Boturini codex

Aztec codices are books written by pre-Columbian and colonial-era Aztecs. These codices provide some of the best primary sources for Aztec culture. The pre-Columbian codices differ from European codices in that they are largely pictorial; they were not meant to … Continue reading

Aztec codices are books written by pre-Columbian and colonial-era Aztecs. These codices provide some of the best primary sources for Aztec culture.

The pre-Columbian codices differ from European codices in that they are largely pictorial; they were not meant to symbolize spoken or written narratives.[1] The colonial era codices not only contain Aztec pictograms, but also Classical Nahuatl (in the Latin alphabet), Spanish, and occasionally Latin.

Although there are very few surviving pre-conquest codices, the tlacuilo (codex painter) tradition endured the transition to colonial culture; scholars now have access to a body of around 500 colonial-era codices.

According to the Madrid Codex, the fourth tlatoani Itzcoatl (ruling from 1427 (or 1428) to 1440) ordered the burning of all historical codices because it was “not wise that all the people should know the paintings”.[2] Among other purposes, this allowed the Aztec state to develop a state-sanctioned history and mythos that venerated Huitzilopochtli.

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La Tira de la Peregrinación —también conocida como Códice Boturini— es uno de los llamados códices mexicas, probablemente elaborado en la primera mitad del siglo XVI. Se presume que puede ser una copia de un documento prehispánico original. Consta de veintiún láminas de papel amate, recubiertas de estuco. La temática del documento es la peregrinación de los mexicas desde su patria original, la mítica ciudad de Aztlán, que algunos autores localizan en el Occidente de México (más precisamente en Nayarit).

El Códice Boturini cuenta la historia desde que los mexicas salieron de Aztlán (Tierra de la blancura o Lugar de las garzas) hasta que llegaron al valle de México, donde fundaron su ciudad capital Tenochtitlan. Según la leyenda el dios principal de los mexicas, Huitzilopochtli (Colibrí Zurdo) les dijo que salieran de Aztlán en busca de una señal prometida, la cual era un águila posada sobre un nopal devorando una serpiente, y que en donde encontraran esa señal fundaran su ciudad. Al salir de Aztlán, lo hicieron acompañados de ocho grupos más. Algún tiempo después, los mexicas se separaron de estos pueblos, por órdenes de su dios, quien les dijo que a partir de ese momento tendrían que buscar el sitio prometido solos.

Tuvieron que pasar cientos de años hasta que los mexicas llegaron al valle de México; ahí encontraron su señal prometida y en un grupo de islotes que se encontraban en medio del lago de Texcoco fundaron Tenochtitlán. Es posible que el Tlatoani que gobernaba en ese tiempo, al llegar a la tierra prometida, reescribiera toda la historia acerca de su peregrinación y omitiera cierta información desde la salida hasta la llegada de su pueblo a la tierra prometida. Los aztecas tenían sacrificios y el códice cuenta con 20 imágenes y no está concluido.


In Mexico, hashlib pokes fun at recent scandal

#NoSalgoSinMis25Millones trends

In the Mexican city of Toluca, federal police recently arrested two government authorities from Veracruz who were carrying 25 million in pesos at an airport. The Veracruz government requested that the Attorney General's office return the money, explaining that it was to be used for several upcoming festivals in the state.

Mexican netizens took to Twitter using the hashlib #NoSalgoSinMis25Millones or, “I don’t leave without my 25 million.”

Here are some highlights of the conversation online:

Sudan, six months after separation

Has the Arab Spring reached the country?



Six months after its separation from the South, Sudan faces a number of challenges. A faltering economy is fueling unrest, while UN sanctions are still in effect. Further aggravating the situation is continued conflict in Darfur and a running dispute with neighbouring South Sudan that has put an end to the flow of oil and money.

In this episode of The Stream, we speak with Sudanese blogger Amir Ahmad, human rights activist Dalia Haj-Omar, and writer Jok Madut about the future of the divided region.

What do you think is the way forward for Sudan? Send us your thoughts and comments on Facebook or Twitter using hashtag #AJStream.

In Pakistan, a rally against an Ahmadi mosque

Anti-Ahmadi campaign draws thousands, sparks online reactions.

More than 5,000 people rallied on Sunday against the Ewane Tawheed mosque, which was built by an Ahmadi group in the Pakistani city of Rawalpindi. Protesters alleged it was constructed without official authorisation, while the Ahmadiyya community claimed it purchased the land through a registered organisation.

Pakistan’s blasphemy laws prohibit Ahmadis from calling themselves Muslim or referring to their places of worship as mosques.

While many took to the streets, others used the Twitter hashtag #EwaneTawheed to voice their concerns over what they say is the continued persecution of the Ahmadiyya community.

Is ACTA the new SOPA?

The agreement aims to establish an international legal framework for targeting copyright infringement.



The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) is a global effort to protect intellectual property rights by banning counterfeit goods and online piracy.

Critics, however, say it will severely limit net freedom, as the treaty would require Internet Protocol servers to monitor and take legal action against copyright infringement. It could also create life-threatening consequences when it comes to pharmaceutical and agricultural patents.

Another element of criticism is that the trade agreement was negotiated in secret, without the input of democratically elected representatives or civil society organisations.

At least 30 governments have signed ACTA. In the United States, President Barack Obama signed it in October 2011 as an “executive agreement,” which doesn’t require congressional review. In the EU, 22 countries have signed it, but the European Parliament is scheduled to review the treaty in June before ratification.

In this episode of The Stream, we speak to Rebecca MacKinnon, journalist and net freedom advocate, and Candice Li of the International Trademark Association.

What do you think? Does ACTA need to be changed or is it too late? Send us your thoughts and comments on Facebook or Twitter using hashtag #AJStream.

good programmers

Joel on Software Hitting the High Notesby Joel SpolskyMonday, July 25, 2005In March, 2000, I launched this site with the shaky claim that most people are wrong in thinking you need an idea to make a successful softwa…

Joel on Software Hitting the High Notesby Joel SpolskyMonday, July 25, 2005In March, 2000, I launched this site with the shaky claim that most people are wrong in thinking you need an idea to make a successful software company: The common belief is that when you're building a software company, the goal is to find a neat idea that solves some problem which