Aztec codices are books written by pre-Columbian and colonial-era Aztecs. These codices provide some of the best primary sources for Aztec culture. The pre-Columbian codices differ from European codices in that they are largely pictorial; they were not meant to … Continue reading →
The pre-Columbian codices differ from European codices in that they are largely pictorial; they were not meant to symbolize spoken or written narratives. The colonial era codices not only contain Aztec pictograms, but also Classical Nahuatl (in the Latin alphabet), Spanish, and occasionally Latin.
Although there are very few surviving pre-conquest codices, the tlacuilo (codex painter) tradition endured the transition to colonial culture; scholars now have access to a body of around 500 colonial-era codices.
According to the Madrid Codex, the fourth tlatoani Itzcoatl (ruling from 1427 (or 1428) to 1440) ordered the burning of all historical codices because it was “not wise that all the people should know the paintings”. Among other purposes, this allowed the Aztec state to develop a state-sanctioned history and mythos that venerated Huitzilopochtli.
La Tira de la Peregrinación —también conocida como Códice Boturini— es uno de los llamados códices mexicas, probablemente elaborado en la primera mitad del siglo XVI. Se presume que puede ser una copia de un documento prehispánico original. Consta de veintiún láminas de papel amate, recubiertas de estuco. La temática del documento es la peregrinación de los mexicas desde su patria original, la mítica ciudad de Aztlán, que algunos autores localizan en el Occidente de México (más precisamente en Nayarit).
El Códice Boturini cuenta la historia desde que los mexicas salieron de Aztlán (Tierra de la blancura o Lugar de las garzas) hasta que llegaron al valle de México, donde fundaron su ciudad capital Tenochtitlan. Según la leyenda el dios principal de los mexicas, Huitzilopochtli (Colibrí Zurdo) les dijo que salieran de Aztlán en busca de una señal prometida, la cual era un águila posada sobre un nopal devorando una serpiente, y que en donde encontraran esa señal fundaran su ciudad. Al salir de Aztlán, lo hicieron acompañados de ocho grupos más. Algún tiempo después, los mexicas se separaron de estos pueblos, por órdenes de su dios, quien les dijo que a partir de ese momento tendrían que buscar el sitio prometido solos.
Tuvieron que pasar cientos de años hasta que los mexicas llegaron al valle de México; ahí encontraron su señal prometida y en un grupo de islotes que se encontraban en medio del lago de Texcoco fundaron Tenochtitlán. Es posible que el Tlatoani que gobernaba en ese tiempo, al llegar a la tierra prometida, reescribiera toda la historia acerca de su peregrinación y omitiera cierta información desde la salida hasta la llegada de su pueblo a la tierra prometida. Los aztecas tenían sacrificios y el códice cuenta con 20 imágenes y no está concluido.
In the Mexican city of Toluca, federal police recently arrested two government authorities from Veracruz who were carrying 25 million in pesos at an airport. The Veracruz government requested that the Attorney General’s office return the money, explaining that it was to be used for several upcoming festivals in the state.
Mexican netizens took to Twitter using the hashlib #NoSalgoSinMis25Millones or, “I don’t leave without my 25 million.”
Here are some highlights of the conversation online:
In Mexico, hashlib pokes fun at recent scandal
Governor of the Mexican state of Veracruz, Javier Duarte, is portrayed as justifying the need to carry 25 million pesos because the "tamales are this big."
Duarte is also depicted as needing the 25 million pesos in case his boss runs out of gel.
In this cartoon, the politician explains that the money is needed to pay for the upcoming festival, Dia de La Candelaria, on February 2.
<b>Some Twitter users linked the hashlib to Mexico’s upcoming presidential election:</b>
#NoSalgoSinMis25Millones por si necesito comprarme algunos votos @EPN
— Alejandra Cabañas (Alecabanias) Tue, Jan 31 2012 11:49:35
<i>#IDontLeaveWithoutM</i><i></i><i>y25Million in case I need to buy some votes</i>
Yo #NoSalgoSinMis25Millones, no vaya a ser que se me antoje financiar alguna campaña presidencial.
— Fernando Solares (FER_SOLARES) Tue, Jan 31 2012 10:41:08
<i>#IDontLeaveWithoutMy25Million because I might feel like financing some presidential campaign. </i>
El #PRI va del "No traigo cash" de #Zedillo, al #NoSalgoSinMis25Millones de Duarte, Fidel Herrera, y Moreira, #PRIdeSiempre #NiUnVotoAlPRI
— Juan Ramón Gómez (Juanconacento) Tue, Jan 31 2012 12:10:00
<i>The PRI party goes from [Former President] Zedillo’s "I don’t have cash" to Duarte, Fidel Herrera and Moreira’s #IDontLeaveWithoutMy25Million #SamePRIasAwlays #NotonesinglevoteforPRI</i>
<b>Several Mexicans applied the hashlib to food:</b>
Mesero me da mi cuenta? – aquí esta son 26 millones! pfff no me alcanza #NoSalgoSinMis25Millones
— Eduardo Vargas (lalormx) Tue, Jan 31 2012 11:50:11
<i>Waiter, could you give the check? "Here, it’s 26 million pesos! pff I don’t have enough cash. </i><i>#IDontLeaveWithoutM</i><i></i><i>y25Million</i>
Pasado mañana tengo q pagar los tamales y x eso #NoSalgoSinMis25Millones
— KALIMAAAAAN (marescaf) Tue, Jan 31 2012 11:22:06
<i>Tomorrow I have to pay for the tamales, so that’s why #IDontLeaveWithoutM</i><i></i><i>y25Million</i>
#NoSalgoSinMis25Millones, porque luego se me antoja un cafè en el starbucks
— Daniel Moreno (dmorenochavez) Tue, Jan 31 2012 11:24:06
<i>#IDontLeaveWithoutM</i><i></i><i>y25Million in case I feel like getting a coffee from Starbucks</i>
Me puede faltar maquillaje y tacones pero yo #NoSalgoSinMis25Millones !!
— Teresa Mendoza (LA__MEXICANA) Tue, Jan 31 2012 10:11:59
<b>Others came up with random reasons to be carrying 25 million pesos.</b>
#NoSalgoSinMis25Millones por aquello de los nuevos parquímetros de Polanco
— Abraham Bojórquez (abrahambr) Tue, Jan 31 2012 11:29:38
<i>#IDontLeaveWithoutM</i><i></i><i>y25Million because of the new parking meters in Polanco</i><br>
#NoSalgoSinMis25Millones PRImero dejenme decirles que ese dinero es para la #educacion comprare 25 millones de sacapuntas de un peso
— Eugenio_Al?evez (Eugenio_Dervez) Tue, Jan 31 2012 10:38:14
<i>#IDontLeaveWithoutM</i><i>y25Million First, let me tell you that the money is for #education. I will buy 25 million pencil sharpeners that cost 1 peso. </i>
#NoSalgoSinMis25Millones eso de usar tarjeta de crédito ya está pasado de moda.
— Hilde (Hilderoker) Tue, Jan 31 2012 11:55:05
<i>#IDontLeaveWithoutM</i><i></i><i>y25Million because using credit cards is outdated. </i>
#NoSalgoSinMis25Millones que tal si me hace falta cambio.
— PUTO EL QUE LO LEA™ (DanyBoy92) Tue, Jan 31 2012 12:08:48
<i>#IDontLeaveWithoutM</i><i></i><i>y25Million because, what if I need change?</i>
<b>One netizen brought up the famine in the Sierra Tarahumara:</b>
En la Sierra Tarahumara se mueren de hambre pero yo #NoSalgoSinMis25Millones
— Gabriel Ramírez (nigromante2010) Tue, Jan 31 2012 12:08:23
<i>In the Sierra Tarahumara, they die of hunger but #IDontLeaveWithoutM</i><i></i><i>y25Million </i>
Has the Arab Spring reached the country?
Six months after its separation from the South, Sudan faces a number of challenges. A faltering economy is fueling unrest, while UN sanctions are still in effect. Further aggravating the situation is continued conflict in Darfur and a running dispute with neighbouring South Sudan that has put an end to the flow of oil and money.
In this episode of The Stream, we speak with Sudanese blogger Amir Ahmad, human rights activist Dalia Haj-Omar, and writer Jok Madut about the future of the divided region.
Sudan, six months after separation
Has the Arab Spring reached the country?
Sudan has become known for a seemingly unending string of sectarian and territorial conflicts, but it has also been impacted by the changes that swept through neighbouring North African countries last year. Dissatisfaction with President Omar al-Bashir has become increasingly visible in Khartoum and throughout Sudan, expressed by activist groups such as <a target="_blank" href="http://www.girifna.com">Girifna</a>.
Sudanese activists hold a sign saying "Girifna," an Arabic phrase meaning "we’re fed up."
Last year’s protests on January 30 saw a relatively small turnout, but the National Intelligence and Security Services (NISS) nevertheless arrested some Girifna members earlier this week in advance of the anniversary.
Government of Sudan policy in post-Arab Spring world: All youth are suspects, arrest them and harass them into silence! #FreeGirifna
— ??? ??? ???? (ReemShawkat) Fri, Jan 27 2012 14:02:55
#Jan30 was insignificant? If so, why then #NISS is terrified to the extent of preemptively mass-arresting activists? http://t.co/hUDMzpDM
— Usamah M. (simsimt) Mon, Jan 30 2012 03:52:33
Students also rallied in the thousands at the University of Khartoum at the end of December, protesting police violence and expressing solidarity with mass displacements caused by the construction of a new dam on the Nile.
<div>Engineering student Mohamad Hassan Alim Boshi was recently released from three weeks of solitary confinement after publicly criticising a high-ranking official of the ruling National Congress Party (NCP). <br></div>
Some Sudanese bloggers compared Boshi to Tunisia’s Mohamed Bouazizi or Egypt’s Khaled Said, two young men who helped spark revolutions in each country. The cartoon below, by <a target="_blank" href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/khalidalbaih/">Khalid Albaih</a>, is captioned "We are all Boshi," referencing the Egyptian Facebook campaign "We are all Khaled Said."
Although discontent is high, it has yet to materialise into the high numbers seen in protests elsewhere in the region this year. The recent secession of South Sudan has dominated political discussions about the regime’s prospects for reform.
I’m deeply concerned about the apathy of our people. Why isn’t the street reacting to all of what’s happening? #Sudan #FreeGirifna
— Dina (stilldina) Sat, Jan 28 2012 20:30:50
From Khartoum, the National Congress Party has been careful not to provoke further antagonism from the public.
The NCP has made sure to speak softly though it still carries a big stick. While it has been less eager to dispense with violence, knowing full well the possible repercussions, its tight grip on all facets of life in Sudan remains an obvious fact of life. Bashir seems to have made it a point recently to appear in public in civilian attire, eager to market this new, more "democratic" era for Sudan.
The caution stems from unrest created by conflicts within Sudan that leave the government seemingly embattled on all sides, with the ongoing conflict in Darfur, a famine in the Blue Nile province, and confrontation with the new state of South Sudan over borders and oil revenues.
Sudan’s humanitarian crises have long consumed the attention of the Western media, although the Sudanese government faces the same challenges as Egypt and Libya: an aging military ruler, a repressive security regime, and economic stagnation. Blogger <a target="_blank" href="http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/01/201211873055142443.html">Amir Ahmad</a> argues that this perceived bias against the north has made Sudanese reluctant to criticise their own regime.
This was, and still is, strongly reflected in Western media coverage of Sudan and the attention directed by US advocacy groups to those causes. Unfortunately, in the process, both Western media and advocacy groups have reinforced the dichotomies and helped spread the aforementioned counter-productive narratives along with simplistic explanations. They have also unintentionally alienated many Northern Sudanese opposed to al-Bashir and his morally bankrupt policies who now feel that their identity is unfairly under attack.One must not overlook the suffering happening elsewhere in Sudan, such as in the north and in the heart of Khartoum.
The West has commonly viewed Sudan through the lens of sectarianism, with conflict stemming from the Arab and Muslim north over the Christian and African South. But traditional animist religions actually outnumber Christians in South Sudan, and both countries host diverse populations.
Sudan’s economic woes have often taken a sideline to the ongoing humanitarian crises, despite their severity. Sudan holds the second highest external debt in Africa; at nearly $38 billion equaling 94% of its GDP. In comparison, South Africa’s debt, which is the highest in Africa, is equivalent to 33% of its GDP. (Source: <a target="_blank" href="http://www.indexmundi.com/g/g.aspx?v=143&c=sf&c=su&l=en">Index Mundi/CIA World Factbook</a>)
Sudan’s financial problems have been exacerbated by the secession of South Sudan, costing Sudan about 75% of its oil reserves and up to 90% of its exports. (Source: <a target="_blank" href="http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTSUDAN/Resources/Sudan_Economic_Brief-Dec_2011.pdf">World Bank</a>)
Longstanding disagreements over revenue-sharing between the two countries escalated into accusations of theft by Sudan, leading South Sudan to halt all oil production earlier this week.
Only a matter of time before we see queues at gas stations in #Sudan. Full circle from the late 80s. http://t.co/pE4pJ8Nh #SouthSudan
— Ahmad Mohamed (AhmadMohamed10) Sun, Jan 29 2012 03:34:37
Another <a target="_blank" href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/khalidalbaih/">Khalid Albaih</a> cartoon depicts the political posturing of Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir and South Sudanese President Silva Kiir, while a malnourished Sudanese looks on.
South Sudan seceded from the North in July after a referendum that received overwhelming support, bringing a formal end to a decades-long civil war.
Some Sudanese expressed regret at the South’s secession, seeing it as a loss for both countries. On the eve of South Sudan’s independence, some wished the new country well and expressed hope for a peaceful future.
Anti-Ahmadi campaign draws thousands, sparks online reactions.
More than 5,000 people rallied on Sunday against the Ewane Tawheed mosque, which was built by an Ahmadi group in the Pakistani city of Rawalpindi. Protesters alleged it was constructed without official authorisation, while the Ahmadiyya community claimed it purchased the land through a registered organisation.
Pakistan’s blasphemy laws prohibit Ahmadis from calling themselves Muslim or referring to their places of worship as mosques.
While many took to the streets, others used the Twitter hashtag #EwaneTawheed to voice their concerns over what they say is the continued persecution of the Ahmadiyya community.
In Pakistan, a rally against #EwaneTawheed mosque
Anti-Ahmadi campaign draws hundreds, sparks online reactions.
yfrog Photo : http://yfrog.com/ocw6vqmoj Shared by
[Image] Jalsa against #Ahmadis in #Rawalpindi http://t.co/kTMSFPMd via @ShirazHassan #EwaneTawheed #Pakistan
— Atif S Ahmad (atifahmads) Sun, Jan 29 2012 04:59:50
Via Twitter, Rizwan Ahmad suggested this story.
@AJStream Over 5000 people gathered in a protest organised by Jamaatud Dawa, Jamati Islami and Sipah-e-Sahaba in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. 1/5
— Rizwan Ahmad (RizzAhmad) Sun, Jan 29 2012 22:57:43
@AJStream The event was advertised all around Rawalpindi as a peacuful event but was used to spread hate and bigotry against Ahmadis. 2/5
— Rizwan Ahmad (RizzAhmad) Sun, Jan 29 2012 22:57:56
Many reacted to the rally against the Ahmadi community in Rawalpindi. The Ahmadiyya Times live-blogged the event. One of the groups that helped organise the rally was Jamaat-ud-Dawah, a banned group blamed for the Mumbai attacks. Below, people on Twitter refer to them with the hashtag #JuD.
#EwaneTawheed #Ahmadis RT@NadeemfParacha: A perquisite to attending today’s JuD rally: You must not be a human.
— Aisha Mehmood (Aimeh90) Sun, Jan 29 2012 04:23:06
Stop the ongoing anti-Ahmadi hate campaign in Rawalpindi http://t.co/mNDOfiW9 #EwaneTawheed #Pakistan
— Shoaib Qureshi (Shoaibqureshi17) Sun, Jan 29 2012 12:22:04
A Jalsa to promote hate against #ahmadis and minorities cannot be called a peaceful event. #EwaneTawheed #Pakistan #Rawalpindi ##commonsense
— Rizwan Ahmad (RizzAhmad) Sun, Jan 29 2012 05:04:20
#UN should charge #Pakistan for telling #Ahmadi’s to not pray in #Rawalpindi.Defiance of Universal Declaration of Human Rights #EwaneTawheed
— Luqman Ahmad (LAhmad08) Sat, Jan 28 2012 16:09:07
Several netizens pointed out the tensions between Ahmadis and other Pakistanis.
#Pakistan – Its "Islamic Republic" and people are not free to pray to Allah(swt) #Irony #Persecution #Ahmadiyya #EwaneTawheed
— Masood Nasir (MasoodNasir) Sun, Jan 29 2012 10:15:41
Saw thousands encircle #EwaneTawheed to protect #Ahmadis as they offered their prayers. Alas it was just a dream. #Pakistan is no #Egypt
— rafi (morafi) Sun, Jan 29 2012 04:47:31
Popular media’s attitude about the persecution of Ahmadis in Satellite Town Rawalpindi is hypocrisy at its worst. #shame #EwaneTawheed
— Imran Jattala (ijattala) Sun, Jan 29 2012 02:28:37
Some urged Pakistanis to speak up for Ahmadis and asked for tolerance.
Dear #Pakisan please give up hypocrisy and #SelectiveMorality. #Ahmadis of satellite town r in great danger, #SpeakUP please! #Persecution
— Atif S Ahmad (atifahmads) Sun, Jan 29 2012 14:38:32
What right do we have to curse Hindu fanatics who brought down Babri mosque, when some of us want to bring down Ahmadi ‘places of worship’?
— Nadeem F. Paracha (NadeemfParacha) Sun, Jan 29 2012 10:50:03
When people violently protest the faith of others, it becomes clear who’s genuinely lacking faith #EwaneTawheed #Pakistan #ahmadiyya
— Mohammad Ali Zafar (MohammadAliZ) Sun, Jan 29 2012 09:52:36
Thank you to all those who spoke out & took a stand against Mullah rabble inciting violence against Rawalpindi Ahmadi Mosque #EwaneTawheed
— Munir Khan (munir104) Sun, Jan 29 2012 10:05:35
This <a target="_blank" href="http://www.change.org/petitions/stop-the-ongoing-anti-ahmadi-hate-campaign-in-rawalpindi">petition</a> calls for an end to the "anti-Ahmadi hate campaign in Rawalpindi."
Petition: Stop the ongoing anti-Ahmadi hate campaign in Rawalpindi
The hashtag #AwesomePakistaniThings was trending meanwhile. One person noted the hypocrisy of the situation.
#AwesomePakistaniThings banned terrorist organization #JUD is allowed to gather in thousands and threaten peaceful PAKISTANIS #EwaneTawheed
— Naeem Sabir (cybegeek) Sun, Jan 29 2012 07:37:48
#AwesomePakistaniThings Pakistani media silent when 20000+ known #JUD terrorists gather and threaten peaceful Pakistanis #EwaneTawheed
— Naeem Sabir (cybegeek) Sun, Jan 29 2012 07:53:34
The agreement aims to establish an international legal framework for targeting copyright infringement.
The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) is a global effort to protect intellectual property rights by banning counterfeit goods and online piracy.
Critics, however, say it will severely limit net freedom, as the treaty would require Internet Protocol servers to monitor and take legal action against copyright infringement. It could also create life-threatening consequences when it comes to pharmaceutical and agricultural patents.
Another element of criticism is that the trade agreement was negotiated in secret, without the input of democratically elected representatives or civil society organisations.
At least 30 governments have signed ACTA. In the United States, President Barack Obama signed it in October 2011 as an “executive agreement,” which doesn’t require congressional review. In the EU, 22 countries have signed it, but the European Parliament is scheduled to review the treaty in June before ratification.
In this episode of The Stream, we speak to Rebecca MacKinnon, journalist and net freedom advocate, and Candice Li of the International Trademark Association.
Is ACTA the new SOPA?
The agreement aims to establish an international legal framework for targeting copyright infringement.
The Anti-Copyright Trade Agreement (ACTA) caught the attention of netizens last week as the signing of the agreement by the European Union (EU) became imminent, sparking mass protests in Poland and across Europe.
Earlier this month, anti-censorship activists won a victory when Congress postponed a vote on US legislation known as the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA).
Video of an anti-ACTA protest in Warsaw, Poland:
Negotiations for ACTA began in 2008 with the United States, EU, Japan, Australia, Canada, Australia, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, South Korea, Singapore, and Switzerland taking part. The negotiations have been criticized as being conducted in secret. On January 26, the EU and 22 of its member states signed the agreement.
Last week, Anonymous-affiliated hacktivist group Polish Underground <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-16686265" style="" target="_blank">hacked</a> the government website for Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusks’, as well as several other government websites in opposition to Poland’s support for ACTA. Shortly after the cyber attack took place @AnonymousWiki sent out this tweet:
Dear Polish government, we will continue to disrupt and interfere with your government official websites until the 26th. Do not pass ACTA.
— Anonymous ? (AnonymousWiki) Sun, Jan 22 2012 13:53:01
The hacked page <a href="http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/hackers-take-down-polish-pms-website-as-anti-piracy-act-looms-.aspx?pageID=238&nID=12067&NewsCatID=374%20" style="" target="_blank">featured</a> a video of a look-alike Tusk figure dressed as former communist military General Wojciech Jaruzelski when he announced the beginning of the martial law crackdown against Solidarity activists in 1981.<br>
Another anonymous affiliated group AntiSec, claimed responsibility for taking <a href="http://www.examiner.com/anonymous-in-national/anonymous-hacks-ftc-retaliation-for-sopa-pipa-acta" style="" target="_blank">down</a> the Federal Trade Commission run website OnGuardOnline.gov in retaliation for SOPA, Protect IP Act (PIPA) and ACTA.
At the State of the Union Address, US President Barack Obama spoke about piracy. The US signed ACTA in October 2011.
Anonymous believes there are ‘legal tricks’ behind ACTA:
Members of Poland’s Ruch Palikota Party wear Guy Fawkes masks during a parliamentary session on January 26, the day Poland signed onto the ACTA treaty.
This infographic describes the various criticisms of ACTA.
Protests erupted across Europe in response to the EU signing of the agreement.
A compilation of protests across Poland:
In France, many protesters wore Guy Fawkes masks.
Anti-ACTA protest in Dublin, Ireland.
Couch guest Rebecca MacKinnon is a journalist and activist whose work focuses on the intersection of the internet, human rights, and foreign policy. She is author of the book <i>Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom.</i>
Tweets from @AnonymousWiki:
URGENT!!! Dodd just threatened to cut off Hollywood campaign contributions to any member of congress who won’t support #SOPA @AnonymousWiki
— Anonymous (anonymous600095) Sat, Jan 28 2012 21:50:00
@AnonymousWiki Polish PM – D. Tusk deleted nearly 8000 ANTI-ACTA FB coments – he claimed that they were vulgar but only 1,5% of them were.
— Ink (ink_poland) Sat, Jan 28 2012 21:50:00
267,755+ have signed. Stop the biggest threat to Internet freedom: #ACTA http://avaaz.org/en/eu_save_the_internet/
— Anonymous ? (AnonymousWiki) Fri, Jan 27 2012 08:11:03
The most recent draft of ACTA:
The EU Commission released this document titled "10 Myths About ACTA"
On October 28, 2010, 75 law professors wrote a letter to President Obama calling for a halt on ACTA.
we write to express our grave concern that your Administration is negotiating a far-reaching international intellectual property agreement behind a shroud of secrecy, with little opportunity for public input, and with active participation by special interests who stand to gain from restrictive new international rules that may harm the public interest.
US senator Ron Wyden has also been in longtime opposition to ACTA.
In March 2010, leaders in the entertainment industry wrote a letter to Obama praising his support for ACTA.<div><br></div><div>An illustration of the body of the letter:</div>
Joel on Software Hitting the High Notesby Joel SpolskyMonday, July 25, 2005In March, 2000, I launched this site with the shaky claim that most people are wrong in thinking you need an idea to make a successful softwa…
Joel on Software Hitting the High Notesby Joel SpolskyMonday, July 25, 2005In March, 2000, I launched this site with the shaky claim that most people are wrong in thinking you need an idea to make a successful software company:
The common belief is that when you’re building a software company, the goal is to find a neat idea that solves some problem which