A. J. Carrier and signed a document allowing removal to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). White Eagle and other Ponca leaders later claimed that because of a mistranslation, he had understood that they were to move to the Omaha Reservation, not to the Indian Territory.

In February 1877, eight Ponca chiefs, including Standing Bear, accompanied Inspector Edward C. Kemble to the Osage Reservation to select a site. Due to lack of preparation by the agent, they did not identify a site. Angry about what he called the Ponca chiefs’ “insubordination”, Kemble left them to walk back north. He proceeded to prepare to remove the tribe. In April, Kemble headed south to the Quapaw Reservation near present-day Peoria, Oklahoma, with those Ponca willing to leave. In May the US Army forced the removal of the rest of the tribe, including Standing Bear and his family.[4]

The Ponca arrived in Oklahoma too late to plant crops that year, and the government failed to provide them with the farming equipment it had promised as part of the deal. In 1878 they moved 150 miles west to the Salt Fork of the Arkansas River, south of present-day Ponca City, Oklahoma. By spring, nearly a third of the tribe had died due to starvation, malaria and related causes. Standing Bear’s eldest son, Bear Shield, was among the dead. Standing Bear had promised to bury him in the Niobrara River valley homeland, so he left to travel north, with 65 followers.[5]

When they reached at the Omaha Reservation in Nebraska, they were welcomed as relatives. Word of their arrival in Nebraska soon reached the government. Under orders from the Secretary of the Interior, Carl Schurz, who also directed the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Brigadier General George Crook had the Ponca arrested for having left the reservation in Indian Territory.[6] The Army took Standing Bear and the others to Fort Omaha, where they were detained. Although the official orders were to return them immediately to Indian Territory, Crook was sympathetic to the Ponca and appalled to learn of the conditions they had left. He delayed their return so the Ponca could rest, regain their health, and seek legal redress.[7]

Crook told the Ponca story to Thomas Tibbles, an editor of the Omaha Daily Herald, who publicized it widely. The attorney John L. Webster offered his services pro bono and was joined by Andrew J. Poppleton, chief attorney of the Union Pacific Railroad.

They aided Standing Bear, who in April 1879 sued for a writ of habeas corpus in U.S. District Court in Omaha, Nebraska. Acting as interpreter for Standing Bear was Susette LaFlesche, an accomplished and educated, bilingual Omaha of mixed-race background. The case is called United States ex rel. Standing Bear v. Crook. General Crook was named as the formal defendant because he was holding the Ponca under color of law.

As the trial drew to a close, Judge Dundy announced that Chief Standing Bear would be allowed to make a speech in his own behalf. Raising his right hand, Standing Bear proceeded to speak. Among his words were, “That hand is not the color of yours, but if I prick it, the blood will flow, and I shall feel pain,” said Standing Bear. “The blood is of the same color as yours. God made me, and I am a man.”[8]

On May 12, 1879, Judge Elmer S. Dundy ruled that “an Indian is a person” within the meaning of habeas corpus. He stated that the federal government had failed to show a basis under law for the Poncas’ arrest and captivity.[9]

It was a landmark case, recognizing that an Indian is a “person” under the law and entitled to its rights and protection. “The right of expatriation is a natural, inherent and inalienable right and extends to the Indian as well as to the more fortunate white race,” The judge concluded.

Years later, blind and in failing health, Poppleton would reflect on his final court plea for Standing Bear: “I cannot recall any two hours’ work of my life with which I feel better satisfied.”[10]

Standing Bear and his followers were immediately freed. The case gained the attention of the Hayes administration, which provided authority for Standing Bear and some of the tribe to return to the Niobrara valley in Nebraska.


At first the United States district attorney considered appealing the decision, but after studying Judge Dundy’s written opinion (a brilliant essay on human rights), he made no appeal to the Supreme Court. The United States government assigned Standing Bear and his band a few hundred acres of unclaimed land near the mouth of the Niobrara, and they were back home again.

As soon as the surviving 530 Poncas in Indian Territory learned of this astonishing turn of events, most of them began preparations to join their relatives in Nebraska. The Indian Bureau, however, was not sympathetic. Through its agents the bureau informed the Ponca chiefs that only the Great Council in Washington could decide if and when the tribe might return. The bureaucrats and politicians (the Indian Ring) recognized Judge Dundy’s decision as a strong threat to the reservation system; it would endanger the small army of entrepreneurs who were making fortunes funneling bad food, shoddy blankets, and poisonous whiskey to the thousands of Indians trapped on reservations. If the Poncas were permitted to leave their new reservation in Indian Territory and walk away as free American citizens, this would set a precedent which might well destroy the entire military-political-reservation complex.

In his annual report, Big Eyes Schurz admitted that the Poncas in Indian Territory “had a serious grievance,” but he strongly opposed permitting them to return to their homeland because it would make other Indians “restless with a desire to fol­low their example” and thereby cause a breakup of the territorial reservation system.16

At the same time, William H. Whiteman, who headed the lucra­tive Ponca agency, tried to discredit Standing Bear’s band by describing them as “certain renegade members of the tribe,” and then he wrote in glowing terms of his considerable expenditures for materials and tools to develop the reservation in Indian Territory. Whiteman made no mention of the discontent prevalent among the Poncas, their constant petitions to return to their homeland, or of his feud with Big Snake.

Big Snake was Standing Bear’s brother, a giant with hands like hams and shoulders as big as a buffalo’s. Like many huge men, Big Snake was quiet and gentle of manner (the Poncas called him the Peacemaker), but when he saw that White Eagle and the other head men were being intimidated by agent Whiteman, he decided to take action on his own. After all, he was the brother of Standing Bear, the Ponca who had won freedom for his people.

Determined to test the new law, Big Snake requested permis­sion to leave the reservation and go north to join his brother. As he expected, permission to leave was refused by agent Whiteman. Big Snake’s next move was not to leave Indian Territory, but to travel only a hundred miles to the Cheyenne reservation. With him went thirty other Poncas, making what they believed to be a gentle testing of the law which said that an Indian was a person and could not be confined to any particular reservation against his will.

Whiteman’s reaction was that of any entrenched bureaucrat whose authority is threatened. On May 21, 1879, he telegraphed the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, reporting the defection of Big Snake and his party to the Cheyenne reservation, and requesting that they be arrested and detained at Fort Reno “until the tribe has recovered from the demoralizing effects of the decision recently made by the United States district court in Nebraska, in the case of Standing Bear.”17

Big Eyes Schurz agreed to the arrest, but evidently fearing another challenge in the courts, he asked the Great Warrior Sherman to transport Big Snake and his “renegades” back to the Ponca reservation as quickly and quietly as possible.

In his usual blunt manner, Sherman telegraphed General Sheridan on May 22: “The honorable Secretary of the Interior requests that the Poncas arrested and held at Fort Reno, in the Indian Territory… be sent to the agency of the Poncas. You may order this to be done.” And then, as if anticipating Sheridan’s apprehensions about flying in the face of Judge Dundy’s recent decision, Sherman decreed: “The release under writ of habeas corpus of the Poncas in Nebraska does not apply to any other than that specific case.”18 For the Great Warrior Sherman it was easier to unmake laws than it was for the courts of the land to interpret them.

And so Big Snake lost his first test of his brother’s victory at law, and he never had a chance to try again. After being brought back to the Ponca agency in the Corn Is in Silk Moon, Big Snake was marked for destruction. Agent Whiteman reported to Washington that Big Snake had “a very demoralizing effect upon the other Indians … extremely sullen and morose.” In one para­graph Whiteman charged that Big Snake had repeatedly threatened to kill him, and in another complained that the Ponca had never spoken to him since his return. The agent became so furious that he begged the Commissioner of Indian Affairs “to arrest Big Snake and convey him to Fort Reno and there confine him for the remainder of his natural life.”19

Finally, on October 25, Whiteman obtained authorization from Sherman to arrest Big Snake and imprison him in the agency guardhouse. To make the arrest, Whiteman requested a detail of soldiers. Five days later, Lieutenant Stanton A. Mason and thirteen soldiers arrived at the agency. Whiteman told Mason that he would send out a notice to the Poncas, ordering those who had money coming to them for special work to report to his office the next day. Big Snake would be among them, and as soon as he entered the office, Mason was to make the arrest.

On October 31 Big Snake entered Whiteman’s office about noon and was told to take a chair. Lieutenant Mason and eight armed men then surrounded him, Mason informing him that he was under arrest. Big Snake wanted to know why he was being arrested. Whiteman spoke up then and said one charge against him was threatening his (Whiteman’s) life. Big Snake calmly denied this. According to the post trader, J. S. Sherburne, Big Snake then stood up and threw off his blanket to show he was not armed.

Hairy Bear’s statement: “The officer told Big Snake to come along, to get up and come. Big Snake would not get up, and told the officer he wanted him to tell him what he had done. He said he had killed no one, stolen no horses, and that he had done nothing wrong. After Big Snake said that, the officer spoke to the agent, and then told Big Snake he had tried to kill two men, and had been pretty mean. Big Snake denied it. The agent then told him he had better go, and would then learn all about it down there. Big Snake said he had done nothing wrong, and that he would die before he would go. I then went up to Big Snake and told him this man [the officer] was not going to arrest him for nothing, and that he had better go along, and that perhaps he would come back all right; I coaxed all I could to get him to go; told him that he had a wife and children, and to remember them and not get killed. Big Snake then got up and told me that he did not want to go, and that if they wanted to kill him they could do it, right there. Big Snake was very cool. Then the officer told him to get up, and told him that if he did not go, there might something hap­pen. He said there was no use in talking; I came to arrest you, and want you to go. The officer went for the handcuffs, which a soldier had, and brought them in. The officer and a soldier then tried to put them on, but Big Snake pushed them both away. Then the officer spoke to the soldiers, and four of them tried to put them on, but Big Snake pushed them all off. One soldier, who had stripes on his arms, also tried to put them on, but Big Snake pushed them all off. They tried several times, all of them, to get hold of Big Snake and hold him. Big Snake was sitting down, when six soldiers got hold of him. He raised up and threw them off. Just then one of the soldiers, who was in front of him, struck Big Snake in the face with his gun, another soldier struck him alongside the head with the barrel of his gun. It knocked him back to the wall. He straightened up again. The blood was running down his face. I saw the gun pointed at him, and was scared, and did not want to see him killed. So I turned away. Then the gun was fired and Big Snake fell down dead on the floor.”20

The Interior Department first issued a statement that Standing Bear’s brother “Big Snake, a bad man” had been “shot accidentally.”21 The American press, however, growing more sen­sitive to treatment of Indians since the Standing Bear case, demanded an investigation in Congress. This time the military-political-reservation complex was operating in the familiar climate of Washington, and nothing came of the investigation.

The Poncas of Indian Territory had learned a bitter lesson. The white man’s law was an illusion; it did not apply to them. And so like the Cheyennes, the diminishing Ponca tribe was split in two—Standing Bear’s band free in the north, the others prisoners in the Indian Territory. (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, pp. 360-66)

Big Snake said he had done nothing wrong: that he carried no knife; and threw off his blanket and turned around to show he had no weapon. The officer again told him to come along. Big Snake said he had done nothing wrong and that he would die before he would go. I then went up to Big Snake and told him this man (the officer) was not going to arrest him for nothing, and that he had better go along, and that perhaps he would come back all right; I coaxed all I could to get him to go; told him that he had a wife and children and to remember them and not get killed. Big Snake t hen got up and told me that he did not want to go, and that if they wanted to kill him they could do it, right there. Big Snake was very cool. Then the officer told him to get up and told him that if he did not go, there might something happen. He said there is no use in talking; I came to arrest you and want you to go. The officer went for the handcuffs, which a soldier had, and brought them in. The officer and a soldier then tried to put them on him, but Big Snake pushed them both away. Then the officer spoke to the soldiers, and four of them tried to put them on, but Big Snake pushed them all off. One soldier, who had stripes on his arms, also tried to put them on, but Big Snake pushed them off. They tried several times, all of them, to get hold of Big Snake and hold him. But Big Snake was sitting down, when six soldiers got hold of him. He raised up and threw them off. Just then one of the soldiers, who was in in front of him, struck Big Snake in the face with his gun, another soldier struck him along side the head with the barrel of his gun. It knocked him back to the wall. He straightened up again. The blood was running down his face. I saw the gun pointed at him, and was scared and did not want to see him killed. So, I turned away. Then the gun was fired and Big Snake fell down dead on the floor.

From Senate Executive Document No. 14, 46th Congress, 3d Session (January 5, 1881), p. 13.


United States, ex rel.
Standing Bear, v. George Crook, a
Brigadier-General of the Army of the United States.

  1. An Indian is a /person/ within the meaning of the /habeas corpus/ act, and as such is entitled to sue out a writ of /habeas corpus/ in the federal courts when it is shown that the petitioner is deprived of liberty under color of authority of the United States, or is in custody of an officer in violation of the constitution or a law of the United States, or in violation of a treaty made in pursuance thereof.
  2. The right of expatriation is a natural, inherent, and inalienable right and extends to the Indian as well as to the white race.
  3. The commissioner of Indian affairs has ample authority for removing from an Indian reservation all persons found thereon without authority of law, or whose presence may be detrimental to the peace and welfare of the Indians.
  4. The military power of the government may be employed to effect such removal; but where the removal is effected, it is the duty of the troops to convey the persons so removed, by the most convenient route, to the civil authorities of the judicial district in which the offense may be committed to be proceeded against in due course of law. In time of peace, no authority civil or military exists for transporting Indians from one section of the country to, another, without the consent of the Indians, nor to confine then to any particular reservation against their will; and where officers of the government attempt to do this and arrest and hold Indians who are at peace with the government for the purpose of removing teens to and confining them on a reservation in the Indian Territory they will be released on /habeas corpus/.

(Before DUNDY, J.)
/habeas corpus/.-/Right of Indian to Writ/.
The facts are fully stated in the opinion of the court.
/A. J. Poppleton/ and /John L. Webster/, for the relators.
/G. M. Lambertson/, United States attorney, for the government.

DANDY, J.-During the fifteen years in which I have been engaged in administering the laws of my country, I have never been called upon to hear or decide a case that appealed so strongly to my sympathy as the one now under consideration On the one side, we have a few of the remnants of a once numerous and powerful, but now weak, insignificant, unlettered and generally despised race; on the other, we have the representative of one of the most powerful, most enlightened, and most Christianized nations of modern times. On the one side, we have the representatives of this wasted race coming into this national tribunal of ours, asking for justice and liberty to enable them to adopt our boasted civilization, and to pursue the arts of peace, which have made us great and happy as a nation; on the other side, we have this magnificent, if not magnanimous, government, resisting this application with the determination, of sending these people back to the country
which is to then less desirable than perpetual imprisonment in their own native land. But I think it is creditable to the heart and mind of the brave and distinguished officer who is made respondent herein to say that he has no sort of sympathy in the business in which he is forced by his position to bear a part so conspicuous; and, so far as I am individually concerned, I think it not improper to say that, if the strongest possible sympathy could give the relators title to freedom, they would have been restored to liberty the moment the arguments in
their behalf were closed. No examination or further thought would then have been necessary or Reliant. But in a country where liberty is regulated by law, something more satisfactory and enduring than mere sympathy must furnish and constitute the rule and basis of judicial action. It follows that this case must be examined and decided on principle of law, and that unless the relators are entitled to their discharge under the constitution or laws of the United States, or some treaty made pursuant thereto, they must be remanded to the custody of
the officer who caused their arrest, to be returned the Indian Territory, which they left without the consent of the government.

On the 8th of April, 1879, the relators, Standing Bear and twenty-five others, during the session of the court held at that time at Lincoln, presented their petition, duly verified, praying for the allowance of a writ of /habeas corpus/ and their final discharge from custody thereunder.

The petition alleges, in substance, that the relators are Indians who have formerly belonged to the Ponca tribe of Indians, now located in the Indian Territory; that they had some time previously withdrawn from the tribe, and completely severed their Tribal relations therewith, and had adopted the general habits of the whites, and were then endeavoring to maintain themselves by their own exertions, and without aid or assistance from the general government; that whilst they were thus engaged and without being guilty of violating any of the laws of the United States, they were arrested and restrained of their liberty by order of the respondent, George Crook.

The writ was issued and served on the respondent on the 8th day of April, and, the distance between the place where the writ was made returnable and the place where the relators were confined being more
than twenty miles, ten days were allotted in which to make return.

On the 18th of April the writ was returned, and the authority for the arrest and detention is therein shown. The substance of the return to the writ, and the additional statement since filed, is that the relators are individual members of, and connected with, the Ponca tribe of Indians; that they had fled or escaped from a reservation situated some place within the limits of the Indian Territory-had departed therefrom without permission from the government; and, at the request of the secretary of the interior, the general of the army had issued an order
which required the respondent to arrest and return the relators to their tribe in the Indian Territory, and that, pursuant to the said order, he had caused the relators to be arrested on the Omaha Indian reservation, and that they were in his custody for the purpose of being returned to the Indian Territory.

It is claimed upon the one side, and denied upon the other, that the relators had withdrawn and severed, for all time, their connection with the tribe to which they belonged; and upon this point alone was there any testimony produced by either party hereto. The other matters stated in the petition and the return to the writ are conceded to be true; so that the questions to be determined are purely questions of law.

On the 8th of March, 1859, a treaty was made by the United States with the Ponca tribe of Indians, by which a certain tract of country, north of the Niobrara river and west of the Missouri, was set apart for the permanent home of the said Indians, in which the government agreed to protect them during their good behavior. But just when, or how, or why, or under what circumstances, the Indians left their reservation in
Dakota and went to the Indian Territory, does not appear.

The district attorney very earnestly questions the jurisdiction of the court to issue the write, and to hear and determine the case made herein, and has supported his theory with an argument of great ingenuity and much ability. But, nevertheless, I am of the opinion that his premises are erroneous, and his conclusions, therefore, wrong and unjust. The great respect I entertain for that officer, and the very able manner in which his views were presented, make it necessary for me to give somewhat at length the reasons which lead me to this conclusion.

The district attorney discussed at length the reasons which led to the origin of the writ of /habeas corpus/, and the character of the proceedings and practice in connection therewith in the parent country.

It was claimed that the laws of the realm limited the right to sue out this writ to the /free subjects/ of the kingdom, and that none others came within the benefits of such beneficent laws; and, reasoning from
analogy, it is claimed that none but American citizens are entitled to sue out this high prerogative writ in nay of the federal courts. I have not examined the English laws regulating the suing out of the writ, nor have I thought it necessary so to do. Of this I will only observe that if the laws of England are as they are claimed to be, they will appear at a disadvantage when compared with our own. This only proves that the laws of a limited monarchy are sometimes less wise and humane than the laws of our own republic-that whilst the parliament of Great Britain was legislating in behalf of the favored few, the congress of the United States was legislating in behalf of all mankind who come within our jurisdiction.

Section 751 of the revised statutes declares that “the supreme court and the circuit and district courts shall have power to issue writs of /habeas corpus/.” Section 752 confers the power to issue writs on the judges of said courts, within their jurisdiction, and declares this to be ” for the purpose of inquiry into the cause of restraint of liberty.”

Section 753 restricts the power, limits the jurisdiction, and defines the cases where the writ may properly issue. That may be done under this section where the prisoner ” is in custody under or by color of authority of the United States, * * * or is in custody for an act done or omitted in pursuance of a law of the United States, * * * or in custody in violation of the constitution or of a law or treaty of the United States.” Thus, it will be seen that when a /person/ is in custody or deprived of his liberty under color of authority of the United States, or in violation of the constitution or laws or treaties of the United States, the federal judges have jurisdiction, and the writ can properly issue. I take it that the true construction to be placed upon this act is this, that in /all/ cases where federal officers, civil or military, have the custody and control of a person claimed to be unlawfully restrained of liberty, they are /then/ restrained of liberty under color of authority of the United States, and the federal courts can properly proceed to determine the question of unlawful restraint, because no other courts can properly do so. In the other instance, the federal courts and judges can properly issue the writ in /all/ cases where the /person/ is alleged to be in custody in violation of the constitution or a law or treaty of the United States. In such a case, it is wholly immaterial what over, state or federal, has custody of the person seeking the relief. These relators may be entitled to the writ in either case. Under the first paragraph they certainly are-that is, if an Indian can be entitled to it at all-because they are in custody of a
federal officer, under color of authority of the United States. And they may be entitled to the writ under the other paragraph, before recited, for the reason, as they allege, that they are restrained of liberty in violation of a provision of their treaty, before referred to. Now, it must be borne in mind that the /habeas corpus/ act describes applicants for the writ as /”persons,”/ or /” parties,”/ who may be entitled thereto. It nowhere describes them as citizens, nor is citizenship in any way or place made a qualification for suing out the writ, and, in the absence of express provision or necessary implication which would require the interpretation contended for by the district attorney, I should not feel justified in giving the words /person/ and /party/ such
a narrow construction. The most natural, and therefore most reasonable, way is to attach the same meaning to /words/ and /phrases/ when found in a statute that is attached to them when and where found in general use.
If we do so in this instance, then the question cannot be open to serious doubt. Webster describes a person as “a living soul; a self-conscious being; a moral agent; especially a living human being; a mans or child; an individual of the human race.” This is comprehensive enough, it would seem, to include even an Indian. In defining certain generic terms, the 1st section of the revised statutes declares that the word /person/ includes copartnerships and corporations. On the whole, it seems to me guise evident that the comprehensive language used in this section is intended to apply to all mankind-as well the relators as the mere favored white race. This will be doing no violence to language, or to the spirit or letter of the law, nor to the intention, as it is
believed, of the law-making power of the government I must hold, then, that /Indians/, and consequently the relators, are /persons/, such as are described by and included within the laws before quoted. It is said, however, that this is thirst instance on record in which an Indian has been permitted to sue out and maintain a writ of /habeas corpus/ in a federal court, and /therefore/ the court must be without jurisdiction in the premises. This is a /non sequitur/. I confess I do not know of another instance where this has been done, but I can also say that the occasion for it perhaps has never before been so great. It may be that the Indians think it wiser and better, in to end, to resort to this peaceful process than it would be to undertake the hopeless task of redressing their own alleged wrongs by force of arms. Returning reason, and the sad experience of others similarly situated, have taught them the folly and madness of the arbitrament of the sword. They can readily
see that any serious resistance on their part would be the signal for their utter extirmination. Have they not, then, chosen the wiser part by resorting to the very tribunal erected by those they claim have wronged and oppressed them ? This, however, is not the tribunal of their own choice, but it is the /only/ one into which they can lawfully go for deliverance. It cannot, therefore, be fairly said that because no Indian ever before invoked the aid of this writ in a federal court, the rightful authority to issue it does not exist. Power and authority right
fully conferred do not necessarily cease to exist in consequence of long non-user. Though much time has elapsed, and many generations have passed away, since the passage of the original habeas corpus act, from which I have quoted, it will not do to say that these Indians cannot avail themselves of its beneficent provisions simply because none of their ancestors ever sought relief thereunder.

Every /person/ who comes within our jurisdiction, whether he be European, Asiatic, African, or “native to the manor born,” must obey the laws of the United States. Every one who violates them incurs the penalty provided thereby. When a person is charged, in a proper way, with the commission of crime, we do not inquire upon the trial in what country the accused was born, nor to what sovereign or government allegiance is due, nor to what race he belongs. The questions of guilt and innocence only form the subjects of inquiry. An Indian, then, especially off from his reservation, is amenable to the criminal laws of the United States, the same as all other persons. They being subject to arrest for the violation of our criminal laws, and being persons such as the law contemplates and includes in the description of parties who may sue out the writ, it would indeed be a sad commentary on the justice and impartiality of our laws to hold that Indians, though natives of, our
own country, cannot test the validity of an alleged illegal imprisonment in this manner, as well as a subject of a foreign government who may happen to be sojourning in this country, but owing it no sort of allegiance. I cannot doubt that congress intended to give to /every person/ who might be unlawfully restrained of liberty under color of authority of the United States, the right to the writ and a discharge thereon. I conclude, then, that, so far as the issuing of the writ is concerned, it was properly issued, and that the relators are within the
jurisdiction conferred by the /habeas corpus/ act.

A question of much greater importance remains for consideration, which, when determined, will be decisive of this whole controversy. This relates to the right of the government to arrest and hold the relators for a time, for the purpose of being returned to a point in the Indian Territory from which it is alleged the Indians escaped. I am not vain enough to think that I can do full justice to a question like the one under consideration. But, as the matter furnishes so much valuable material for discussion, and so much food for reflection, I shall try to present it as viewed from my own standpoint, without reference to consequences or criticisms, which, though not specially invited, will be sure to follow.

A review of the policy of the government adopted in its dealings with the friendly tribe of Poncas, to which the relators at one time belonged, seems not only appropriate, but almost indispensable to a correct understanding of this controversy. The Ponca Indians have been at peace with the government, and have remained the steadfast friends of the whites, for many years. They lived peaceably upon the land arid in
the country they claimed and called their own.

On the 12th of March, 1858, they made a treaty with the United States, by which they ceded all claims to lands, except the following tract:
“Beginning at a point on the Niobrara river, and running due north so as to intersect the Ponca river twenty-five miles from its mouth; thence from said point of intersection up and along the Ponca river twenty
miles; thence due south to the Niobrara river; and thence down and along said river to the place of beginning; which tract is hereby reserved for the future homes of said Indians.” In consideration of this cession, the
government agreed ” to protect the Poncas in the possession of the tract of land reserved for their future homes, and their persons and property thereon, during good behavior on their part.” Annuities were to be paid them for thirty years, houses were to be built, schools were to be established, and other things were to be done by the government, in consideration of said cession. (See 12 Stats. at Large, p. 997.)

On the 10th of March, 1865, another treaty was made, and a part of the other reservation was ceded to the government. Other lands, however, were, to some extent, substituted therefor, ” by way of rewarding them
for their constant fidelity to the government, and citizens thereof, and with a view of returning to the said tribe of Ponca Indians their old burying-grounds and cornfields.” This treaty also provides for paying $15,080 for spoliations committed on the Indians. (See 14 Stats. at Large, p. 675.)

On the 29th day of April, 1868, the government made a treaty with the several bands of Sioux Indians, which treaty was ratified by the senate on the 16th of the following February, in and by which the reservations
set apart for the Poncas under former treaties were completely absolved.

(15 Stats. at Large, p. 635.) This was done without consultation with, or knowledge or consent on the part of, the Ponca tribe of Indians.

On the 15th of August; 1876, congress passed the general Indian appropriation bill, and in it we find a provision authorizing the secretary of the interior to use $25,000 for the removal of the Poncas to the Indian Territory, and providing them a hone therein, with consent of the tribe. (19 Stats. at Large, p.192.)

In the Indian appropriation bill passed by congress on the 27th day of May, 1878, we find a provision authorizing the secretary of the interior to expend the sum of $30,000 for the purpose of removing and locating the Ponca Indians on a new reservation, near the Kaw river.

No reference has been made to any other treaties or laws, under which the right to arrest and remove the Indians is claimed to exist.

The Poncas lived upon their reservation in southern Dakota, and cultivated a portion of the same, until two or three years ago, when they removed therefrom, but whether by force or otherwise does not appear. At all events, we find a portion of them, including the relators, located at some point in the Indian Territory. /There/, the testimony seems to show, is where the trouble commenced. Standing Bear, the principal witness, states that out of five hundred and eighty-one Indians who went from the reservation in Dakota to the Indian Territory, one hundred and fifty-eight died within a year or so, and a great proportion of the others were sick and disabled, caused, in a great measure, no doubt, from change of climate; and to save himself and the
survivors of his wasted family, and the feeble remnant of his little band of followers, he determined to leave the Indian Territory and return to his old home, where, to use his own language, “he might live and die in peace, and be buried with his fathers.” He also states that he informed the agent of their final purpose to leave, never to return, and that he and his followers had finally, fully, and forever severed his and their connection with the Ponca tribe of Indians, and had resolved to disband as a tribe, or band, of Indians, and to cut loose
from the government, go to work, become self-sustaining, and adopt the habits and customs of a higher civilization. To accomplish what would seem to be a desirable and laudable purpose, all who were able so to do went to work to earn a living. The Omaha Indians, who speak the same language, and with whom many of the Poncas have long continued to intermarry, gave them employment and ground to cultivate, so as to make
them self-sustaining. And it was when at the Omaha reservation, and when /thus/ employed, that they were arrested by order of the government, for the purpose of being taken back to the Indian Territory. They claim to be unable to see the justice, or reason, or wisdom, or /necessity/, of removing them by force from their own native plains and blood relations to a far-off country, in which they can see little but new-made graves
opening for their reception. The land from which they fled in fear has no attractions for them. The love of home and native land was strong enough in the minds of these people to induce them to brave every peril
to return and live and die where they had been reared. The bones of the dead son of Standing Bear were not to repose in the land they hoped to be leaving forever, but were carefully preserved and protected, and
formed a part of what was to them a melancholy procession homeward. Such instances of parental affection, and such love of home and native land, may be /heathen/ in origin, but it seems to me that they are not unlike
/Christian/ in principle.

What is here stated in this connection is mainly for the purpose of showing that the relators did all they could to separate themselves from their tribe and to sever their tribal relations, for the purpose of becoming self-sustaining and living without support from the government.

This being so, it presents the question as to whether or not an Indian can withdraw from his tribe, sever his tribal relation therewith, and terminate his allegiance thereto, for the purpose of making an independent diving and adopting our own civilization.

If Indian tribes are to be regarded and treated as separate but dependent nations, there can be no serious difficulty about the question. If they are not to be regarded and treated as separate, dependent nations, then no allegiance is owing from an individual Indian to his tribe, and he could, therefore, withdraw therefrom at any time.

The question of expatriation has engaged the attention of our government from the time of its very foundation. Many heated discussions have been carried on between our own and foreign governments on this great question, until diplomacy has triumphantly secured the right to every person found within our jurisdiction. This right has always been claimed and admitted by our government, and it is now no longer an open question. It can make but little difference, then, whether we accord to the Indian tribes a national character or not, as in either case I think the individual Indian possesses the clear and God-given right to withdraw from his tribe and forever live away from it, as though it had no further existence If the right of expatriation was open to doubt in
this country down to the year 1868, certainly since that time no sort of question as to the right can now exist.
On the 27th of July of that year congress passed an act, now appearing as section 1999 of the revised statutes, which declares that: ” Whereas, the right of expatriation is a natural and inherent right of all people, indispensable to the enjoyment of the rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; and, whereas, in the recognition of this principle the government has freely received emigrants from all nations, and invested them with the rights of citizenship. * * ,* Therefore, any declaration, instruction, opinion, order, or decision of any officer of the United States which denies, restricts, impairs, or questions the right of expatriation, is declared
inconsistent with the fundamental principles of the republic.”

This declaration must forever settle the question until it is reopened by other legislation upon the same subject. This is, however, only reaffirming in the most solemn and authoritative manner a principle well settled and understood in this country for why years past.

In most, if not all, instances in which treaties have been made with the several Indian tribes, where reservations have been set apart for their occupancy, the government has either reserved the right or bound itself to protect the Indians thereon. Many of the treaties expressly prohibit white persons being on the reservations unless specially authorized by the treaties or acts of congress for the purpose of carrying out treaty stipulations.

Laws passed for the government of the Indian country, and I for the purpose of regulating trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes, confer upon certain officers of the government almost unlimited power
over the persons who go upon the reservations without lawful authority.

Section 2149 of the revised statutes authorizes and requires the commissioner of Indian affairs, with the approval of the secretary of the interior, to remove from any “tribal reservation” any person being thereon without authority of law, or whose presence within the limits of the reservation may, in the judgment of the commissioner, be detrimental to the peace and welfare of the Indians. The authority here conferred upon the commissioner fully justifies him in causing to be removed from Indian reservations /all/ persons thereon in violation of law, or whose presence thereon may be detrimental to the peace end welfare of the Indians upon the reservations. This applies as well to an Indian as to a white person, and manifestly for the same reason, the object of the law being to prevent unwarranted interference between the Indians and the agent representing the government. Whether such an extensive discretionary power is wisely vested in the commissioner of Indian affairs or not, need not be questioned. It is enough to know that the power rightfully exists, and, where existing, the exercise of the power must be upheld. If, then, the commissioner has the right to cause the
expulsion from the Omaha Indian reservation of all persons thereon who are there in violation of law, or whose presence may be detrimental to the peace and welfare of the Indians, then he must of necessity be
authorized to use the necessary force to accomplish his purpose. Where, then, is he to look for this necessary force? The military arm of the government is the most natural and most potent force to be used on such
occasions, and section 2150 of the revised statutes specially authorizes the use of the army for this service.
The army, then, it seems, is the proper force to employ when intruders and trespassers who go upon the
reservations are to be ejected therefrom.

The first subdivision of the revised statutes last referred to provides that “the military forces of the United States may be employed, in such manner and under such regulations as the president may direct, in the
apprehension of every person who may be in the Indian country in violation of law, and in conveying him immediately from the Indian country, by the nearest convenient and safe route, to the civil authority of the territory or judicial district in which such person shall be found, to be proceeded against in due course of law.” * * *

This is the authority under which the military can be lawfully employed to remove intruders from an Indian reservation. What may be done by the troops in such cases is here fully and clearly stated; and it is /this/
authority, it is believed, under which the respondent acted.

All Indian reservations held under treaty stipulations with the government must be deemed and taken to be a part of the /Indian country/, within the meaning of our laws on that subject. The relators were found upon the Omaha Indian reservation. That being a part of the Indian country, and they not being a part of the Omaha tribe of Indians, they were there without lawful authority, and if the commissioner of Indian affairs deemed -their presence detrimental to the peace and welfare of the Omaha Indians, he had lawful warrant to remove them from the reservation, and to employ the necessary military force to effect this object in safety.

General Crook had the rightful authority to remove the relators from the reservation, and must stand justified in removing them therefrom. But when the troops are thus employed they must exercise the authority in the manner provided by the section of the law just read. This law makes it the duty of the troops to convey the parties arrested, by the nearest convenient and safe rote, /to the civil authority of the territory or judicial district in which persons shall be found, to be proceeded against in due course of law/. The /duty/ of the military authorities is here very clearly and sharply defined, and no one can be justified in departing therefrom, especially in time of peace. As General Crook tad the right to arrest and remove the relators from the Omaha Indian reservation, it follows, from what has been stated, that the law required him to convey them to this city and turn them over to the marshal and United States attorney, to be proceeded against in due course of law. Then proceedings could be instituted against them in either the circuit or district court, and if the relators had incurred a penalty under the law, punishment would follow; otherwise, they would be discharged from custody. Put this course was not pursued in this case; neither was it intended to observe the laws in that regard, for General Crook’s orders, emanating from higher authority, expressly required him to apprehend the relators and remove them by force to the Indian Territory, from which it is alleged they escaped. But in what General Crook has done in the premises no fault can be imputed to him. He was simply obeying the orders of his superior officers, but the orders, as we think, lack the necessary authority of law, and are, therefore, not
binding on the relators.

I have searched in vain for the semblance of any authority justifying the commissioner in attempting to remove by force any Indians, whether belonging to a tribe or not, to any place, or for any other purpose than what has been stated. Certainly, without some specific authority found in an act of congress, or in a treaty with the Ponca tribe of Indians, he could not lawfully force the relators back to the Indian Territory, to remain and die in that country, against their will. In the absence of all treaty stipulations or laws of the United States authorizing such removal, I must conclude that no such arbitrary authority exists. It is true, if the relators are to be regarded as a part of the great nation of Ponca Indians, the government might, in time of war, remove them to any place of safety so long as the war should last, but perhaps no longer, unless they were charged with the commission of some crime. This is a war power merely, and exists in time of war only. Every nation exercises the right to arrest and detain an alien enemy during the existence of a war, and all subjects or citizens of the hostile nations are subject to be dealt with under this rule.

But it is not claimed that the Ponca tribe of Indians are at war with the United States, so that this war power might be used against them; in fact, they are amongst the most peaceable and friendly of all the Indian tribes, and have at times received from the government unmistakable and substantial recognition of their long-continued friendship for the whites In time of peace the war power remains in abeyance, and must be
subservient to the civil authority of the government until something occurs to justify its exercise. No fact exists, and nothing has occurred, so far as the relators are concerned, to make it necessary or lawful to exercise such an authority over them. If they could be removed to the Indian Territory by force, and kept there in the same way, I can see no good reason why they might not be taken and kept by force in the penitentiary at Lincoln, or Leavenworth, or Jefferson City, or any other place which the commander of the forces might, in his judgment, see proper to designate. I cannot think that any such arbitrary authority exists in this country.

The reasoning advanced in support of my views, leads me to conclude:

/1st./ That an /Indian/ is a PERSON within the meaning of the laws of the United States, and has, therefore, the right to sue out a writ of /habeas corpus/ in a federal court, or before a federal judge, in all cases where he may be confined or in custody under color of authority of the United States, or where he is restrained of liberty in violation of the constitution or laws of the United States.

/2d./ That General George Crook, the respondent, being commander of the military department of the Platte, has the custody of the relators, under color of authority of the United States, and in violation of the laws thereof.

/3d./ That no rightful authority exists for removing by force any of the relators to the Indian Territory, as the respondent has been directed to do.

/4th./ That the Indians possess the inherent right of expatriation, as well as the more fortunate white race, and have the inalienable right to “/life, liberty/, and the pursuit of happiness,” so long as they obey the laws and do not trespass on forbidden ground. And,

/5th./ Being restrained of liberty under color of authority of t the United States, and in violation of the laws thereof, the relators must be discharged from custody, and it is so ordered.

ORDERED ACCORDINGLY.

NOTE-At the May term, 1879, Mr. Justice MILLER refused to hear an appeal prosecuted by the United States, because the Indians who then petitioned for the writ of /habeas corpus/ were not present, having been released by the order of DUNDY, J., and no security for their appearance having been taken.

* Source:
Cases Determined in the United States Circuit Courts for the Eighth Circuit
Reported by John Dillon, The Circuit Judge.
Volume 5
Davenport, Iowa: Egbert, Fidlar, & Chambers. 1880.

Standing Bear (1834(?) – 1908) (Pá?ka iyé official orthography: Ma?chú-Na?zhí?/Macunajin;[1] other spellings: Ma-chú-nu-zhe, Ma-chú-na-zhe or Mantcunanjin pronounced [mãt?u?nã???]) was a Ponca Native American chief who successfully argued in U.S. District Court in 1879 in Omaha that Native Americans are “persons within the meaning of the law” and have the right of habeas corpus. His wife Susette Primeau was also a signatory on the 1879 writ that initiated the famous court case.

In 1875, the Ponca paramount chief White Eagle, Standing Bear, and other Ponca leaders met with US Indian Agent A. J. Carrier and signed a document allowing removal to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). White Eagle and other Ponca leaders later claimed that because of a mistranslation, he had understood that they were to move to the Omaha Reservation, not to the Indian Territory.

In February 1877, eight Ponca chiefs, including Standing Bear, accompanied Inspector Edward C. Kemble to the Osage Reservation to select a site. Due to lack of preparation by the agent, they did not identify a site. Angry about what he called the Ponca chiefs’ “insubordination”, Kemble left them to walk back north. He proceeded to prepare to remove the tribe. In April, Kemble headed south to the Quapaw Reservation near present-day Peoria, Oklahoma, with those Ponca willing to leave. In May the US Army forced the removal of the rest of the tribe, including Standing Bear and his family.[4]

The Ponca arrived in Oklahoma too late to plant crops that year, and the government failed to provide them with the farming equipment it had promised as part of the deal. In 1878 they moved 150 miles west to the Salt Fork of the Arkansas River, south of present-day Ponca City, Oklahoma. By spring, nearly a third of the tribe had died due to starvation, malaria and related causes. Standing Bear’s eldest son, Bear Shield, was among the dead. Standing Bear had promised to bury him in the Niobrara River valley homeland, so he left to travel north, with 65 followers.[5]

When they reached at the Omaha Reservation in Nebraska, they were welcomed as relatives. Word of their arrival in Nebraska soon reached the government. Under orders from the Secretary of the Interior, Carl Schurz, who also directed the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Brigadier General George Crook had the Ponca arrested for having left the reservation in Indian Territory.[6] The Army took Standing Bear and the others to Fort Omaha, where they were detained. Although the official orders were to return them immediately to Indian Territory, Crook was sympathetic to the Ponca and appalled to learn of the conditions they had left. He delayed their return so the Ponca could rest, regain their health, and seek legal redress.[7]

Crook told the Ponca story to Thomas Tibbles, an editor of the Omaha Daily Herald, who publicized it widely. The attorney John L. Webster offered his services pro bono and was joined by Andrew J. Poppleton, chief attorney of the Union Pacific Railroad.

They aided Standing Bear, who in April 1879 sued for a writ of habeas corpus in U.S. District Court in Omaha, Nebraska. Acting as interpreter for Standing Bear was Susette LaFlesche, an accomplished and educated, bilingual Omaha of mixed-race background. The case is called United States ex rel. Standing Bear v. Crook. General Crook was named as the formal defendant because he was holding the Ponca under color of law.

As the trial drew to a close, Judge Dundy announced that Chief Standing Bear would be allowed to make a speech in his own behalf. Raising his right hand, Standing Bear proceeded to speak. Among his words were, “That hand is not the color of yours, but if I prick it, the blood will flow, and I shall feel pain,” said Standing Bear. “The blood is of the same color as yours. God made me, and I am a man.”[8]

On May 12, 1879, Judge Elmer S. Dundy ruled that “an Indian is a person” within the meaning of habeas corpus. He stated that the federal government had failed to show a basis under law for the Poncas’ arrest and captivity.[9]

It was a landmark case, recognizing that an Indian is a “person” under the law and entitled to its rights and protection. “The right of expatriation is a natural, inherent and inalienable right and extends to the Indian as well as to the more fortunate white race,” The judge concluded.

Years later, blind and in failing health, Poppleton would reflect on his final court plea for Standing Bear: “I cannot recall any two hours’ work of my life with which I feel better satisfied.”[10]

Standing Bear and his followers were immediately freed. The case gained the attention of the Hayes administration, which provided authority for Standing Bear and some of the tribe to return to the Niobrara valley in Nebraska.


At first the United States district attorney considered appealing the decision, but after studying Judge Dundy’s written opinion (a brilliant essay on human rights), he made no appeal to the Supreme Court. The United States government assigned Standing Bear and his band a few hundred acres of unclaimed land near the mouth of the Niobrara, and they were back home again.

As soon as the surviving 530 Poncas in Indian Territory learned of this astonishing turn of events, most of them began preparations to join their relatives in Nebraska. The Indian Bureau, however, was not sympathetic. Through its agents the bureau informed the Ponca chiefs that only the Great Council in Washington could decide if and when the tribe might return. The bureaucrats and politicians (the Indian Ring) recognized Judge Dundy’s decision as a strong threat to the reservation system; it would endanger the small army of entrepreneurs who were making fortunes funneling bad food, shoddy blankets, and poisonous whiskey to the thousands of Indians trapped on reservations. If the Poncas were permitted to leave their new reservation in Indian Territory and walk away as free American citizens, this would set a precedent which might well destroy the entire military-political-reservation complex.

In his annual report, Big Eyes Schurz admitted that the Poncas in Indian Territory “had a serious grievance,” but he strongly opposed permitting them to return to their homeland because it would make other Indians “restless with a desire to fol­low their example” and thereby cause a breakup of the territorial reservation system.16

At the same time, William H. Whiteman, who headed the lucra­tive Ponca agency, tried to discredit Standing Bear’s band by describing them as “certain renegade members of the tribe,” and then he wrote in glowing terms of his considerable expenditures for materials and tools to develop the reservation in Indian Territory. Whiteman made no mention of the discontent prevalent among the Poncas, their constant petitions to return to their homeland, or of his feud with Big Snake.

Big Snake was Standing Bear’s brother, a giant with hands like hams and shoulders as big as a buffalo’s. Like many huge men, Big Snake was quiet and gentle of manner (the Poncas called him the Peacemaker), but when he saw that White Eagle and the other head men were being intimidated by agent Whiteman, he decided to take action on his own. After all, he was the brother of Standing Bear, the Ponca who had won freedom for his people.

Determined to test the new law, Big Snake requested permis­sion to leave the reservation and go north to join his brother. As he expected, permission to leave was refused by agent Whiteman. Big Snake’s next move was not to leave Indian Territory, but to travel only a hundred miles to the Cheyenne reservation. With him went thirty other Poncas, making what they believed to be a gentle testing of the law which said that an Indian was a person and could not be confined to any particular reservation against his will.

Whiteman’s reaction was that of any entrenched bureaucrat whose authority is threatened. On May 21, 1879, he telegraphed the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, reporting the defection of Big Snake and his party to the Cheyenne reservation, and requesting that they be arrested and detained at Fort Reno “until the tribe has recovered from the demoralizing effects of the decision recently made by the United States district court in Nebraska, in the case of Standing Bear.”17

Big Eyes Schurz agreed to the arrest, but evidently fearing another challenge in the courts, he asked the Great Warrior Sherman to transport Big Snake and his “renegades” back to the Ponca reservation as quickly and quietly as possible.

In his usual blunt manner, Sherman telegraphed General Sheridan on May 22: “The honorable Secretary of the Interior requests that the Poncas arrested and held at Fort Reno, in the Indian Territory… be sent to the agency of the Poncas. You may order this to be done.” And then, as if anticipating Sheridan’s apprehensions about flying in the face of Judge Dundy’s recent decision, Sherman decreed: “The release under writ of habeas corpus of the Poncas in Nebraska does not apply to any other than that specific case.”18 For the Great Warrior Sherman it was easier to unmake laws than it was for the courts of the land to interpret them.

And so Big Snake lost his first test of his brother’s victory at law, and he never had a chance to try again. After being brought back to the Ponca agency in the Corn Is in Silk Moon, Big Snake was marked for destruction. Agent Whiteman reported to Washington that Big Snake had “a very demoralizing effect upon the other Indians … extremely sullen and morose.” In one para­graph Whiteman charged that Big Snake had repeatedly threatened to kill him, and in another complained that the Ponca had never spoken to him since his return. The agent became so furious that he begged the Commissioner of Indian Affairs “to arrest Big Snake and convey him to Fort Reno and there confine him for the remainder of his natural life.”19

Finally, on October 25, Whiteman obtained authorization from Sherman to arrest Big Snake and imprison him in the agency guardhouse. To make the arrest, Whiteman requested a detail of soldiers. Five days later, Lieutenant Stanton A. Mason and thirteen soldiers arrived at the agency. Whiteman told Mason that he would send out a notice to the Poncas, ordering those who had money coming to them for special work to report to his office the next day. Big Snake would be among them, and as soon as he entered the office, Mason was to make the arrest.

On October 31 Big Snake entered Whiteman’s office about noon and was told to take a chair. Lieutenant Mason and eight armed men then surrounded him, Mason informing him that he was under arrest. Big Snake wanted to know why he was being arrested. Whiteman spoke up then and said one charge against him was threatening his (Whiteman’s) life. Big Snake calmly denied this. According to the post trader, J. S. Sherburne, Big Snake then stood up and threw off his blanket to show he was not armed.

Hairy Bear’s statement: “The officer told Big Snake to come along, to get up and come. Big Snake would not get up, and told the officer he wanted him to tell him what he had done. He said he had killed no one, stolen no horses, and that he had done nothing wrong. After Big Snake said that, the officer spoke to the agent, and then told Big Snake he had tried to kill two men, and had been pretty mean. Big Snake denied it. The agent then told him he had better go, and would then learn all about it down there. Big Snake said he had done nothing wrong, and that he would die before he would go. I then went up to Big Snake and told him this man [the officer] was not going to arrest him for nothing, and that he had better go along, and that perhaps he would come back all right; I coaxed all I could to get him to go; told him that he had a wife and children, and to remember them and not get killed. Big Snake then got up and told me that he did not want to go, and that if they wanted to kill him they could do it, right there. Big Snake was very cool. Then the officer told him to get up, and told him that if he did not go, there might something hap­pen. He said there was no use in talking; I came to arrest you, and want you to go. The officer went for the handcuffs, which a soldier had, and brought them in. The officer and a soldier then tried to put them on, but Big Snake pushed them both away. Then the officer spoke to the soldiers, and four of them tried to put them on, but Big Snake pushed them all off. One soldier, who had stripes on his arms, also tried to put them on, but Big Snake pushed them all off. They tried several times, all of them, to get hold of Big Snake and hold him. Big Snake was sitting down, when six soldiers got hold of him. He raised up and threw them off. Just then one of the soldiers, who was in front of him, struck Big Snake in the face with his gun, another soldier struck him alongside the head with the barrel of his gun. It knocked him back to the wall. He straightened up again. The blood was running down his face. I saw the gun pointed at him, and was scared, and did not want to see him killed. So I turned away. Then the gun was fired and Big Snake fell down dead on the floor.”20

The Interior Department first issued a statement that Standing Bear’s brother “Big Snake, a bad man” had been “shot accidentally.”21 The American press, however, growing more sen­sitive to treatment of Indians since the Standing Bear case, demanded an investigation in Congress. This time the military-political-reservation complex was operating in the familiar climate of Washington, and nothing came of the investigation.

The Poncas of Indian Territory had learned a bitter lesson. The white man’s law was an illusion; it did not apply to them. And so like the Cheyennes, the diminishing Ponca tribe was split in two—Standing Bear’s band free in the north, the others prisoners in the Indian Territory. (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, pp. 360-66)

Big Snake said he had done nothing wrong: that he carried no knife; and threw off his blanket and turned around to show he had no weapon. The officer again told him to come along. Big Snake said he had done nothing wrong and that he would die before he would go. I then went up to Big Snake and told him this man (the officer) was not going to arrest him for nothing, and that he had better go along, and that perhaps he would come back all right; I coaxed all I could to get him to go; told him that he had a wife and children and to remember them and not get killed. Big Snake t hen got up and told me that he did not want to go, and that if they wanted to kill him they could do it, right there. Big Snake was very cool. Then the officer told him to get up and told him that if he did not go, there might something happen. He said there is no use in talking; I came to arrest you and want you to go. The officer went for the handcuffs, which a soldier had, and brought them in. The officer and a soldier then tried to put them on him, but Big Snake pushed them both away. Then the officer spoke to the soldiers, and four of them tried to put them on, but Big Snake pushed them all off. One soldier, who had stripes on his arms, also tried to put them on, but Big Snake pushed them off. They tried several times, all of them, to get hold of Big Snake and hold him. But Big Snake was sitting down, when six soldiers got hold of him. He raised up and threw them off. Just then one of the soldiers, who was in in front of him, struck Big Snake in the face with his gun, another soldier struck him along side the head with the barrel of his gun. It knocked him back to the wall. He straightened up again. The blood was running down his face. I saw the gun pointed at him, and was scared and did not want to see him killed. So, I turned away. Then the gun was fired and Big Snake fell down dead on the floor.

From Senate Executive Document No. 14, 46th Congress, 3d Session (January 5, 1881), p. 13.


United States, ex rel.
Standing Bear, v. George Crook, a
Brigadier-General of the Army of the United States.

  1. An Indian is a /person/ within the meaning of the /habeas corpus/ act, and as such is entitled to sue out a writ of /habeas corpus/ in the federal courts when it is shown that the petitioner is deprived of liberty under color of authority of the United States, or is in custody of an officer in violation of the constitution or a law of the United States, or in violation of a treaty made in pursuance thereof.
  2. The right of expatriation is a natural, inherent, and inalienable right and extends to the Indian as well as to the white race.
  3. The commissioner of Indian affairs has ample authority for removing from an Indian reservation all persons found thereon without authority of law, or whose presence may be detrimental to the peace and welfare of the Indians.
  4. The military power of the government may be employed to effect such removal; but where the removal is effected, it is the duty of the troops to convey the persons so removed, by the most convenient route, to the civil authorities of the judicial district in which the offense may be committed to be proceeded against in due course of law. In time of peace, no authority civil or military exists for transporting Indians from one section of the country to, another, without the consent of the Indians, nor to confine then to any particular reservation against their will; and where officers of the government attempt to do this and arrest and hold Indians who are at peace with the government for the purpose of removing teens to and confining them on a reservation in the Indian Territory they will be released on /habeas corpus/.

(Before DUNDY, J.)
/habeas corpus/.-/Right of Indian to Writ/.
The facts are fully stated in the opinion of the court.
/A. J. Poppleton/ and /John L. Webster/, for the relators.
/G. M. Lambertson/, United States attorney, for the government.

DANDY, J.-During the fifteen years in which I have been engaged in administering the laws of my country, I have never been called upon to hear or decide a case that appealed so strongly to my sympathy as the one now under consideration On the one side, we have a few of the remnants of a once numerous and powerful, but now weak, insignificant, unlettered and generally despised race; on the other, we have the representative of one of the most powerful, most enlightened, and most Christianized nations of modern times. On the one side, we have the representatives of this wasted race coming into this national tribunal of ours, asking for justice and liberty to enable them to adopt our boasted civilization, and to pursue the arts of peace, which have made us great and happy as a nation; on the other side, we have this magnificent, if not magnanimous, government, resisting this application with the determination, of sending these people back to the country
which is to then less desirable than perpetual imprisonment in their own native land. But I think it is creditable to the heart and mind of the brave and distinguished officer who is made respondent herein to say that he has no sort of sympathy in the business in which he is forced by his position to bear a part so conspicuous; and, so far as I am individually concerned, I think it not improper to say that, if the strongest possible sympathy could give the relators title to freedom, they would have been restored to liberty the moment the arguments in
their behalf were closed. No examination or further thought would then have been necessary or Reliant. But in a country where liberty is regulated by law, something more satisfactory and enduring than mere sympathy must furnish and constitute the rule and basis of judicial action. It follows that this case must be examined and decided on principle of law, and that unless the relators are entitled to their discharge under the constitution or laws of the United States, or some treaty made pursuant thereto, they must be remanded to the custody of
the officer who caused their arrest, to be returned the Indian Territory, which they left without the consent of the government.

On the 8th of April, 1879, the relators, Standing Bear and twenty-five others, during the session of the court held at that time at Lincoln, presented their petition, duly verified, praying for the allowance of a writ of /habeas corpus/ and their final discharge from custody thereunder.

The petition alleges, in substance, that the relators are Indians who have formerly belonged to the Ponca tribe of Indians, now located in the Indian Territory; that they had some time previously withdrawn from the tribe, and completely severed their Tribal relations therewith, and had adopted the general habits of the whites, and were then endeavoring to maintain themselves by their own exertions, and without aid or assistance from the general government; that whilst they were thus engaged and without being guilty of violating any of the laws of the United States, they were arrested and restrained of their liberty by order of the respondent, George Crook.

The writ was issued and served on the respondent on the 8th day of April, and, the distance between the place where the writ was made returnable and the place where the relators were confined being more
than twenty miles, ten days were allotted in which to make return.

On the 18th of April the writ was returned, and the authority for the arrest and detention is therein shown. The substance of the return to the writ, and the additional statement since filed, is that the relators are individual members of, and connected with, the Ponca tribe of Indians; that they had fled or escaped from a reservation situated some place within the limits of the Indian Territory-had departed therefrom without permission from the government; and, at the request of the secretary of the interior, the general of the army had issued an order
which required the respondent to arrest and return the relators to their tribe in the Indian Territory, and that, pursuant to the said order, he had caused the relators to be arrested on the Omaha Indian reservation, and that they were in his custody for the purpose of being returned to the Indian Territory.

It is claimed upon the one side, and denied upon the other, that the relators had withdrawn and severed, for all time, their connection with the tribe to which they belonged; and upon this point alone was there any testimony produced by either party hereto. The other matters stated in the petition and the return to the writ are conceded to be true; so that the questions to be determined are purely questions of law.

On the 8th of March, 1859, a treaty was made by the United States with the Ponca tribe of Indians, by which a certain tract of country, north of the Niobrara river and west of the Missouri, was set apart for the permanent home of the said Indians, in which the government agreed to protect them during their good behavior. But just when, or how, or why, or under what circumstances, the Indians left their reservation in
Dakota and went to the Indian Territory, does not appear.

The district attorney very earnestly questions the jurisdiction of the court to issue the write, and to hear and determine the case made herein, and has supported his theory with an argument of great ingenuity and much ability. But, nevertheless, I am of the opinion that his premises are erroneous, and his conclusions, therefore, wrong and unjust. The great respect I entertain for that officer, and the very able manner in which his views were presented, make it necessary for me to give somewhat at length the reasons which lead me to this conclusion.

The district attorney discussed at length the reasons which led to the origin of the writ of /habeas corpus/, and the character of the proceedings and practice in connection therewith in the parent country.

It was claimed that the laws of the realm limited the right to sue out this writ to the /free subjects/ of the kingdom, and that none others came within the benefits of such beneficent laws; and, reasoning from
analogy, it is claimed that none but American citizens are entitled to sue out this high prerogative writ in nay of the federal courts. I have not examined the English laws regulating the suing out of the writ, nor have I thought it necessary so to do. Of this I will only observe that if the laws of England are as they are claimed to be, they will appear at a disadvantage when compared with our own. This only proves that the laws of a limited monarchy are sometimes less wise and humane than the laws of our own republic-that whilst the parliament of Great Britain was legislating in behalf of the favored few, the congress of the United States was legislating in behalf of all mankind who come within our jurisdiction.

Section 751 of the revised statutes declares that “the supreme court and the circuit and district courts shall have power to issue writs of /habeas corpus/.” Section 752 confers the power to issue writs on the judges of said courts, within their jurisdiction, and declares this to be ” for the purpose of inquiry into the cause of restraint of liberty.”

Section 753 restricts the power, limits the jurisdiction, and defines the cases where the writ may properly issue. That may be done under this section where the prisoner ” is in custody under or by color of authority of the United States, * * * or is in custody for an act done or omitted in pursuance of a law of the United States, * * * or in custody in violation of the constitution or of a law or treaty of the United States.” Thus, it will be seen that when a /person/ is in custody or deprived of his liberty under color of authority of the United States, or in violation of the constitution or laws or treaties of the United States, the federal judges have jurisdiction, and the writ can properly issue. I take it that the true construction to be placed upon this act is this, that in /all/ cases where federal officers, civil or military, have the custody and control of a person claimed to be unlawfully restrained of liberty, they are /then/ restrained of liberty under color of authority of the United States, and the federal courts can properly proceed to determine the question of unlawful restraint, because no other courts can properly do so. In the other instance, the federal courts and judges can properly issue the writ in /all/ cases where the /person/ is alleged to be in custody in violation of the constitution or a law or treaty of the United States. In such a case, it is wholly immaterial what over, state or federal, has custody of the person seeking the relief. These relators may be entitled to the writ in either case. Under the first paragraph they certainly are-that is, if an Indian can be entitled to it at all-because they are in custody of a
federal officer, under color of authority of the United States. And they may be entitled to the writ under the other paragraph, before recited, for the reason, as they allege, that they are restrained of liberty in violation of a provision of their treaty, before referred to. Now, it must be borne in mind that the /habeas corpus/ act describes applicants for the writ as /”persons,”/ or /” parties,”/ who may be entitled thereto. It nowhere describes them as citizens, nor is citizenship in any way or place made a qualification for suing out the writ, and, in the absence of express provision or necessary implication which would require the interpretation contended for by the district attorney, I should not feel justified in giving the words /person/ and /party/ such
a narrow construction. The most natural, and therefore most reasonable, way is to attach the same meaning to /words/ and /phrases/ when found in a statute that is attached to them when and where found in general use.
If we do so in this instance, then the question cannot be open to serious doubt. Webster describes a person as “a living soul; a self-conscious being; a moral agent; especially a living human being; a mans or child; an individual of the human race.” This is comprehensive enough, it would seem, to include even an Indian. In defining certain generic terms, the 1st section of the revised statutes declares that the word /person/ includes copartnerships and corporations. On the whole, it seems to me guise evident that the comprehensive language used in this section is intended to apply to all mankind-as well the relators as the mere favored white race. This will be doing no violence to language, or to the spirit or letter of the law, nor to the intention, as it is
believed, of the law-making power of the government I must hold, then, that /Indians/, and consequently the relators, are /persons/, such as are described by and included within the laws before quoted. It is said, however, that this is thirst instance on record in which an Indian has been permitted to sue out and maintain a writ of /habeas corpus/ in a federal court, and /therefore/ the court must be without jurisdiction in the premises. This is a /non sequitur/. I confess I do not know of another instance where this has been done, but I can also say that the occasion for it perhaps has never before been so great. It may be that the Indians think it wiser and better, in to end, to resort to this peaceful process than it would be to undertake the hopeless task of redressing their own alleged wrongs by force of arms. Returning reason, and the sad experience of others similarly situated, have taught them the folly and madness of the arbitrament of the sword. They can readily
see that any serious resistance on their part would be the signal for their utter extirmination. Have they not, then, chosen the wiser part by resorting to the very tribunal erected by those they claim have wronged and oppressed them ? This, however, is not the tribunal of their own choice, but it is the /only/ one into which they can lawfully go for deliverance. It cannot, therefore, be fairly said that because no Indian ever before invoked the aid of this writ in a federal court, the rightful authority to issue it does not exist. Power and authority right
fully conferred do not necessarily cease to exist in consequence of long non-user. Though much time has elapsed, and many generations have passed away, since the passage of the original habeas corpus act, from which I have quoted, it will not do to say that these Indians cannot avail themselves of its beneficent provisions simply because none of their ancestors ever sought relief thereunder.

Every /person/ who comes within our jurisdiction, whether he be European, Asiatic, African, or “native to the manor born,” must obey the laws of the United States. Every one who violates them incurs the penalty provided thereby. When a person is charged, in a proper way, with the commission of crime, we do not inquire upon the trial in what country the accused was born, nor to what sovereign or government allegiance is due, nor to what race he belongs. The questions of guilt and innocence only form the subjects of inquiry. An Indian, then, especially off from his reservation, is amenable to the criminal laws of the United States, the same as all other persons. They being subject to arrest for the violation of our criminal laws, and being persons such as the law contemplates and includes in the description of parties who may sue out the writ, it would indeed be a sad commentary on the justice and impartiality of our laws to hold that Indians, though natives of, our
own country, cannot test the validity of an alleged illegal imprisonment in this manner, as well as a subject of a foreign government who may happen to be sojourning in this country, but owing it no sort of allegiance. I cannot doubt that congress intended to give to /every person/ who might be unlawfully restrained of liberty under color of authority of the United States, the right to the writ and a discharge thereon. I conclude, then, that, so far as the issuing of the writ is concerned, it was properly issued, and that the relators are within the
jurisdiction conferred by the /habeas corpus/ act.

A question of much greater importance remains for consideration, which, when determined, will be decisive of this whole controversy. This relates to the right of the government to arrest and hold the relators for a time, for the purpose of being returned to a point in the Indian Territory from which it is alleged the Indians escaped. I am not vain enough to think that I can do full justice to a question like the one under consideration. But, as the matter furnishes so much valuable material for discussion, and so much food for reflection, I shall try to present it as viewed from my own standpoint, without reference to consequences or criticisms, which, though not specially invited, will be sure to follow.

A review of the policy of the government adopted in its dealings with the friendly tribe of Poncas, to which the relators at one time belonged, seems not only appropriate, but almost indispensable to a correct understanding of this controversy. The Ponca Indians have been at peace with the government, and have remained the steadfast friends of the whites, for many years. They lived peaceably upon the land arid in
the country they claimed and called their own.

On the 12th of March, 1858, they made a treaty with the United States, by which they ceded all claims to lands, except the following tract:
“Beginning at a point on the Niobrara river, and running due north so as to intersect the Ponca river twenty-five miles from its mouth; thence from said point of intersection up and along the Ponca river twenty
miles; thence due south to the Niobrara river; and thence down and along said river to the place of beginning; which tract is hereby reserved for the future homes of said Indians.” In consideration of this cession, the
government agreed ” to protect the Poncas in the possession of the tract of land reserved for their future homes, and their persons and property thereon, during good behavior on their part.” Annuities were to be paid them for thirty years, houses were to be built, schools were to be established, and other things were to be done by the government, in consideration of said cession. (See 12 Stats. at Large, p. 997.)

On the 10th of March, 1865, another treaty was made, and a part of the other reservation was ceded to the government. Other lands, however, were, to some extent, substituted therefor, ” by way of rewarding them
for their constant fidelity to the government, and citizens thereof, and with a view of returning to the said tribe of Ponca Indians their old burying-grounds and cornfields.” This treaty also provides for paying $15,080 for spoliations committed on the Indians. (See 14 Stats. at Large, p. 675.)

On the 29th day of April, 1868, the government made a treaty with the several bands of Sioux Indians, which treaty was ratified by the senate on the 16th of the following February, in and by which the reservations
set apart for the Poncas under former treaties were completely absolved.

(15 Stats. at Large, p. 635.) This was done without consultation with, or knowledge or consent on the part of, the Ponca tribe of Indians.

On the 15th of August; 1876, congress passed the general Indian appropriation bill, and in it we find a provision authorizing the secretary of the interior to use $25,000 for the removal of the Poncas to the Indian Territory, and providing them a hone therein, with consent of the tribe. (19 Stats. at Large, p.192.)

In the Indian appropriation bill passed by congress on the 27th day of May, 1878, we find a provision authorizing the secretary of the interior to expend the sum of $30,000 for the purpose of removing and locating the Ponca Indians on a new reservation, near the Kaw river.

No reference has been made to any other treaties or laws, under which the right to arrest and remove the Indians is claimed to exist.

The Poncas lived upon their reservation in southern Dakota, and cultivated a portion of the same, until two or three years ago, when they removed therefrom, but whether by force or otherwise does not appear. At all events, we find a portion of them, including the relators, located at some point in the Indian Territory. /There/, the testimony seems to show, is where the trouble commenced. Standing Bear, the principal witness, states that out of five hundred and eighty-one Indians who went from the reservation in Dakota to the Indian Territory, one hundred and fifty-eight died within a year or so, and a great proportion of the others were sick and disabled, caused, in a great measure, no doubt, from change of climate; and to save himself and the
survivors of his wasted family, and the feeble remnant of his little band of followers, he determined to leave the Indian Territory and return to his old home, where, to use his own language, “he might live and die in peace, and be buried with his fathers.” He also states that he informed the agent of their final purpose to leave, never to return, and that he and his followers had finally, fully, and forever severed his and their connection with the Ponca tribe of Indians, and had resolved to disband as a tribe, or band, of Indians, and to cut loose
from the government, go to work, become self-sustaining, and adopt the habits and customs of a higher civilization. To accomplish what would seem to be a desirable and laudable purpose, all who were able so to do went to work to earn a living. The Omaha Indians, who speak the same language, and with whom many of the Poncas have long continued to intermarry, gave them employment and ground to cultivate, so as to make
them self-sustaining. And it was when at the Omaha reservation, and when /thus/ employed, that they were arrested by order of the government, for the purpose of being taken back to the Indian Territory. They claim to be unable to see the justice, or reason, or wisdom, or /necessity/, of removing them by force from their own native plains and blood relations to a far-off country, in which they can see little but new-made graves
opening for their reception. The land from which they fled in fear has no attractions for them. The love of home and native land was strong enough in the minds of these people to induce them to brave every peril
to return and live and die where they had been reared. The bones of the dead son of Standing Bear were not to repose in the land they hoped to be leaving forever, but were carefully preserved and protected, and
formed a part of what was to them a melancholy procession homeward. Such instances of parental affection, and such love of home and native land, may be /heathen/ in origin, but it seems to me that they are not unlike
/Christian/ in principle.

What is here stated in this connection is mainly for the purpose of showing that the relators did all they could to separate themselves from their tribe and to sever their tribal relations, for the purpose of becoming self-sustaining and living without support from the government.

This being so, it presents the question as to whether or not an Indian can withdraw from his tribe, sever his tribal relation therewith, and terminate his allegiance thereto, for the purpose of making an independent diving and adopting our own civilization.

If Indian tribes are to be regarded and treated as separate but dependent nations, there can be no serious difficulty about the question. If they are not to be regarded and treated as separate, dependent nations, then no allegiance is owing from an individual Indian to his tribe, and he could, therefore, withdraw therefrom at any time.

The question of expatriation has engaged the attention of our government from the time of its very foundation. Many heated discussions have been carried on between our own and foreign governments on this great question, until diplomacy has triumphantly secured the right to every person found within our jurisdiction. This right has always been claimed and admitted by our government, and it is now no longer an open question. It can make but little difference, then, whether we accord to the Indian tribes a national character or not, as in either case I think the individual Indian possesses the clear and God-given right to withdraw from his tribe and forever live away from it, as though it had no further existence If the right of expatriation was open to doubt in
this country down to the year 1868, certainly since that time no sort of question as to the right can now exist.
On the 27th of July of that year congress passed an act, now appearing as section 1999 of the revised statutes, which declares that: ” Whereas, the right of expatriation is a natural and inherent right of all people, indispensable to the enjoyment of the rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; and, whereas, in the recognition of this principle the government has freely received emigrants from all nations, and invested them with the rights of citizenship. * * ,* Therefore, any declaration, instruction, opinion, order, or decision of any officer of the United States which denies, restricts, impairs, or questions the right of expatriation, is declared
inconsistent with the fundamental principles of the republic.”

This declaration must forever settle the question until it is reopened by other legislation upon the same subject. This is, however, only reaffirming in the most solemn and authoritative manner a principle well settled and understood in this country for why years past.

In most, if not all, instances in which treaties have been made with the several Indian tribes, where reservations have been set apart for their occupancy, the government has either reserved the right or bound itself to protect the Indians thereon. Many of the treaties expressly prohibit white persons being on the reservations unless specially authorized by the treaties or acts of congress for the purpose of carrying out treaty stipulations.

Laws passed for the government of the Indian country, and I for the purpose of regulating trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes, confer upon certain officers of the government almost unlimited power
over the persons who go upon the reservations without lawful authority.

Section 2149 of the revised statutes authorizes and requires the commissioner of Indian affairs, with the approval of the secretary of the interior, to remove from any “tribal reservation” any person being thereon without authority of law, or whose presence within the limits of the reservation may, in the judgment of the commissioner, be detrimental to the peace and welfare of the Indians. The authority here conferred upon the commissioner fully justifies him in causing to be removed from Indian reservations /all/ persons thereon in violation of law, or whose presence thereon may be detrimental to the peace end welfare of the Indians upon the reservations. This applies as well to an Indian as to a white person, and manifestly for the same reason, the object of the law being to prevent unwarranted interference between the Indians and the agent representing the government. Whether such an extensive discretionary power is wisely vested in the commissioner of Indian affairs or not, need not be questioned. It is enough to know that the power rightfully exists, and, where existing, the exercise of the power must be upheld. If, then, the commissioner has the right to cause the
expulsion from the Omaha Indian reservation of all persons thereon who are there in violation of law, or whose presence may be detrimental to the peace and welfare of the Indians, then he must of necessity be
authorized to use the necessary force to accomplish his purpose. Where, then, is he to look for this necessary force? The military arm of the government is the most natural and most potent force to be used on such
occasions, and section 2150 of the revised statutes specially authorizes the use of the army for this service.
The army, then, it seems, is the proper force to employ when intruders and trespassers who go upon the
reservations are to be ejected therefrom.

The first subdivision of the revised statutes last referred to provides that “the military forces of the United States may be employed, in such manner and under such regulations as the president may direct, in the
apprehension of every person who may be in the Indian country in violation of law, and in conveying him immediately from the Indian country, by the nearest convenient and safe route, to the civil authority of the territory or judicial district in which such person shall be found, to be proceeded against in due course of law.” * * *

This is the authority under which the military can be lawfully employed to remove intruders from an Indian reservation. What may be done by the troops in such cases is here fully and clearly stated; and it is /this/
authority, it is believed, under which the respondent acted.

All Indian reservations held under treaty stipulations with the government must be deemed and taken to be a part of the /Indian country/, within the meaning of our laws on that subject. The relators were found upon the Omaha Indian reservation. That being a part of the Indian country, and they not being a part of the Omaha tribe of Indians, they were there without lawful authority, and if the commissioner of Indian affairs deemed -their presence detrimental to the peace and welfare of the Omaha Indians, he had lawful warrant to remove them from the reservation, and to employ the necessary military force to effect this object in safety.

General Crook had the rightful authority to remove the relators from the reservation, and must stand justified in removing them therefrom. But when the troops are thus employed they must exercise the authority in the manner provided by the section of the law just read. This law makes it the duty of the troops to convey the parties arrested, by the nearest convenient and safe rote, /to the civil authority of the territory or judicial district in which persons shall be found, to be proceeded against in due course of law/. The /duty/ of the military authorities is here very clearly and sharply defined, and no one can be justified in departing therefrom, especially in time of peace. As General Crook tad the right to arrest and remove the relators from the Omaha Indian reservation, it follows, from what has been stated, that the law required him to convey them to this city and turn them over to the marshal and United States attorney, to be proceeded against in due course of law. Then proceedings could be instituted against them in either the circuit or district court, and if the relators had incurred a penalty under the law, punishment would follow; otherwise, they would be discharged from custody. Put this course was not pursued in this case; neither was it intended to observe the laws in that regard, for General Crook’s orders, emanating from higher authority, expressly required him to apprehend the relators and remove them by force to the Indian Territory, from which it is alleged they escaped. But in what General Crook has done in the premises no fault can be imputed to him. He was simply obeying the orders of his superior officers, but the orders, as we think, lack the necessary authority of law, and are, therefore, not
binding on the relators.

I have searched in vain for the semblance of any authority justifying the commissioner in attempting to remove by force any Indians, whether belonging to a tribe or not, to any place, or for any other purpose than what has been stated. Certainly, without some specific authority found in an act of congress, or in a treaty with the Ponca tribe of Indians, he could not lawfully force the relators back to the Indian Territory, to remain and die in that country, against their will. In the absence of all treaty stipulations or laws of the United States authorizing such removal, I must conclude that no such arbitrary authority exists. It is true, if the relators are to be regarded as a part of the great nation of Ponca Indians, the government might, in time of war, remove them to any place of safety so long as the war should last, but perhaps no longer, unless they were charged with the commission of some crime. This is a war power merely, and exists in time of war only. Every nation exercises the right to arrest and detain an alien enemy during the existence of a war, and all subjects or citizens of the hostile nations are subject to be dealt with under this rule.

But it is not claimed that the Ponca tribe of Indians are at war with the United States, so that this war power might be used against them; in fact, they are amongst the most peaceable and friendly of all the Indian tribes, and have at times received from the government unmistakable and substantial recognition of their long-continued friendship for the whites In time of peace the war power remains in abeyance, and must be
subservient to the civil authority of the government until something occurs to justify its exercise. No fact exists, and nothing has occurred, so far as the relators are concerned, to make it necessary or lawful to exercise such an authority over them. If they could be removed to the Indian Territory by force, and kept there in the same way, I can see no good reason why they might not be taken and kept by force in the penitentiary at Lincoln, or Leavenworth, or Jefferson City, or any other place which the commander of the forces might, in his judgment, see proper to designate. I cannot think that any such arbitrary authority exists in this country.

The reasoning advanced in support of my views, leads me to conclude:

/1st./ That an /Indian/ is a PERSON within the meaning of the laws of the United States, and has, therefore, the right to sue out a writ of /habeas corpus/ in a federal court, or before a federal judge, in all cases where he may be confined or in custody under color of authority of the United States, or where he is restrained of liberty in violation of the constitution or laws of the United States.

/2d./ That General George Crook, the respondent, being commander of the military department of the Platte, has the custody of the relators, under color of authority of the United States, and in violation of the laws thereof.

/3d./ That no rightful authority exists for removing by force any of the relators to the Indian Territory, as the respondent has been directed to do.

/4th./ That the Indians possess the inherent right of expatriation, as well as the more fortunate white race, and have the inalienable right to “/life, liberty/, and the pursuit of happiness,” so long as they obey the laws and do not trespass on forbidden ground. And,

/5th./ Being restrained of liberty under color of authority of t the United States, and in violation of the laws thereof, the relators must be discharged from custody, and it is so ordered.

ORDERED ACCORDINGLY.

NOTE-At the May term, 1879, Mr. Justice MILLER refused to hear an appeal prosecuted by the United States, because the Indians who then petitioned for the writ of /habeas corpus/ were not present, having been released by the order of DUNDY, J., and no security for their appearance having been taken.

* Source:
Cases Determined in the United States Circuit Courts for the Eighth Circuit
Reported by John Dillon, The Circuit Judge.
Volume 5
Davenport, Iowa: Egbert, Fidlar, & Chambers. 1880.

Tar sands danger

By Kiley Kroh on October 15, 2013 at 9:35 am

Petroleum coke, a byproduct of tar sands refining, is building up along Chicago’s Calumet River and alarming residents, reported Midwest Energy News.
Petroleum coke is a high-carbon, high-sulfur byproduct of Canadian tar sands that are shipped from Alberta to the U.S. to be refined and is rapidly becoming a cause for concern in Chicago. “It’s growing by leaps and bounds,” Southeast Environmental Task Force member Tom Shepherd, told Midwest Energy News. “It’s coming at a breathtaking rate.”
The pet coke is owned by billionaire industrialists Charles and David Koch whose operations drew similar outrage from residents and elected officials in Detroit earlier this year. In July, a large black cloud of pet coke dust was spotted over the Detroit River and caught on camera by residents across the border in Windsor. Members of the communities in close proximity to the piles were complaining of respiratory problems as the thick, black dust was blowing off the piles and into their apartments.


Rep. Gary Peters (D-Bloomfield Township), whose district includes the Detroit waterfront where the piles were building up, said the tar sands waste “is dirtier than the dirtiest fuel” and demanded a federal study into the impacts of the product on public health and the environment.
In August, Detroit Mayor Dave Bing ordered the removal of the pet coke piles — after which they reportedly became Ohio’s problem.
Detroit’s pet coke piles were produced by Marathon Refinery but owned by Koch Carbon, a subsidiary of Koch Industries. In Chicago they are owned by KCBX, an affiliate of Koch Carbon, which has large parcels of land along the Calumet River and, according to Midwest Energy News, expanded its presence in the area last year. And it’s not just the Koch piles area residents have to worry about; just across the border in Indiana, BP Whiting’s refinery is undergoing a $3.8 billion upgrade which includes construction of the world’s second largest coker. Not only does petroleum coke pose a serious risk to nearby air and water supplies, but the product can also be used as a cheaper — and even dirtier — alternative to coal. Since most power plants in the U.S. and Canada won’t burn pet coke due to the high level of greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, the companies often ship the waste product to developing countries with looser pollution restrictions.
And as companies look to expand their pipeline network to keep pace with the increased production of tar sands in Alberta, petroleum coke piles could be appearing in more U.S. communities that contain refineries, such as the Midwest and the Gulf Coast.
(HT: Midwest Energy News)


January 08, 2013

A coalition of more than 70 environmental groups released an open letter urging President Obama to meaningfully confront climate change in his second term. The letter urges Obama to begin by rejecting the Keystone XL, saying: “The Keystone XL tar sands pipeline is not in our national interest because it would unlock vast amounts of additional carbon that we can’t afford to burn, extend our dangerous addiction to fossil fuels, endanger health and safety, and put critical water resources at risk.”


Texas blockade to stop the Keystone XL Pipeline.
Learn more about how you can get involved with the Tar Sand Blockade, and join the pre-action training July 27-29th in East Texas.
Take action now!

CREDO Action | more than a network, a movement.

Dear Friend,
As the Obama Administration rushes through approval of the southern portion of the Keystone XL Pipleline, Texas landowners and activists may be our best chance to block this disastrous project.
That’s why our friends at Rising Tide North Texas are organizing the Tar Sands Blockade — a serious civil disobedience action to blockade TransCanada from building their dirty pipeline.
Participating and supporting this action is definitely not for everyone. But we wanted to let you know about it in case you or someone you know wants to join the Tar Sands Blockade and put your body on the line to stop the pipeline.
Tar Sands Blockade is looking for activists who would be willing to participate in the blockade and risk arrest, activists who could support those in the blockade, and also activists who may want to organize their own non-violent direct actions in Texas.
For those interested in joining the action, the Tar Sands Blockade is holding a three-day training near Tyler, Friday July 27th — Sunday, July 29th.
Those participating in the blockade training will be camping outside, and should be prepared to be outdoors in the heat. Once again, this isn’t for everyone — and if you can’t join the training, there will be other ways to help fight this in Texas, including helping to promote the blockade once it begins.
The exact timing of the blockade action will depend on when TransCanada gets final approval from President Obama’s Army Corps of Engineers. The project has already received approval from two district offices and we expect approval from the third any day now.1
Then TransCanada will begin seizing Texans’ land to dig their pipe to bring the Canadian tar sands crude to Gulf Coast refineries — where it can be exported and sold overseas.
No part of that benefits the U.S. — but it leaves the people, land and water of Texas and Oklahoma vulnerable to toxic oil spills, like the country’s biggest on-land oil spill that happened almost exactly two years ago on the Kalamazoo River in Michigan.2
President Obama has failed to stand up and protect us from this disastrous project. So it’s up to the people of Texas to block it.
Learn more about the blockade and RSVP to join the training:
http://act.credoaction.com/r/?r=6915555&id=43700-5154581-N5ItVKx&t=7
We wish it didn’t have to come to this. And we are grateful to any brave souls who are able to participate and support the blockade, whether or not they risk arrest.
If you can’t participate, there will (unfortunately) be plenty more to do, and we’ll let you know when you can help.
Thanks for everything you are doing.
Elijah Zarlin, Campaign Manager 
CREDO Action from Working Assets
P.S. — If you can’t participate, a great way to support the action is with a small donation. This Tar Sands Blockade is being organized on a very small budget, so every contribution makes a difference. If you’d like to chip in, you can do so here.


Dear Friend, 

In the same week that record June heat blanketed the southeast, Minnesota tried to recover from record flooding, and the biggest fire in Colorado’s history continued to burn out of control — President Obama doubled down in his support for the energy that is causing this deepening climate change spiral. 

In a single week, the Obama Administration approved the first portion of the Keystone XL tar sands pipeline, gave away 720 million tons of publicly owned coal to a coal company for virtually nothing, and promised to lease more arctic offshore areas for oil drilling. 

Now, the Canada to Oklahoma portion of the Keystone XL pipeline – which would turn up the spigot on deadly, “game over for the climate” tar sands production – is back before the State Department after being rejected by President Obama earlier this year when Republicans tried to force his decision. 

Without the pressures of the election, President Obama could very conceivably cave when a decision is made in 2013 – if he is re-elected. This public comment period is our opportunity to go on the record, before the election, with our fierce opposition. And to stop the administration from making another terrible decision. 

Please join me in urging President Obama to reject the Keystone XL Pipeline. 

http://act.credoaction.com/campaign/extreme_xl/?r_by=42748-5154581-kYRiPex&rc=confemail


Stop Keystone XL. Again!
Rejected by President Obama in Janaury, Keystone XL is being considered again by the State Department, which is now accepting public comments. Submit a comment telling the Obama Administration to reject this disastrous pipeline.

Take action now!

CREDO Action | more than a network, a movement.

Dear Friend,
In the same week that record June heat blanketed the country, an massive summer storm wreaked havoc from Indiana to Washington, and the biggest fire in Colorado’s history continued to burn out of control — President Obama doubled down in his support for the energy that is causing this deepening climate change spiral.
Last week, the Obama Administration approved the first portion of the Keystone XL tar sands pipeline,1 gave away 720 million tons of publicly owned coal to Peabody Energy for virtually nothing,2 and promised to lease more Arctic offshore areas for oil drilling.3
Now, the Canada-to-Oklahoma portion of the Keystone XL pipeline — which would turn up the spigot on deadly, “game over for the climate” tar sands production — is back before the State Department after being rejected by President Obama earlier this year when Republicans tried to force his decision.
Without the pressures of the election, President Obama could very conceivably cave if he is the one making the decision in 2013. This public comment period is our opportunity to go on the record, before the election, with our fierce opposition. And to stop the administration from making another terrible decision for our present and future climate.
Today’s weather is a scary prelude of things to come. And it’s clear that our leaders can’t take the heat.
Our leaders are simply not confronting the abundantly obvious, terrifying realities of escalating climate change. The present Congress is simply hopeless. And the Obama Administration consistently undermines any progress it might have made. We can’t depend on our leaders. But we can take action.
We must make sure the State Department considers the full climate impacts of Keystone XL when determining if it’s in our national interest.
Stopping Keystone XL won’t reverse the spiral of our heating climate. But as one of the single largest projects to turn up the spigot on the dirtiest form of energy in the world, it will stop us from making the problem much worse for our future. And so we must stop it.
Tell the Obama Administration: Reject the Keystone XL Pipeline. Click below to submit a comment to the State Department: 
http://act.credoaction.com/r/?r=6905050&p=extreme_xl&id=42748-5154581-kYRiPex&t=7
Thanks for taking action — somebody has to.
Elijah Zarlin, Campaign Manager 
CREDO Action from Working Assets


Oil sands, tar sands or, more technically, bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit. The oil sands are loose sand or partially consolidated sandstone containing naturally occurring mixtures of sand, clay, and water, saturated with a dense and extremely viscous form of petroleum technically referred to as bitumen (or colloquially tar due to its similar appearance, odour and colour). Natural bitumen deposits are reported in many countries, but in particular are found in extremely large quantities in Canada.[1][2] Other large reserves are located in Kazakhstan and Russia. Total natural bitumen reserves are estimated at 249.67 billion barrels (39.694×109 m3) globally, of which 176.8 billion barrels (28.11×109 m3), or 70.8%, are in Canada.[1]

Oil sands reserves have only recently been considered to be part of the world’s oil reserves, as higher oil prices and new technology enable them to be profitably extracted and upgraded to usable products. They are often referred to as unconventional oil or crude bitumen, in order to distinguish the bitumen extracted from oil sands from the free-flowing hydrocarbon mixtures known as crude oil traditionally produced from oil wells.

The crude bitumen contained in the Canadian oil sands is described by Canadian authorities as “petroleum that exists in the semi-solid or solid phase in natural deposits. Bitumen is a thick, sticky form of crude oil, so heavy and viscous (thick) that it will not flow unless heated or diluted with lighter hydrocarbons. At room temperature, it is much like cold molasses“.[3] The World Energy Council (WEC) defines natural bitumen as “oil having a viscosity greater than 10,000 centipoises under reservoir conditions and an API gravity of less than 10° API”.[1] The Orinoco Belt in Venezuela is sometimes described as oil sands, but these deposits are non-bituminous, falling instead into the category of heavy or extra-heavy oil due to their lower viscosity.[4]
Natural bitumen and extra-heavy oil differ in the degree by which they have been degraded from the original crude oil by bacteria and erosion. According to the WEC, extra-heavy oil has “a gravity of less than 10° API and a reservoir viscosity of no more than 10,000 centipoises”.[1]

Making liquid fuels from oil sands requires energy for steam injection and refining. This process generates two to four times the amount of greenhouse gases per barrel of final product as the “production” of conventional oil.[5] If combustion of the final products is included, the so-called “Well to Wheels” approach, oil sands extraction, upgrade and use emits 10 to 45% more greenhouse gases than conventional crude.

Bituminous sands are a major source of unconventional oil, although only Canada has a large-scale commercial oil sands industry. In 2006, bitumen production in Canada averaged 1.25 million barrels per day (200,000 m3/d) through 81 oil sands projects. 44% of Canadian oil production in 2007 was from oil sands.[21] This proportion is expected to increase in coming decades as bitumen production grows while conventional oil production declines, although due to the 2008 economic downturn work on new projects has been deferred.[2] Petroleum is not produced from oil sands on a significant level in other countries.[20]

The Alberta oil sands have been in commercial production since the original Great Canadian Oil Sands (now Suncor Energy) mine began operation in 1967. A second mine, operated by the Syncrude consortium, began operation in 1978 and is the biggest mine of any type in the world. The third mine in the Athabasca Oil Sands, the Albian Sands consortium of Shell Canada, Chevron Corporation, and Western Oil Sands Inc. [purchased by Marathon Oil Corporation in 2007] began operation in 2003. Petro-Canada was also developing a $33 billion Fort Hills Project, in partnership with UTS Energy Corporation and Teck Cominco, which lost momentum after the 2009 merger of Petro-Canada into Suncor.[22]

In the Republic of the Congo, the Italian oil company Eni have announced in May 2008 a project to develop the small oil sands deposit in order to produce 40,000 barrels per day (6,400 m3/d) in 2014.

Conventional crude oil is normally extracted from the ground by drilling oil wells into a petroleum reservoir, allowing oil to flow into them under natural reservoir pressures, although artificial lift and techniques such as water flooding and gas injection are usually required to maintain production as reservoir pressure drops toward the end of a field’s life. Because bitumen flows very slowly, if at all, toward producing wells under normal reservoir conditions, the sands must be extracted by strip mining or the oil made to flow into wells by in-situ techniques, which reduce the viscosity by injecting steam, solvents, and/or hot air into the sands. These processes can use more water and require larger amounts of energy than conventional oil extraction, although many conventional oil fields also require large amounts of water and energy to achieve good rates of production.

It is estimated that approximately 90% of the Alberta oil sands are too far below the surface to use open-pit mining. Several in-situ techniques have been developed.

Since Great Canadian Oil Sands (now Suncor) started operation of its mine in 1967, bitumen has been extracted on a commercial scale from the Athabasca Oil Sands by surface mining. In the Athabasca sands there are very large amounts of bitumen covered by little overburden, making surface mining the most efficient method of extracting it. The overburden consists of water-laden muskeg (peat bog) over top of clay and barren sand. The oil sands themselves are typically 40 to 60 metres (130 to 200 ft) deep, sitting on top of flat limestone rock. Originally, the sands were mined with draglines and bucket-wheel excavators and moved to the processing plants by conveyor belts. In recent years companies such as Syncrude and Suncor have switched to much cheaper shovel-and-truck operations using the biggest power shovels (100 or more tons) and dump trucks (400 tons) in the world.[25] This has held production costs to around $27 per barrel of synthetic crude oil despite rising energy and labour costs.[26]

After excavation, hot water and caustic soda (NaOH) is added to the sand, and the resulting slurry is piped to the extraction plant where it is agitated and the oil skimmed from the top.[27] Provided that the water chemistry is appropriate to allow bitumen to separate from sand and clay, the combination of hot water and agitation releases bitumen from the oil sand, and allows small air bubbles to attach to the bitumen droplets. The bitumen froth floats to the top of separation vessels, and is further treated to remove residual water and fine solids.

About two tons of oil sands are required to produce one barrel (roughly 1/8 of a ton) of oil. Originally, roughly 75% of the bitumen was recovered from the sand. However, recent enhancements to this method include Tailings Oil Recovery (TOR) units which recover oil from the tailings, Diluent Recovery Units to recover naptha from the froth, Inclined Plate Settlers (IPS) and disc centrifuges. These allow the extraction plants to recover well over 90% of the bitumen in the sand. After oil extraction, the spent sand and other materials are then returned to the mine, which is eventually reclaimed.

Alberta Taciuk Process technology extracts bitumen from oil sands through a dry-retorting. During this process, oil sand is moved through a rotating drum, cracking the bitumen with heat and producing lighter hydrocarbons. Although tested, this technology is not in commercial use yet.[28]

Four oil sands mines are currently in operation and two more (Jackpine and Kearl) are in the initial stages of development. The original Suncor mine opened in 1967, while the Syncrude mine started in 1978, Shell Canada opened its Muskeg River mine (Albian Sands) in 2003 and Canadian Natural Resources Ltd opened its Horizon Project in 2009. New mines under construction or undergoing approval include Shell Canada’s,[29]Imperial Oil‘s Kearl Oil Sands Project, Synenco Energy’s Northern Lights mine and Suncor’s Fort Hills mine.

Mining Canada's Oil Sands.ogv

Satellite images show the growth of pit mines over Canada’s oil sands between 1984 and 2011.

Oil sands extraction is generally held to be more environmentally damaging than conventional crude oil.[47] It can affect the land when the bitumen is initially mined, water by its requirement of large quantities of water during separation of the oil and sand and the air due to the release of carbon dioxide and other emissions.[48] Heavy metals such as vanadium, nickel, lead, cobalt, mercury, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, selenium, copper, manganese, iron and zinc are naturally present in oil sands and may be concentrated by the extraction process.[49] The environmental impact caused by oil sand extraction is frequently criticized by environmental groups such as Greenpeace, Climate Reality Project, 350.org, MoveOn, League of Conservation Voters, Patagonia, Sierra Club, and Energy Action Coalition.[50][51] The European Union has indicated that it may vote to label oil sands oil as “highly polluting”. Although oil sands exports to Europe are minimal, the issue has caused friction between the EU and Canada.

Between 2 to 4.5 volume units of water are used to produce each volume unit of synthetic crude oil in an ex-situ mining operation. According to Greenpeace, the Canadian oil sands operations use 349 million cubic metres per annum (12.3 × 109 cu ft/a) of water, twice the amount of water used by the city of Calgary.[62] Despite recycling, almost all of it ends up in tailings ponds. As of 2007, tailing ponds in Canada covered an area of approximately 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi). However, in SAGD operations, 90–95% of the water is recycled and only about 0.2 volume units of water is used per volume unit of bitumen produced.[63]
For the Athabasca oil sand operations water is supplied from the Athabasca River, the ninth longest river in Canada.[64] The average flow just downstream of Fort McMurray is 633 cubic metres per second (22,400 cu ft/s) with its highest daily average measuring 1,200 cubic metres per second (42,000 cu ft/s).[65][66] Oil sands industries water license allocations totals about 1.8% of the Athabasca river flow. Actual use in 2006 was about 0.4%.[67] In addition, according to the Water Management Framework for the Lower Athabasca River, during periods of low river flow water consumption from the Athabasca River is limited to 1.3% of annual average flow.[68]

In December 2010, the Oil Sands Advisory Panel, commissioned by former environment minister Jim Prentice, found that the system in place for monitoring water quality in the region, including work by the Regional Aquatic Monitoring Program, the Alberta Water Research Institute, the Cumulative Environmental Management Association and others, was piecemeal and should become more comprehensive and coordinated.[69][70] A major hindrance to the monitoring of oil sands produced waters has been the lack of identification of individual compounds present. By better understanding the nature of the highly complex mixture of compounds, including naphthenic acids, it may be possible to monitor rivers for leachate and also to remove toxic components. Such identification of individual acids has for many years proved to be impossible but a recent breakthrough in analysis has begun to reveal what is in the oil sands produced waters.[71]

In October 2009, Suncor announced it was seeking government approval for a new process to recover tailings called Tailings Reduction Operations, which accelerates the settling of fine clay, sand, water, and residual bitumen in ponds after oil sands extraction. The technology involves dredging mature tailings from a pond bottom, mixing the suspension with a polymer flocculent, and spreading the sludge-like mixture over a “beach” with a shallow grade. According to the company, the process could reduce the time for water reclamation from tailings to weeks rather than years, with the recovered water being recycled into the oil sands plant. In addition to reducing the number of tailing ponds, Suncor claims that the process could reduce the time to reclaim a tailing pond from 40 years at present to 7–10 years, with land rehabilitation continuously following 7 to 10 years behind the mining operations


Dear Friend,

It just gets worse and worse.
To make up for the fact that rapid tar sands extraction is threatening caribou herds by destroying vast swaths of forest habitat in Alberta, the Canadian government has called for killing thousands of wolves.1
If Alberta Canada’s tar sands fields are fully developed, an area of boreal rainforest the size of Florida will be eviscerated, leaving in its wake giant ponds of toxic wastewater.2
It’s obvious why this would pose a massive threat to all wildlife species who reside there, including birds, wolves, woodland caribou and the iconic spirit bear.
But instead of preserving the habitat caribou need for their survival, the Canadian government’s answer is to blaze ahead with tar sands extraction, and kill thousands of wolves who would naturally prey on the caribou. A paper released by the National Wildlife Federation reports that The Ministry of the Environment’s plan calls for aerial shooting, and poisoning with bait laced with strychnine — a particularly painful type of poison.
This plan to kill wolves is a misguided, cruel response that does nothing to alleviate the greater problem: tar sands oil extraction is a huge threat to wildlife, local communities, and all of our futures.
But despite the clear negative consequences, the Canadian government continues working to rapidly expand tar sands production and sales, including promoting the Keystone XL Pipeline to export refined tar sands bitumen all over the world.
Understandably, this has begun to earn Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, and many in the country’s government, a negative reputation to which they are becoming increasingly sensitive.3
The Ministry of the Environment has not yet begun this planned wolf kill. With enough public pressure, we can get them to abandon the plan, and build the case for Canada to stop their devastating race to expand tar sands development.
Click below to automatically sign the petition:
http://act.credoaction.com/r/?r=5532375&id=35696-5154581-qjqw2%3Dx&t=10
Thank you for fighting tar sands and all their devastation.
Elijah zarlin, Campaign Manager
CREDO Action from Working Assets

Tell the Canadian government: 

Stop your tar sands wolf kills!

It just gets worse and worse.
To make up for the fact that rapid tar sands oil mining is threatening caribou herds by destroying vast swaths of rainforest habitat in Alberta, the Canadian government has called for strychnine poisoning and aerial shooting of thousands of wolves in areas of tar sands mining.1
Tell Prime Minister Harper: Stop Canada’s planned wolf killings!
If Alberta Canada’s tar sands oil fields are fully developed, an area of boreal rainforest the size of Florida will be eviscerated, leaving in its wake only giant ponds of toxic wastewater.2

It’s obvious why this would pose a massive threat to all wildlife species who reside there, including birds, caribou and the iconic spirit bear.
But instead of preserving the habitat caribou need for their survival, the Canadian government’s answer is to blaze ahead with tar sands oil extraction, and kill thousands of wolves who would naturally prey on the caribou. The Ministry of the Environment’s plan calls for aerial shooting, and poisoning with bait laced with strychnine — a particularly painful type of poison.
Tell Prime Minister Harper: Stop your planned wolf killings! Preserve wolf and caribou habitat, and stop the irresponsible development of tar sands oil which threatens all of us.

This plan to kill wolves is a misguided, cruel response that does nothing to alleviate the greater problem: Tar sands development is a huge threat to wildlife, local communities, and all of our futures.

But despite the clear negative consequences, the Canadian government continues working to rapidly expand tar sands production and sales, including with the Keystone XL Pipeline to export tar sands oil all over the world.
Understandably, this has begun to earn Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper and many in the country’s government, a negative reputation, to which they are becoming increasingly sensitive.2

The Ministry of the Environment has not yet moved forward with this planned wolf kill. And with enough public pressure, we can get them to abandon the plan, and build the case for Canada to stop their devastating race to expand tar sands oil fields.
1. “Tar Sands Development to Lead to Poisoning of Wolves,” National Wildlife Federation, February 6, 2012
2. “Tar Sands,” Friends of the Earth
3. “Monitoring plan would bolster oilsands image, federal documents show,” Vancouver Sun, February 3, 2012


Tar sands oil is a high carbon fuel strip-mined from beneath Canada’s Boreal forest. Fuel from tar sands represents an increasingly significant portion of the fuel used in cars in the United States. To extract oil from tar sands, companies must destroy fragile forest ecosystems and then use a very energy-intensive upgrading and refining process to turn that oil into transportation fuel. Tar sands mining and production harm the boreal forest’s fragile ecosystem, waste enormous amounts of water, and disrupt the lives of indigenous people in the area.

Our primary tar sands campaign objective at present is to stop the Keystone XL tar sands oil pipeline.

Climate Impacts

Tar sands oil extraction and production emits three times more carbon dioxide than average from production of conventional oil consumed in the United States. If we expand our use of dirty tar sands, we could jeopardize the gains we make combating climate change via fuel economy standards and the use of clean energy sources as vehicle fuels.

Ecosystem Destruction

Tar sands extraction requires total destruction of pristine areas within the Canadian Boreal forest, one of the few large, intact ecosystems on Earth. The forest is clear cut, the wetlands are drained, and living matter and soil are hauled away to expose the tar sands. Oil companies remove and dump four tons of sand and soil for every one barrel of oil they get from tar sands. Oil companies have so far failed to deliver on their promises to mitigate some of this destruction by refilling tar sands mines and planting new vegetation.

Water Waste

Extracting the fossil fuels in tar sands from the sand, silt, and clay requires enormous amounts of water. It takes about three barrels of water to extract one barrel of oil. More than 90 percent of this water, 400 million gallons per day, ends up as toxic waste dumped in massive pools that contain carcinogenic substances like cyanide.

Disruption of Native People

The tar sands are being mined in a region home to many native people. They have trouble practicing their cultural traditions because of the destruction caused by tailing ponds and strip mining operations. The people downstream from the toxic tailing ponds have high rates of rare cancers, renal failure, lupus, and hyperthyroidism. Indigenous groups have organized and protested to stop the expansion of tar sands operations. This opposition is shared by the majority of Albertans, with 71 percent supporting a moratorium on new projects in a recent survey.

What We Can Do

The majority of tar sands oil is exported to the United States.  Tar sands already make up four percent of the crude oil we use and our tax dollars are already subsidizing pipelines and refineries that would allow oil companies to quadruple that amount. Also, the president must approve any new pipelines (like the Keystone XL pipeline) that the tar sands industry wants to build to the U.S. So far, the Canadian government and oil companies have not found any buyers of tar sands oil outside of the United States. As a result, stopping U.S. permits and taxpayer subsidies for new pipelines and upgraded refineries will go a long way towards ending oil companies’ exploitation of this dirty fuel and the havoc wrought on the local environment and indigenous people’s livelihoods in the process.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++===

Thanks for taking action.

Here are some ways you can spread the word to build pressure on Canadian officials to abandon this cruel plan and stop their rapid expansion of tar sands mining which threatens all of us.

If you are on Facebook, click here to post the petition to your Wall.

If you have a Twitter account, click here to automatically tweet:
Tell Canadian Prime Minister Harper and @ec_minister Peter Kent: Stop your planned tar sands #wolf kills! http://bit.ly/xRSXlC @pmharper

You can also send the following e-mail to your friends and family. Spreading the word is critical, but please only pass this message along to those who know you — spam hurts our campaign.

Thanks for all you do.

–The CREDO Action Team

Here’s a sample message to send to your friends:


Subject: Stop Canada’s planned tar sands wolf killings!
Dear Friend,

If Alberta Canada’s tar sands oil fields are fully developed, an area of boreal rainforest the size of Florida will be eviscerated, leaving in its wake only giant ponds of toxic wastewater.

To make up for the fact that extracting tar sands oil is threatening caribou herds by destroying vast swaths of rainforest habitat in Alberta, the Canadian government has called for strychnine poisoning and aerial shooting of thousands of wolves in areas of tar sands mining.

This plan is both cruel and deeply misguided.

I just signed a petition telling Canada’s Prime Minister Harper to Stop Canada’s planned tar sands wolf killings. Learn more and add your name here:

http://act.credoaction.com/campaign/tar_sands_wolves/?r_by=35696-5154581-qjqw2%3Dx&rc=confemail 

By Kiley Kroh on October 15, 2013 at 9:35 am

Petroleum coke, a byproduct of tar sands refining, is building up along Chicago’s Calumet River and alarming residents, reported Midwest Energy News.
Petroleum coke is a high-carbon, high-sulfur byproduct of Canadian tar sands that are shipped from Alberta to the U.S. to be refined and is rapidly becoming a cause for concern in Chicago. “It’s growing by leaps and bounds,” Southeast Environmental Task Force member Tom Shepherd, told Midwest Energy News. “It’s coming at a breathtaking rate.”
The pet coke is owned by billionaire industrialists Charles and David Koch whose operations drew similar outrage from residents and elected officials in Detroit earlier this year. In July, a large black cloud of pet coke dust was spotted over the Detroit River and caught on camera by residents across the border in Windsor. Members of the communities in close proximity to the piles were complaining of respiratory problems as the thick, black dust was blowing off the piles and into their apartments.


Rep. Gary Peters (D-Bloomfield Township), whose district includes the Detroit waterfront where the piles were building up, said the tar sands waste “is dirtier than the dirtiest fuel” and demanded a federal study into the impacts of the product on public health and the environment.
In August, Detroit Mayor Dave Bing ordered the removal of the pet coke piles — after which they reportedly became Ohio’s problem.
Detroit’s pet coke piles were produced by Marathon Refinery but owned by Koch Carbon, a subsidiary of Koch Industries. In Chicago they are owned by KCBX, an affiliate of Koch Carbon, which has large parcels of land along the Calumet River and, according to Midwest Energy News, expanded its presence in the area last year. And it’s not just the Koch piles area residents have to worry about; just across the border in Indiana, BP Whiting’s refinery is undergoing a $3.8 billion upgrade which includes construction of the world’s second largest coker. Not only does petroleum coke pose a serious risk to nearby air and water supplies, but the product can also be used as a cheaper — and even dirtier — alternative to coal. Since most power plants in the U.S. and Canada won’t burn pet coke due to the high level of greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, the companies often ship the waste product to developing countries with looser pollution restrictions.
And as companies look to expand their pipeline network to keep pace with the increased production of tar sands in Alberta, petroleum coke piles could be appearing in more U.S. communities that contain refineries, such as the Midwest and the Gulf Coast.
(HT: Midwest Energy News)


January 08, 2013

A coalition of more than 70 environmental groups released an open letter urging President Obama to meaningfully confront climate change in his second term. The letter urges Obama to begin by rejecting the Keystone XL, saying: “The Keystone XL tar sands pipeline is not in our national interest because it would unlock vast amounts of additional carbon that we can’t afford to burn, extend our dangerous addiction to fossil fuels, endanger health and safety, and put critical water resources at risk.”



Texas blockade to stop the Keystone XL Pipeline.
Learn more about how you can get involved with the Tar Sand Blockade, and join the pre-action training July 27-29th in East Texas.
Take action now!

CREDO Action | more than a network, a movement.

Dear Friend,
As the Obama Administration rushes through approval of the southern portion of the Keystone XL Pipleline, Texas landowners and activists may be our best chance to block this disastrous project.
That’s why our friends at Rising Tide North Texas are organizing the Tar Sands Blockade — a serious civil disobedience action to blockade TransCanada from building their dirty pipeline.
Participating and supporting this action is definitely not for everyone. But we wanted to let you know about it in case you or someone you know wants to join the Tar Sands Blockade and put your body on the line to stop the pipeline.
Tar Sands Blockade is looking for activists who would be willing to participate in the blockade and risk arrest, activists who could support those in the blockade, and also activists who may want to organize their own non-violent direct actions in Texas.
For those interested in joining the action, the Tar Sands Blockade is holding a three-day training near Tyler, Friday July 27th — Sunday, July 29th.
Those participating in the blockade training will be camping outside, and should be prepared to be outdoors in the heat. Once again, this isn’t for everyone — and if you can’t join the training, there will be other ways to help fight this in Texas, including helping to promote the blockade once it begins.
The exact timing of the blockade action will depend on when TransCanada gets final approval from President Obama’s Army Corps of Engineers. The project has already received approval from two district offices and we expect approval from the third any day now.1
Then TransCanada will begin seizing Texans’ land to dig their pipe to bring the Canadian tar sands crude to Gulf Coast refineries — where it can be exported and sold overseas.
No part of that benefits the U.S. — but it leaves the people, land and water of Texas and Oklahoma vulnerable to toxic oil spills, like the country’s biggest on-land oil spill that happened almost exactly two years ago on the Kalamazoo River in Michigan.2
President Obama has failed to stand up and protect us from this disastrous project. So it’s up to the people of Texas to block it.
Learn more about the blockade and RSVP to join the training:
http://act.credoaction.com/r/?r=6915555&id=43700-5154581-N5ItVKx&t=7
We wish it didn’t have to come to this. And we are grateful to any brave souls who are able to participate and support the blockade, whether or not they risk arrest.
If you can’t participate, there will (unfortunately) be plenty more to do, and we’ll let you know when you can help.
Thanks for everything you are doing.
Elijah Zarlin, Campaign Manager 
CREDO Action from Working Assets
P.S. — If you can’t participate, a great way to support the action is with a small donation. This Tar Sands Blockade is being organized on a very small budget, so every contribution makes a difference. If you’d like to chip in, you can do so here.


Dear Friend, 

In the same week that record June heat blanketed the southeast, Minnesota tried to recover from record flooding, and the biggest fire in Colorado’s history continued to burn out of control — President Obama doubled down in his support for the energy that is causing this deepening climate change spiral. 

In a single week, the Obama Administration approved the first portion of the Keystone XL tar sands pipeline, gave away 720 million tons of publicly owned coal to a coal company for virtually nothing, and promised to lease more arctic offshore areas for oil drilling. 

Now, the Canada to Oklahoma portion of the Keystone XL pipeline – which would turn up the spigot on deadly, “game over for the climate” tar sands production – is back before the State Department after being rejected by President Obama earlier this year when Republicans tried to force his decision. 

Without the pressures of the election, President Obama could very conceivably cave when a decision is made in 2013 – if he is re-elected. This public comment period is our opportunity to go on the record, before the election, with our fierce opposition. And to stop the administration from making another terrible decision. 

Please join me in urging President Obama to reject the Keystone XL Pipeline. 

http://act.credoaction.com/campaign/extreme_xl/?r_by=42748-5154581-kYRiPex&rc=confemail


Stop Keystone XL. Again!
Rejected by President Obama in Janaury, Keystone XL is being considered again by the State Department, which is now accepting public comments. Submit a comment telling the Obama Administration to reject this disastrous pipeline.

Take action now!

CREDO Action | more than a network, a movement.

Dear Friend,
In the same week that record June heat blanketed the country, an massive summer storm wreaked havoc from Indiana to Washington, and the biggest fire in Colorado’s history continued to burn out of control — President Obama doubled down in his support for the energy that is causing this deepening climate change spiral.
Last week, the Obama Administration approved the first portion of the Keystone XL tar sands pipeline,1 gave away 720 million tons of publicly owned coal to Peabody Energy for virtually nothing,2 and promised to lease more Arctic offshore areas for oil drilling.3
Now, the Canada-to-Oklahoma portion of the Keystone XL pipeline — which would turn up the spigot on deadly, “game over for the climate” tar sands production — is back before the State Department after being rejected by President Obama earlier this year when Republicans tried to force his decision.
Without the pressures of the election, President Obama could very conceivably cave if he is the one making the decision in 2013. This public comment period is our opportunity to go on the record, before the election, with our fierce opposition. And to stop the administration from making another terrible decision for our present and future climate.
Today’s weather is a scary prelude of things to come. And it’s clear that our leaders can’t take the heat.
Our leaders are simply not confronting the abundantly obvious, terrifying realities of escalating climate change. The present Congress is simply hopeless. And the Obama Administration consistently undermines any progress it might have made. We can’t depend on our leaders. But we can take action.
We must make sure the State Department considers the full climate impacts of Keystone XL when determining if it’s in our national interest.
Stopping Keystone XL won’t reverse the spiral of our heating climate. But as one of the single largest projects to turn up the spigot on the dirtiest form of energy in the world, it will stop us from making the problem much worse for our future. And so we must stop it.
Tell the Obama Administration: Reject the Keystone XL Pipeline. Click below to submit a comment to the State Department: 
http://act.credoaction.com/r/?r=6905050&p=extreme_xl&id=42748-5154581-kYRiPex&t=7
Thanks for taking action — somebody has to.
Elijah Zarlin, Campaign Manager 
CREDO Action from Working Assets


Oil sands, tar sands or, more technically, bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit. The oil sands are loose sand or partially consolidated sandstone containing naturally occurring mixtures of sand, clay, and water, saturated with a dense and extremely viscous form of petroleum technically referred to as bitumen (or colloquially tar due to its similar appearance, odour and colour). Natural bitumen deposits are reported in many countries, but in particular are found in extremely large quantities in Canada.[1][2] Other large reserves are located in Kazakhstan and Russia. Total natural bitumen reserves are estimated at 249.67 billion barrels (39.694×109 m3) globally, of which 176.8 billion barrels (28.11×109 m3), or 70.8%, are in Canada.[1]

Oil sands reserves have only recently been considered to be part of the world’s oil reserves, as higher oil prices and new technology enable them to be profitably extracted and upgraded to usable products. They are often referred to as unconventional oil or crude bitumen, in order to distinguish the bitumen extracted from oil sands from the free-flowing hydrocarbon mixtures known as crude oil traditionally produced from oil wells.

The crude bitumen contained in the Canadian oil sands is described by Canadian authorities as “petroleum that exists in the semi-solid or solid phase in natural deposits. Bitumen is a thick, sticky form of crude oil, so heavy and viscous (thick) that it will not flow unless heated or diluted with lighter hydrocarbons. At room temperature, it is much like cold molasses“.[3] The World Energy Council (WEC) defines natural bitumen as “oil having a viscosity greater than 10,000 centipoises under reservoir conditions and an API gravity of less than 10° API”.[1] The Orinoco Belt in Venezuela is sometimes described as oil sands, but these deposits are non-bituminous, falling instead into the category of heavy or extra-heavy oil due to their lower viscosity.[4]
Natural bitumen and extra-heavy oil differ in the degree by which they have been degraded from the original crude oil by bacteria and erosion. According to the WEC, extra-heavy oil has “a gravity of less than 10° API and a reservoir viscosity of no more than 10,000 centipoises”.[1]

Making liquid fuels from oil sands requires energy for steam injection and refining. This process generates two to four times the amount of greenhouse gases per barrel of final product as the “production” of conventional oil.[5] If combustion of the final products is included, the so-called “Well to Wheels” approach, oil sands extraction, upgrade and use emits 10 to 45% more greenhouse gases than conventional crude.

Bituminous sands are a major source of unconventional oil, although only Canada has a large-scale commercial oil sands industry. In 2006, bitumen production in Canada averaged 1.25 million barrels per day (200,000 m3/d) through 81 oil sands projects. 44% of Canadian oil production in 2007 was from oil sands.[21] This proportion is expected to increase in coming decades as bitumen production grows while conventional oil production declines, although due to the 2008 economic downturn work on new projects has been deferred.[2] Petroleum is not produced from oil sands on a significant level in other countries.[20]

The Alberta oil sands have been in commercial production since the original Great Canadian Oil Sands (now Suncor Energy) mine began operation in 1967. A second mine, operated by the Syncrude consortium, began operation in 1978 and is the biggest mine of any type in the world. The third mine in the Athabasca Oil Sands, the Albian Sands consortium of Shell Canada, Chevron Corporation, and Western Oil Sands Inc. [purchased by Marathon Oil Corporation in 2007] began operation in 2003. Petro-Canada was also developing a $33 billion Fort Hills Project, in partnership with UTS Energy Corporation and Teck Cominco, which lost momentum after the 2009 merger of Petro-Canada into Suncor.[22]

In the Republic of the Congo, the Italian oil company Eni have announced in May 2008 a project to develop the small oil sands deposit in order to produce 40,000 barrels per day (6,400 m3/d) in 2014.

Conventional crude oil is normally extracted from the ground by drilling oil wells into a petroleum reservoir, allowing oil to flow into them under natural reservoir pressures, although artificial lift and techniques such as water flooding and gas injection are usually required to maintain production as reservoir pressure drops toward the end of a field’s life. Because bitumen flows very slowly, if at all, toward producing wells under normal reservoir conditions, the sands must be extracted by strip mining or the oil made to flow into wells by in-situ techniques, which reduce the viscosity by injecting steam, solvents, and/or hot air into the sands. These processes can use more water and require larger amounts of energy than conventional oil extraction, although many conventional oil fields also require large amounts of water and energy to achieve good rates of production.

It is estimated that approximately 90% of the Alberta oil sands are too far below the surface to use open-pit mining. Several in-situ techniques have been developed.

Since Great Canadian Oil Sands (now Suncor) started operation of its mine in 1967, bitumen has been extracted on a commercial scale from the Athabasca Oil Sands by surface mining. In the Athabasca sands there are very large amounts of bitumen covered by little overburden, making surface mining the most efficient method of extracting it. The overburden consists of water-laden muskeg (peat bog) over top of clay and barren sand. The oil sands themselves are typically 40 to 60 metres (130 to 200 ft) deep, sitting on top of flat limestone rock. Originally, the sands were mined with draglines and bucket-wheel excavators and moved to the processing plants by conveyor belts. In recent years companies such as Syncrude and Suncor have switched to much cheaper shovel-and-truck operations using the biggest power shovels (100 or more tons) and dump trucks (400 tons) in the world.[25] This has held production costs to around $27 per barrel of synthetic crude oil despite rising energy and labour costs.[26]

After excavation, hot water and caustic soda (NaOH) is added to the sand, and the resulting slurry is piped to the extraction plant where it is agitated and the oil skimmed from the top.[27] Provided that the water chemistry is appropriate to allow bitumen to separate from sand and clay, the combination of hot water and agitation releases bitumen from the oil sand, and allows small air bubbles to attach to the bitumen droplets. The bitumen froth floats to the top of separation vessels, and is further treated to remove residual water and fine solids.

About two tons of oil sands are required to produce one barrel (roughly 1/8 of a ton) of oil. Originally, roughly 75% of the bitumen was recovered from the sand. However, recent enhancements to this method include Tailings Oil Recovery (TOR) units which recover oil from the tailings, Diluent Recovery Units to recover naptha from the froth, Inclined Plate Settlers (IPS) and disc centrifuges. These allow the extraction plants to recover well over 90% of the bitumen in the sand. After oil extraction, the spent sand and other materials are then returned to the mine, which is eventually reclaimed.

Alberta Taciuk Process technology extracts bitumen from oil sands through a dry-retorting. During this process, oil sand is moved through a rotating drum, cracking the bitumen with heat and producing lighter hydrocarbons. Although tested, this technology is not in commercial use yet.[28]

Four oil sands mines are currently in operation and two more (Jackpine and Kearl) are in the initial stages of development. The original Suncor mine opened in 1967, while the Syncrude mine started in 1978, Shell Canada opened its Muskeg River mine (Albian Sands) in 2003 and Canadian Natural Resources Ltd opened its Horizon Project in 2009. New mines under construction or undergoing approval include Shell Canada’s,[29] Imperial Oil‘s Kearl Oil Sands Project, Synenco Energy’s Northern Lights mine and Suncor’s Fort Hills mine.

Mining Canada's Oil Sands.ogv

Satellite images show the growth of pit mines over Canada’s oil sands between 1984 and 2011.

Oil sands extraction is generally held to be more environmentally damaging than conventional crude oil.[47] It can affect the land when the bitumen is initially mined, water by its requirement of large quantities of water during separation of the oil and sand and the air due to the release of carbon dioxide and other emissions.[48] Heavy metals such as vanadium, nickel, lead, cobalt, mercury, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, selenium, copper, manganese, iron and zinc are naturally present in oil sands and may be concentrated by the extraction process.[49] The environmental impact caused by oil sand extraction is frequently criticized by environmental groups such as Greenpeace, Climate Reality Project, 350.org, MoveOn, League of Conservation Voters, Patagonia, Sierra Club, and Energy Action Coalition.[50][51] The European Union has indicated that it may vote to label oil sands oil as “highly polluting”. Although oil sands exports to Europe are minimal, the issue has caused friction between the EU and Canada.

Between 2 to 4.5 volume units of water are used to produce each volume unit of synthetic crude oil in an ex-situ mining operation. According to Greenpeace, the Canadian oil sands operations use 349 million cubic metres per annum (12.3 × 109 cu ft/a) of water, twice the amount of water used by the city of Calgary.[62] Despite recycling, almost all of it ends up in tailings ponds. As of 2007, tailing ponds in Canada covered an area of approximately 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi). However, in SAGD operations, 90–95% of the water is recycled and only about 0.2 volume units of water is used per volume unit of bitumen produced.[63]
For the Athabasca oil sand operations water is supplied from the Athabasca River, the ninth longest river in Canada.[64] The average flow just downstream of Fort McMurray is 633 cubic metres per second (22,400 cu ft/s) with its highest daily average measuring 1,200 cubic metres per second (42,000 cu ft/s).[65][66] Oil sands industries water license allocations totals about 1.8% of the Athabasca river flow. Actual use in 2006 was about 0.4%.[67] In addition, according to the Water Management Framework for the Lower Athabasca River, during periods of low river flow water consumption from the Athabasca River is limited to 1.3% of annual average flow.[68]

In December 2010, the Oil Sands Advisory Panel, commissioned by former environment minister Jim Prentice, found that the system in place for monitoring water quality in the region, including work by the Regional Aquatic Monitoring Program, the Alberta Water Research Institute, the Cumulative Environmental Management Association and others, was piecemeal and should become more comprehensive and coordinated.[69][70] A major hindrance to the monitoring of oil sands produced waters has been the lack of identification of individual compounds present. By better understanding the nature of the highly complex mixture of compounds, including naphthenic acids, it may be possible to monitor rivers for leachate and also to remove toxic components. Such identification of individual acids has for many years proved to be impossible but a recent breakthrough in analysis has begun to reveal what is in the oil sands produced waters.[71]

In October 2009, Suncor announced it was seeking government approval for a new process to recover tailings called Tailings Reduction Operations, which accelerates the settling of fine clay, sand, water, and residual bitumen in ponds after oil sands extraction. The technology involves dredging mature tailings from a pond bottom, mixing the suspension with a polymer flocculent, and spreading the sludge-like mixture over a “beach” with a shallow grade. According to the company, the process could reduce the time for water reclamation from tailings to weeks rather than years, with the recovered water being recycled into the oil sands plant. In addition to reducing the number of tailing ponds, Suncor claims that the process could reduce the time to reclaim a tailing pond from 40 years at present to 7–10 years, with land rehabilitation continuously following 7 to 10 years behind the mining operations


Dear Friend,

It just gets worse and worse.
To make up for the fact that rapid tar sands extraction is threatening caribou herds by destroying vast swaths of forest habitat in Alberta, the Canadian government has called for killing thousands of wolves.1
If Alberta Canada’s tar sands fields are fully developed, an area of boreal rainforest the size of Florida will be eviscerated, leaving in its wake giant ponds of toxic wastewater.2
It’s obvious why this would pose a massive threat to all wildlife species who reside there, including birds, wolves, woodland caribou and the iconic spirit bear.
But instead of preserving the habitat caribou need for their survival, the Canadian government’s answer is to blaze ahead with tar sands extraction, and kill thousands of wolves who would naturally prey on the caribou. A paper released by the National Wildlife Federation reports that The Ministry of the Environment’s plan calls for aerial shooting, and poisoning with bait laced with strychnine — a particularly painful type of poison.
This plan to kill wolves is a misguided, cruel response that does nothing to alleviate the greater problem: tar sands oil extraction is a huge threat to wildlife, local communities, and all of our futures.
But despite the clear negative consequences, the Canadian government continues working to rapidly expand tar sands production and sales, including promoting the Keystone XL Pipeline to export refined tar sands bitumen all over the world.
Understandably, this has begun to earn Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, and many in the country’s government, a negative reputation to which they are becoming increasingly sensitive.3
The Ministry of the Environment has not yet begun this planned wolf kill. With enough public pressure, we can get them to abandon the plan, and build the case for Canada to stop their devastating race to expand tar sands development.
Click below to automatically sign the petition:
http://act.credoaction.com/r/?r=5532375&id=35696-5154581-qjqw2%3Dx&t=10
Thank you for fighting tar sands and all their devastation.
Elijah zarlin, Campaign Manager
CREDO Action from Working Assets

Tell the Canadian government: 

Stop your tar sands wolf kills!

It just gets worse and worse.
To make up for the fact that rapid tar sands oil mining is threatening caribou herds by destroying vast swaths of rainforest habitat in Alberta, the Canadian government has called for strychnine poisoning and aerial shooting of thousands of wolves in areas of tar sands mining.1
Tell Prime Minister Harper: Stop Canada’s planned wolf killings!
If Alberta Canada’s tar sands oil fields are fully developed, an area of boreal rainforest the size of Florida will be eviscerated, leaving in its wake only giant ponds of toxic wastewater.2

It’s obvious why this would pose a massive threat to all wildlife species who reside there, including birds, caribou and the iconic spirit bear.
But instead of preserving the habitat caribou need for their survival, the Canadian government’s answer is to blaze ahead with tar sands oil extraction, and kill thousands of wolves who would naturally prey on the caribou. The Ministry of the Environment’s plan calls for aerial shooting, and poisoning with bait laced with strychnine — a particularly painful type of poison.
Tell Prime Minister Harper: Stop your planned wolf killings! Preserve wolf and caribou habitat, and stop the irresponsible development of tar sands oil which threatens all of us.

This plan to kill wolves is a misguided, cruel response that does nothing to alleviate the greater problem: Tar sands development is a huge threat to wildlife, local communities, and all of our futures.

But despite the clear negative consequences, the Canadian government continues working to rapidly expand tar sands production and sales, including with the Keystone XL Pipeline to export tar sands oil all over the world.
Understandably, this has begun to earn Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper and many in the country’s government, a negative reputation, to which they are becoming increasingly sensitive.2

The Ministry of the Environment has not yet moved forward with this planned wolf kill. And with enough public pressure, we can get them to abandon the plan, and build the case for Canada to stop their devastating race to expand tar sands oil fields.
1. “Tar Sands Development to Lead to Poisoning of Wolves,” National Wildlife Federation, February 6, 2012
2. “Tar Sands,” Friends of the Earth
3. “Monitoring plan would bolster oilsands image, federal documents show,” Vancouver Sun, February 3, 2012


Tar sands oil is a high carbon fuel strip-mined from beneath Canada’s Boreal forest. Fuel from tar sands represents an increasingly significant portion of the fuel used in cars in the United States. To extract oil from tar sands, companies must destroy fragile forest ecosystems and then use a very energy-intensive upgrading and refining process to turn that oil into transportation fuel. Tar sands mining and production harm the boreal forest’s fragile ecosystem, waste enormous amounts of water, and disrupt the lives of indigenous people in the area.

Our primary tar sands campaign objective at present is to stop the Keystone XL tar sands oil pipeline.

Climate Impacts

Tar sands oil extraction and production emits three times more carbon dioxide than average from production of conventional oil consumed in the United States. If we expand our use of dirty tar sands, we could jeopardize the gains we make combating climate change via fuel economy standards and the use of clean energy sources as vehicle fuels.

Ecosystem Destruction

Tar sands extraction requires total destruction of pristine areas within the Canadian Boreal forest, one of the few large, intact ecosystems on Earth. The forest is clear cut, the wetlands are drained, and living matter and soil are hauled away to expose the tar sands. Oil companies remove and dump four tons of sand and soil for every one barrel of oil they get from tar sands. Oil companies have so far failed to deliver on their promises to mitigate some of this destruction by refilling tar sands mines and planting new vegetation.

Water Waste

Extracting the fossil fuels in tar sands from the sand, silt, and clay requires enormous amounts of water. It takes about three barrels of water to extract one barrel of oil. More than 90 percent of this water, 400 million gallons per day, ends up as toxic waste dumped in massive pools that contain carcinogenic substances like cyanide.

Disruption of Native People

The tar sands are being mined in a region home to many native people. They have trouble practicing their cultural traditions because of the destruction caused by tailing ponds and strip mining operations. The people downstream from the toxic tailing ponds have high rates of rare cancers, renal failure, lupus, and hyperthyroidism. Indigenous groups have organized and protested to stop the expansion of tar sands operations. This opposition is shared by the majority of Albertans, with 71 percent supporting a moratorium on new projects in a recent survey.

What We Can Do

The majority of tar sands oil is exported to the United States.  Tar sands already make up four percent of the crude oil we use and our tax dollars are already subsidizing pipelines and refineries that would allow oil companies to quadruple that amount. Also, the president must approve any new pipelines (like the Keystone XL pipeline) that the tar sands industry wants to build to the U.S. So far, the Canadian government and oil companies have not found any buyers of tar sands oil outside of the United States. As a result, stopping U.S. permits and taxpayer subsidies for new pipelines and upgraded refineries will go a long way towards ending oil companies’ exploitation of this dirty fuel and the havoc wrought on the local environment and indigenous people’s livelihoods in the process.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++===

Thanks for taking action.

Here are some ways you can spread the word to build pressure on Canadian officials to abandon this cruel plan and stop their rapid expansion of tar sands mining which threatens all of us.

If you are on Facebook, click here to post the petition to your Wall.

If you have a Twitter account, click here to automatically tweet:
Tell Canadian Prime Minister Harper and @ec_minister Peter Kent: Stop your planned tar sands #wolf kills! http://bit.ly/xRSXlC @pmharper

You can also send the following e-mail to your friends and family. Spreading the word is critical, but please only pass this message along to those who know you — spam hurts our campaign.

Thanks for all you do.

–The CREDO Action Team

Here’s a sample message to send to your friends:


Subject: Stop Canada’s planned tar sands wolf killings!
Dear Friend,

If Alberta Canada’s tar sands oil fields are fully developed, an area of boreal rainforest the size of Florida will be eviscerated, leaving in its wake only giant ponds of toxic wastewater.

To make up for the fact that extracting tar sands oil is threatening caribou herds by destroying vast swaths of rainforest habitat in Alberta, the Canadian government has called for strychnine poisoning and aerial shooting of thousands of wolves in areas of tar sands mining.

This plan is both cruel and deeply misguided.

I just signed a petition telling Canada’s Prime Minister Harper to Stop Canada’s planned tar sands wolf killings. Learn more and add your name here:

http://act.credoaction.com/campaign/tar_sands_wolves/?r_by=35696-5154581-qjqw2%3Dx&rc=confemail