Estoy llevando unos cursos de la plataforma Acumen de activismo social. Si alguien esta interesado en llevar un curso en equipo, pongase en contacto conmigo.
We teach life, sir “We are truly through the looking glass here; only those with the most partisan, facts-be-damned agenda would view the largest military assistance package for any foreign country in history at a difficult budgetary time as anything … Continue reading →
We teach life, sir
“We are truly through the looking glass here; only those with the most partisan, facts-be-damned agenda would view the largest military assistance package for any foreign country in history at a difficult budgetary time as anything but a powerful way of supporting our closest ally, Israel. The hypocrisy here is astonishing; the simple fact is that the overall budget request for military assistance to Israel is increasing. Further, as has been reported by the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, the missile defense funding previously requested by President George W. Bush for Israel needed to routinely be dramatically increased—and even doubled in 2003—by Congress. This was met with deafening silence on the part of Jewish Republicans, and by us as well, as this was hardly an indicator that President Bush was no friend of Israel.
…while death and destruction is far more severe in Gaza than in Israel, it seems like Israelis are almost more traumatized. The Gazans have a deep culture of resistance and aspiration to martyrdom, they’re used to it from Cast Lead and other conflicts, and they have such limited lives than in many ways they have less to lose. Both sides seem intensely proud of their military “achievements” — Israel killing Jabari and taking out so many Fajr 5s, Hamas reaching TA and Jeru. And I’ve been surprised that when I talk to people who just lost a relative, or who are gathering belongings from a bombed-out house, they seem a bit ho-hum.
Jodi Rudoren, the New York Times correspondent who has been in Gaza for several days now, has an active Facebook page on which she has lately posted some critical observations about Palestinian culture that are reminiscent of Mitt Romney’s comments last July that got the former Republican presidential candidate in such hot water.
Rudoren’s comments include the statement that Israelis are more “traumatized” by projectile fire than Palestinians because Palestinians, having a culture of martyrdom, “have such limited lives than [sic] in many ways they have less to lose.”
by Joseph Massad
30 May 2011
What is it about Jewish and Arab children that privileges the first and spurns the second in the speeches of President Barack Obama, let alone in the Western media more generally?
Failure to resolve the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and Israel’s 40-year occupation, in the words of UN former Secretary General Kofi Annan, would “continue to hurt the reputation of the United Nations and raise questions about its impartiality”.
No cause has consumed as much UN paper work as the plight of the displaced and occupied Palestinians. But hundreds of its resolutions on Palestine have not been respected let alone applied for over half a century.
Nowhere has the UN ideals and mechanisms been more mired in power politics than in Palestine. The efforts to neutralise UN intervention have been championed mainly by the United States. This week’s efforts by the Obama administration working on behalf of Israel took advocacy into a whole new level.
Washington has vetoed more than 40 UN Security Council resolutions critical of its policies some of which were drafted by its European allies. A quick look at today’s Middle East makes it clear that such obstructions worked for the interest of neither party, nor for peace and security in the region.
Cold-War rivalries have also contributed to UN paralysis in the Israeli Palestinian-Arab conflict, which explains why more than half of the 690 resolutions adopted by the General Assembly from 1947-1990 have been ignored.
But what justifies sidelining the UN ever since, while keeping it at an arm’s length from a two decades of Peace Process?
The short answer is a double standard.
All major post-Cold War conflicts have seen direct UN involvement including, Bosnia, Kosovo, Somalia, Kuwait, Iraq, Afghanistan, Iran, Syria and of late, Lebanon, South Sudan. Not the Palestine problem. It was deferred to the US sponsored diplomatic process even though Washington’s close relations with Israel rendered it anything but an impartial broker.
Not only was Palestinian Israeli conflict snatched out of the world body, most relevant US resolutions critical of Israel were ignored by the US sponsors.
Only after the peace process failed to yield a solution a decade later, did the Bush administration allow the United Nations to join, and even then, only as a junior partner in a newly formed International Quartet that includes the European Union and Russia, all of whom are members of the UN!
Meanwhile, Israel has disregarded tens of resolutions, “censuring”, “calling”, “urging”, “recommending”, or “condemning” its attacks, settlement, deportations, occupation, etc.
Likewise, all pleas and demands for humanitarian and political interventions fell on deaf ears. The only time the UN was allowed to act, was in 1997 when it sent few international unarmed observers to the occupied city of Hebron. Alas, they weren’t mandated to speak publicly about the ongoing violations.
For the past four decades, Israel has violated all relevant UNSC council resolutions such as the resolution 465 of 1980 that strongly deplored all measures taken by Israel to change the physical character, demographic composition, institutional structure of status of the Palestinian and other Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem.
It also rejected Resolution 476, which reaffirmed the necessity to end the Israeli occupation of Arab territories ongoing since the 1967 war. The only UN Security Council Resolution that was accepted by the US and Israel as the basis of the diplomatic process, i.e. 242 of 1967, was also systematically violated. Israel has been expanding its settlement activity when the resolution notes the “inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by force”.
Paradoxically, Israel was created by a UN recommendation for Partitioning Palestine in 1947, and was accepted as a new UN member on the basis of its commitment to respect its resolution, and specifically UNGA 194 regarding the return of the Palestinian refugees.
Now that all other venues have been tried and failed, including 18 years of bilateral negotiations, the UN Security Council must carry its responsibilities by demanding that Israel carry its obligations under UN charter and by recognising the Palestinian right for self-determination in a state of their own. Period.
Marwan Bishara is Al Jazeera’s senior political analyst.
He was previously a professor of International Relations at the American University of Paris. An author who writes extensively on global politics, he is widely regarded as a leading authority on the Middle East and international affairs.
As speculation swirled Wednesday that Meg Whitman might be brought in to save the troubled Hewlett-Packard, the tech world rendered a verdict: You have got to be kidding. Ms. Whitman, 55, would bring a high profile to the job as … Continue reading →
As speculation swirled Wednesday that Meg Whitman might be brought in to save the troubled Hewlett-Packard, the tech world rendered a verdict: You have got to be kidding.
Ms. Whitman, 55, would bring a high profile to the job as well as some baggage. She is bit of a lightning rod in Silicon Valley, where founders are allowed to have outsize personalities but mere managers are not. She turned eBay into a rousing first generation dot-com success, but her venture into politics last year proved a costly debacle. Each vote she received cost her about $45. The Democratic candidate Jerry Brown, who spent little by comparison, handily won.
After starting her career as a brand manager for Procter & Gamble, Ms. Whitman became a consultant, then had executive stints at Disney, Hasbro and Stride Rite. Her arrival at eBay in March 1998 was a sign that the first generation Internet companies were growing up and needed professional managers from outside the industry to prosper.
She left in 2007 with a fortune exceeding a billion dollars. She then decided to run for California governor, an unusual move for someone who was revealed during the campaign to have rarely bothered to vote. She won the Republican nomination but had a great deal of trouble articulating her vision for making the state solvent again.
The campaign was marred by mishaps, including the revelation by a Whitman housekeeper that she was undocumented, and that Ms. Whitman had known it.
“She was undone by her housekeeper,” said the tech analyst Rob Enderle. “H.P.’s biggest problem right now is leaks from one or more disloyal employees. If Whitman can’t contain a housekeeper, it is unlikely she’ll be able to address this problem.”
Nicky Diaz Santillan, Whitman’s housekeeper of 9 years, held a news conference with her lawyer, Gloria Allred, and claims Whitman had all the clues she was an undocumented worker but closed her eyes to it because she was cheap help … $23 an hour.
Allred claims the housekeeper was “exploited, disrespected, humiliated and emotionally and financially abused” by Whitman.
Allred claims when the housekeeper was hired 9 years ago through an agency, Whitman never asked if she was in the U.S. legally. And, during her employment, Santillan told Whitman she couldn’t travel to Mexico. And, Allred said, Whitman found out Santillan’s Social Security number didn’t match her name, but Whitman did nothing. Allred said it’s the classic case of “don’t ask, don’t tell.”
Santillan says Whitman treated her “like a piece of garbage” by letting her go.
Allred says Santillan is filing a claim with the Labor Commission for back wages and mileage.
Whitman said in the debate with Jerry Brown that employers should be held accountable for hiring undocumented workers.
Blurring the Lines of Science and Science Fiction: The Universe is Not a Computer Simulation.
Everyone wants to make a good impression during a job interview. If you’re lucky enough to have a real job interview, rather than a three-minute telephone “interview” with an indifferent recruitment agent, then these tips are for you Wear a … Continue reading →
Everyone wants to make a good impression during a job interview. If you’re lucky enough to have a real job interview, rather than a three-minute telephone “interview” with an indifferent recruitment agent, then these tips are for you
- Wear a smart suit.
- Expect the unexpected.
- Be the right amount of extrovert.
- Present yourself as honest.
- Prepare an answer for every question that it is possible for man to ask, and then some.
- Remember the exit justification.
- Don’t worry about little things like not having the skills needed for the job.
- Create a product-brochure social life to talk about.
- Become the world’s foremost expert on the company you are applying to.
- Learn method acting for those vexatious personality tests.
- Prepare a list of referees who will give glowing reviews.
- Ask questions, even if every question it is possible for man to answer has already been answered.
- Be enthusiastic about the role.
- Pretend money is no issue.
Wear a smart suit.
This is rule number one in the realm of job interviews.
If you’re applying for a managerial or directorship role, wear a suit. If the interview is for a client-facing position, wear a suit. If it’s a back-office position, wear a suit. When applying for a technical position, wear a suit. Office window-cleaner, wear a suit. High-school janitor, wear a suit. Swimsuit model, wear a smart suit.
The whole interview process is, if the interviewer is honest, actually just an extended chance to develop a first impression based on how smart the candidate’s suit is. The more expensive the suit, the more worthy the candidate is for the role, whatever the role might be. As an example, George W Bush has an impeccable collection of smart suits. That should tell you everything you need to know about the power of the suit.
Expect the unexpected.
The days of the straight-forward one-to-one are gone. Expect at least two interviewers, but don’t allow yourself to be surprised if there are three, four, or ten interviewers, and don’t be shocked if half of them are not even physically in the room. Conference calls are a very popular way for lazy executives to talk to people they can’t be bothered to meet in person.
Furthermore, these days almost a third of job interviews are actually just hoaxes set up by hidden-camera television shows. Another third are filmed by television cameras for “serious” reality TV shows or documentaries. Expect anything, and you’ll be okay.
What not to do: Look confused and annoyed while you count the number of interviewers on both hands.
Be the right amount of extrovert.
Smile, chat warmly, nod in agreement to everything that doesn’t involve the torturing and burning of fluffy mammals, and make enough eye contact but not too much eye contact.
Even if you normally frown, scowl and blank your way through the world, and your view of humanity includes opinions that comprise words and phrases like “filth”, “scum” and “should be neutron-bombed back to The Planck Epoch“, you have to put aside your raging disgust and smile like you need a kidney from these people.
At the same time, make sure you don’t take extroversion too far. Sitting on the lap of one of the interviewers will be a minus point in their mind, as will your providing an unprompted dance routine. Be aware of the limits.
What not to do: 1) Assume that they weren’t looking for a candidate with the phoney gusto of a television presenter. 2) The reverse pterodactyl.
Present yourself as honest.
Even though you will need to lie through your teeth to pass ninety-nine percent of job interviews, it’s still very important that the interviewers don’t realise that not a single person on Earth actually matches every point on the job specification.
To make sure that treacherous body language doesn’t point the finger of guilt at you, rehearse your “truths” to an imaginary interviewer in a quiet place. Avoid doing this while on public transport. If you rehearse often enough, you will eventually appear to believe your lies. Just look at any salesman if you need an accomplished example of this “success method”.
What not to do: Tell the truth, or develop a twitch if you get close to exaggerating any of your positive points.
Prepare an answer for every question.
I have a friend who, in a serious job interview, was asked: “You are in a field. A UFO suddenly lands near you. What would you say to those aliens?”. You must have a strong answer to every question.
Even though a question like this will, in most people, create the desire to cause real injury to the interviewer, put down the staple-gun and take a deep breath. They probably just want to check that your role play answer involves you wearing your smart suit, and that it shows your Earth-leadership potential and your just-extrovert-enough nature, and that your first-contact speech includes at least two plugs for the company you are applying to.
Also beware of questions that are designed to trick you into revealing the fact you don’t want to work late every night, that you don’t still think of business travel to foreign countries as exciting, or that you have broken copy-machines with the weight of your ass in previous roles.
What not to do: Reply to a question with “I don’t know,” or “You are fucking shitting me, right?”
Remember to justify previous exits.
The interviewer may like to find out why you left your last role. Make it clear that the role wasn’t allowing you to fulfil your potential, and that you were eager to expand your portfolio of responsibilities.
Whatever the reason you actually left your previous roles, never tell the interviewer that your reason for leaving was that you wanted more money. Also avoid telling them of reasons for leaving that include broken copy-machines, lawsuits, or being legally prohibited from entering certain office buildings.
What not to do: Tell them you left your previous role because another month there would have led to you going postal.
Don’t worry about skills.
Just because the role asks for a huge list of skills you’ve never heard of does not mean you cannot be chosen for the role. Assure the interviewer that you have the skills they need.
Occassionally an interviewer may ask you tricky-sounding questions about some of the skills you have adopted on your CV. Don’t worry, though. The interviewer does not know anything about the skills either. In fact, the interviewer will probably pronounce the name of the skill or the technology incorrectly. (“You can do D&S using binned eight and nine, right?”) They are only asking in a bid to increase the length of the interview so that they can spend a little more time checking your suit is really as smart as your harsh ironing suggests.
A quick search on Google for the skills you need to “have” will allow you to easily bluff your way through technical questions.
What not to do: Only talk about skills you actually have, and pray they value potential.
Describe a varied social life.
“Best of all, my new phone lets me check my share portfolio from up here.”
The interviewer will want to hear about a full and varied list of social activities.
Even though you probably spend three nights a week with three friends at a food or drink establishment, and spend the other four nights watching soap operas on television, don’t make this fact known. The interviewer will believe that only a socially hyperactive worker is a commercially productive worker.
An interviewer may use the word “hobbies” to enquire along this line, but don’t be fooled. Whereas the word “hobbies” usually means lonely, specialist interests such as garden shed nuclear research, all they’re really interested in is how many sociable outdoor pursuits you engage in. Essential activities to include in your answer are: five-a-side football; synchronised skydiving; flashmobbing; returning the One Ring to Mount Doom; and whitewater rafting with at least a half-dozen friends. The important thing is that your personal time is energetic and sociable. Note that while dogging fits this description, it is a bad idea to list it as a hobby.
What not to do: Mention online gaming, and then moan about how much you hate deathmatch servers that kick you for swearing, even though lethal violence is part of the game.
Know the company you intend to work for.
Even if you’re applying to be a toilet cleaner, the interviewer will fully expect you to know the current share price of the company, the projected EBITDA for the next financial year, and the names of the chief executive’s wife and mistress.
Again, a quick look on Google will turn up the company website, from where you can glean the knowledge you need.
What not to do: Mention in the interview that you’ve never seen the company website. Especially if the role is administrator of the company website.
Prepare for personality testing.
As a way to make the interview process longer and more convoluted, interviewers love to have candidates complete psychometric questionnaires. These purport to inform the interviewer about a candidate’s suitability for the role.
In truth, most tests have questions that offer one sensible option, two meaningless options, and one bad option. For example, on an application form for a London finance house, one question was “How would you deal with colleagues disagreeing with your proposals?”, and the good answer was: “Listen to their concerns, and work with them to smooth over conflicts.” The bad answer was: “Talk louder and faster until you get your way.” No matter what your personality actually dictates, choose the answer that doesn’t involve shouting, deception, unilateral action, or going postal. If in doubt, put yourself “in the role” to get a feeling for the “suitable” answer. Books on method acting will help you to get into the mind of the ideal candidate.
What not to do: Tailor your answers to match your personality.
Offer a list of referees.
“Absolutely, yeah. We couldn’t have run this department without him.”
To get a feeling for your ability to work with others, the interviewers may require you to give them a list of former colleagues and bosses who can be contacted to discuss your attitude to work.
Be sure to phone some friends before the interview and fill them in on their cover stories. A long-time drinking friend could play the role of a former department manager, for instance. For such a role, choose a friend who is a skilled liar. Friends with a conscience will not help you to succeed in job interviews.
What not to do: Sigh when asked for a list of referees and say “I think they’d all probably use swearwords to describe me.”
Be ready to ask questions.
No matter how thorough the interviewer has been in describing the role you would be filling, make sure to ask at least several questions before you leave. But wait until the interviewer says: “Okay, I think that’s it. Is there anything you’d like to ask before we finish?”
Interviewers think that failing to ask questions is the sign of a candidate who simply doesn’t have an interest. So feign a fascination with what you’ve learnt by asking questions that will cause the interviewer to repeat what has already been said. That way, they’ll know you care.
What not to do: Say, “No, no questions. I’ll probably think of one just as I get on the bus home.”
Be enthusiastic about the role.
“Filing, tea making, and I get to clean the toilets on a rota basis? Yes!”
Nodding in agreement, asking positive questions about a typical day in the role, and flaring your eyes occasionally are all indications that you can’t wait to get started, so make sure you look excited.
If the role involves sharpening pencils five days a week, look excited. If the role is shift-based, and entails enough rota-shifting to induce jet-lag, look impatient to begin. If the job causes ninety-seven percent of employees to suffer nervous breakdowns, then pull a face like you can’t believe you didn’t apply years ago. Whatever the role, make it clear to the interviewer that you’ve finally found your calling.
What not to do: Hmm and tut when the interviewer describes responsibilities of the role, and say “no, I refuse to do that.”
Pretend you don’t care about the pay.
If you work real hard you might keep your job till next month.
The company will, of course, hope to pay you as little as possible. For example, I have a friend who earns his employer several hundred pounds each hour he works. They pay him minimum wage. You need to be prepared to go along with this.
The role may require you to work in the most expensive part of the country, and expect you to work more hours each week than biologists in the fifties believed it possible for humans to remain awake each fortnight without dying, but if you want the role you have to accept that you’re just one small part in a heap of small parts. The feeling of worthlessness is something you’ll get used to, so sign that contract before asking about the money, and console yourself in the knowledege that you’ll be contributing to the financial security of the chief executive, the board of directors and the company shareholders. They’re bound to appreciate it.
What not to do: Think about whether or not you can actually live on that level of salary.
time is running out
ABC’s Jordyn Phelps reports: The White House has released new documents in the ongoing Congressional investigation of the ATF’s “Fast and Furious” scandal that show extensive communication between a White House National Security staffer and an ATF agent who helped … Continue reading →
ABC’s Jordyn Phelps reports:
The White House has released new documents in the ongoing Congressional investigation of the ATF’s “Fast and Furious” scandal that show extensive communication between a White House National Security staffer and an ATF agent who helped lead the ATF’s “Fast and Furious” operation.
The documents, released late Friday, show e-mail communication between former National Security staffer Kevin O’Reilly and ATF special agent William Newell in which the two extensively discuss the progress of the Phoenix ATF office in curbing weapons trafficking.
The direct lines of communication between the White House and the ATF Phoenix field office revealed by the e-mails is of interest to the ongoing congressional investigation in which one of the key questions has been establishing whether high-ranking administration officials were aware of the program.
The Obama administration has maintained a position throughout the investigation that high-level officials in the White House and Justice Department were not involved with the program.
“The notion that somehow or other that this thing reaches into the upper level of the Justice Department is something that at this point I don’t think is supported by the facts,” Attorney General Eric Holder said in a September 7 press conference. “And I think as we examine and as all the facts are in fact revealed, we’ll see that that is not the case.”
While O’Reilly and Newell’s seemingly close relationship raises questions about whether individuals within the White House had knowledge of the program, there is no discussion in the released e-mails of the ATF’s controversial weapons tracking program that allowed suspected traffickers linked to Mexican drug cartels to purchase weapons and “walk” the weapons across the border. The e-mails also imply that O’Reilly and Newell may have also communicated by phone.
The ATF’s “Fast and Furious” operation allowed suspected traffickers to purchase US guns so that the ATF could track the weapons to the cartels as opposed to arresting the low-level weapons buyers. It has been alleged that thousands of weapons were allowed to pass into the hands of suspected traffickers under this program. At least two weapons traced to the program were found on the murder scene of a border patrol agent in December 2010. Additional crimes have also been connected with weapons linked to ATF.
Newell testified before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Regulation in July, making the case that the “Fast and Furious” operation was initiated with the intention of curtailing gun trafficking but admitted it was not executed properly.
“I recognize that in retrospect there were mistakes in how we handled the investigation,” Newell said of the gun walking program in July. In a written statement further clarifying his July testimony, Newell goes on to say “those searching for the secret or hidden ‘high level’ authorization to ‘permit guns to flow south’…will ultimately remain unsatisfied.”
Zea is a genus of grasses in the family Poaceae. Several species are commonly known as teosintes and are found in Mexico, Guatemala, and Nicaragua. There are five recognized species in the genus: Zea diploperennis, Zea perennis, Zea luxurians, Zea … Continue reading →
There are five recognized species in the genus: Zea diploperennis, Zea perennis, Zea luxurians, Zea nicaraguensis, and Zea mays. The last species is further divided into four subspecies: huehuetenangensis, mexicana, parviglumis, and mays. The first three subspecies are teosintes; the last is maize, or corn, the only domesticated taxon in the genus Zea. The species are grouped into two sections, sect. Luxuriantes, with the first four species, and sect. Zea with Zea mays. The former section is typified by dark-staining knobs made up of heterochromatin that are terminal on most chromosome arms, while most subspecies of sect. Zea may have 0 to 3 knobs between each chromosome end and the centromere and very few terminal knobs (except Z. m. huehuetenangensis which has many large terminal knobs). The two perennials are thought to be one species by some.
Teosintes are critical components of maize evolution, but opinions vary about which taxa were involved. According to the most widely-held evolutionary model, the crop was derived directly from Z. m. parviglumis by selection of key mutations ; up to 12% of its genetic material came from Z. m. mexicana through introgression. Another model proposes that a tiny-eared wild maize was domesticated, and after being spread from east-central Mexico, this cultigen hybridized with Z. luxurians or Z. diploperennis resulting in a great explosion of maize genetic diversity, ear and kernel forms, and capacity to adapt to new habitats, as well as increased yields. A third model suggests that the early maize resulted from a cross between Z. diploperennis and a species of Tripsacum; support for this is minimal. A fourth model posits that teosinte resulted from hybridization between an early wild form of Z. m. mays and Tripsacum.
All but the Nicaraguan species of teosinte may grow in or very near corn fields, providing opportunities for introgression between teosinte and maize. First- and later-generation hybrids are often found in the fields, but the rate of gene exchange is quite low. Some populations of Z. m. mexicana display Vavilovian mimicry within cultivated maize fields, having evolved a maize-like form as a result of the farmers’selective weeding pressure. In some areas of Mexico, teosintes are regarded by maize farmers as a noxious weed, while in a few areas farmers regard it as a beneficial companion plant, and encourage its introgression into their maize.
[Finkelstein comments: I originally wrote this article having in mind a Gandhian strategy for dismantling the illegal wall Israel has been constructing in the West Bank. The same Gandhian principles however apply to breaking the illegal Gaza blockade.] Gandhil lecture … Continue reading →
[Finkelstein comments: I originally wrote this article having in mind a Gandhian strategy for dismantling the illegal wall Israel has been constructing in the West Bank. The same Gandhian principles however apply to breaking the illegal Gaza blockade.]
Resolving the Israel-Palestine Conflict: What we can learn from Gandhi
Tans Lecture, Maastricht University (13 November 2008)
This lecture will divide into three parts. First, I will lay out the terms of the international consensus for resolving the Israel-Palestine conflict. Second, I will sketch Gandhi’s doctrine of nonviolent civil resistance. Third, I will assess the relevance of Gandhi’s doctrine for the Israel-Palestine conflict. I will argue that a moral legal consensus is a prerequisite for Gandhi’s doctrine to succeed. In the case of the Israel-Palestine conflict such a consensus does exist, and consequently those seeking a just and lasting peace might benefit from giving Gandhi’s doctrine a serious hearing.
One of the best kept diplomatic secrets is that a broad international consensus has long existed on how to settle the Israel-Palestine conflict. Although this conflict has been depicted as among the most intricate, the authoritative political, legal and human rights bodies in the world in fact concur on the basis of its resolution. In the jargon of the so-called peace process, the “final status” issues are supposed to be so intractable that they need be deferred until the last stage of negotiations. These final status issues include borders, East Jerusalem, settlements, and refugees. The documentary record shows, however, that, on the terms for resolving these allegedly “controversial” issues, Israel and the United States stand virtually alone.
The United Nations General Assembly annually votes on a resolution titled, “Peaceful Settlement of the Question of Palestine.” This resolution uniformly includes these tenets for “achieving a peaceful settlement of the question of Palestine”: (1) “Affirming the principle of the inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war”; (2) “Affirming also the illegality of the Israeli settlements in the territory occupied since 1967 and of Israeli actions aimed at changing the status of Jerusalem”; (3) “Stresses the need for: (a) The realization of the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people, primarily the right to self-determination; (b) The withdrawal of Israel from the Palestinian territory occupied since 1967”; (4) “Also stresses the need for resolving the problem of the Palestine refugees in
conformity with its resolution 194 (III) of 11 December 1948.” Here is the recorded vote on this resolution the past decade:
|Year||Yes-No-Abstained||Negative votes cast by…|
|1997||155-2-3||Israel, United States|
|1998||154-2-3||Israel, United States|
|1999||149-3-2||Israel, United States, Marshall Islands|
|2000||149-2-3||Israel, United States|
|2001||131-6-20||Israel, United States, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru,Tuvalu|
|2002||160-4-3||Israel, United States, Marshall Islands, Micronesia|
|2003||160-6-5||Israel, United States, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Uganda|
|2004||161-7-10||Israel, United States, Australia, Grenada, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau|
|2005||156-6-9||Israel, United States, Australia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau|
|2006||157-7-10||Israel, United States, Australia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia,
|2007||161-7-5||Israel, United States, Australia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia,
In 2004 the International Court of Justice rendered a landmark advisory opinion on the legality of the wall Israel has been constructing in the West Bank.2 The Court inventoried these “rules and principles of international law which are relevant in assessing the legality of the measures taken by Israel”: (1) “No territorial acquisition resulting from the threat or use of force shall be recognized as legal”; (2) “the policy and practices of Israel in establishing settlements in the Palestinian and other Arab territories occupied since 1967” have “no legal validity.” In its subsequent deliberations on “whether the construction of the wall has violated those rules and principles,” the
Court found that:
[B]oth the General Assembly and the Security Council have referred, with regard to Palestine, to the customary rule of “the inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war”….It is on this same basis that the [Security] Council has several times condemned the measures taken by Israel to change the status of Jerusalem.
As regards the principle of the right of peoples to self-determination,…the existence of a “Palestinian people” is no longer in issue….[Its] rights include the right to self-determination.
Israel has conducted a policy and developed practices involving the establishment of settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. …
The Court concludes that the Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (including East Jerusalem) have been established in breach of international law.
Not one of the 15 judges sitting on the ICJ registered dissent from these basic principles and findings. It can scarcely be said however that they evinced prejudice against Israel, or that it was a “kangaroo court” (Harvard Law Professor Alan Dershowitz).3 Several of the judges, although voting with the majority, expressed profound, perhaps undue, sympathy for Israel in their respective separate opinions. If the judges were nearly of one mind in their final determination, this consensus sprang not from collective prejudice but the factual situation: the uncontroversial nature of the legal principles at stake and Israel’s uncontroversial breach of them. Even the one judge voting against the 14-person majority condemning Israel’s construction of the wall, Thomas Buergenthal from the U.S., was at pains to stress that there was “much” in the advisory opinion “with which I agree.” On the crucial question of Israeli settlements he stated: “Paragraph 6 of Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention…does not admit for exception on grounds of military or security exigencies. It provides that ‘the Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population in the territory it occupies.’ I agree that this provision applies to the Israeli settlements in the West Bank and that their existence violates Article 49, paragraph 6.”
A broad international consensus has also crystallized upholding the Palestinian “right of return.” We have already seen that the annual United Nations resolution, supported overwhelmingly by member States, calls for a settlement of the refugee question on the basis of resolution 194, which “resolves that the refugees wishing to return to their
homes and live at peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for property of those choosing not to return.”4 In addition, respected human rights organizations “urge Israel to recognize the right to return for those Palestinians, and their descendants, who fled from territory that is now within the State of Israel, and who have maintained appropriate links with that territory” (Human Rights Watch), and “call for Palestinians who fled or were expelled from Israel, the West Bank or Gaza Strip, along with those of their descendants who have maintained genuine links with the area, to be able to exercise their right to return” (Amnesty International).
The documentary record clearly demonstrates that whereas the global community has consistently registered its support in numerous forums for a two-state settlement based on a full Israeli withdrawal to the June 1967 border, and a resolution of the refugee question based on the right of return and compensation, Israel and the United States have consistently rejected such a settlement. The Arab League has unanimously supported a two-state settlement on the June 1967 border and a “just” resolution of the refugee question based on 194, and Hamas has endorsed a settlement on these terms,5 while the Palestinian Authority has not only accepted the terms of the global consensus but expressed willingness to make major concessions.6 The challenge for those seeking a just and lasting peace is to get Israel and the United States to respect international law and public opinion. A possible strategy is the one pioneered by Gandhi, to which I now turn.
Before sketching Gandhi’s doctrine of nonviolent civil resistance or satyagraha7 I must enter several caveats. Gandhi’s collected works come to some 90 volumes, each of which runs to 500 pages. Due to time constraints I was able to peruse only 23 of these volumes,8 as well as a raft of anthologies,9 biographies and scholarly studies. Accordingly my remarks will be partial in a single and perhaps double sense. They won’t encompass the full scope of his reflections. My reading intentionally focused on the period 1933-1942 when Gandhi’s doctrine was put to the severest tests. It is
also arguable that because of this circumscribed reading I will have missed crucial transitions and ruptures in his thought, presenting a snapshot of a mind at work rather than the moving picture. Here, it seems I am on firmer ground, however. Gandhi lived a long, rich life, and one relentlessly subjected to self-scrutiny. Nonetheless he remained
remarkably consistent in his bedrock beliefs.10 He acknowledges local errors11 and reversals of judgment12 but there are no “Gods that Failed” recantations or “Second Thoughts” revelations. His one systematic philosophical exposition is a modest, seemingly eccentric volume titled Hind Swaraj (Indian Home Rule) which he quickly penned in 1909.13 Rereading this book 30 years later, Gandhi expressed full satisfaction with it.14
To be sure, Gandhi’s concrete application of his doctrine appears replete with contradictions. Asserting that “my nonviolence cannot deviate from what is practical, ”Gandhi could sanction “calling in the army and having a handful of men shot” to stop inter-communal rioting.15 The world’s most famous exponent of nonviolence recruited an ambulance corps for the British side in the Boer War and Zulu War,16 again offered to raise an ambulance corps to serve the British army during World War I, and then recruited Indians to take up arms and fight in the war.17 Throughout his life he averred that such active wartime partisanship did not contradict his commitment to nonviolence.18 It must be said that on this point (and many others), the defenses he adduced for his practical activity did not carry conviction.19 Although trained as a barrister, Gandhi was not a persuasive arguer. Interrogated by a shrewd critic, he seldom had a compelling repartee and more often than not lapsed into mumbo-jumbo,20 although, humble as he indubitably was, Gandhi seemed always to believe that he had bested his interlocutors.21 He was also given to render sweeping verdicts on competing philosophies such as socialism although conceding that “I have read no books on the subject.”22
Gandhi liked to quote Emerson, “Foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds.”23 Regrettably for the little minds endeavoring to interpret his work, Gandhi was a consistent exponent of this quip. He can maintain that “in any examination of moral conduct, the intention is the chief ingredient,”24 and simultaneously maintain it is right
that “we normally look at the action and not at the intention.”25 He can deplore as a species of violence “a living wall of pickets in order to prevent the entry of persons into picketed places,”26 yet at the same time suggest to an Indian correspondent whose seat at the cinema was grabbed by a British soldier to “deliberately so to stand as to obstruct the view of the usurper.”27 He can state in one breath that even in “the classical instance of the defenseless sister or mother who is threatened with molestation by an evil-minded ruffian,” use of violence would not be permissible,28 yet in the next breath state that he would “defend” use of violence “against the whole world if I found myself in a corner when I could not save a helpless girl from violation.”29 He can avow that his “sympathies are wholly with the Allies” during World War II because “this war is resolving itself into one between such democracy as the West has evolved and totalitarianism as it is typified in Hitler,”30 and that “There is a fundamental difference between Fascism and even this imperialism which I am fighting,”31 yet simultaneously avow that “Hitlerism and Churchillism are in fact the same thing,” and that “I must fight Nazism and Fascism equally with the enslaving British imperialism.”32 He can praise the decision of French statesmen not to resist Nazi aggression because “the cause of liberty becomes a mockery if the price to be paid is wholesale destruction of those who are to enjoy liberty,”33 yet also assert that “no greater evil can befall a country than that it should lose its independence,”34 and that nations occupied by the Nazis, as well as German Jews, should elect annihilation rather than cooperate with the occupiers.35
To his credit it must nonetheless be said that Gandhi never shied away from giving critics of his pronouncements and policy a fair hearing. In conveying an intellectual or political dispute, he did not rig its terms to favor him or create straw men. It should perhaps also be noted in his defense that Gandhi conceived himself “essentially a man of action and a reformer,” a “practical reformer,”36 and that “no one is able to act upon a great principle, like that of nonviolence, in its entirety.”37 Logical consistency no doubt figured as a low priority compared to getting things done.
Gandhi’s nonviolent doctrine is not altogether amenable to rational analysis for other reasons as well. He never produced a programmatic or systematic guide on satyagraha. One has to piece together its theory and practice from scattered, often contradictory, confusing and obscure fragments. He indifferently conflated categories and collapsed
distinctions. Moreover, Gandhi’s doctrine was steeped in religious faith. “It is faith that sustains me, and it is faith that must sustain the other satyagrahis.”38 Although eager to recruit satyagrahis for the struggle, Gandhi was emphatic that communists and other nonbelievers need not apply.39 When he decided to embark on civil disobedience or a
fast, it was not after a secular reckoning of the “balance of forces,” but after an “inner urge,” “inner voice,” or “gift from God” prompted him.40 Gandhi denoted nonviolence a “science,”41 and conceived satyagraha not as a closed system but ceaseless experimentation in a perpetual and always incomplete search for truth. But his was a science not susceptible to external proof or refutation; its power drew from the “efficacy of the incalculable force of inscrutable divinity.”42 If it failed to produce the desired outcome, this demonstrated not an inadequacy of the theory but an impurity lurking in the soul of its human agents.43 He might be right, but it is hard to figure how one could
prove him wrong, just as one is rendered impotent before his ex cathedra pronouncements and saccharine homilies such as nonviolence, buoyed by the assistance of God, being the most potent of forces in the world.44 Gandhi asserted proprietary right over this science as “the author of satyagraha and general in satyagraha action,”45 the “sole authority on satyagraha” and the “most experienced satyagrahi.”46 He was uniquely privy to the mysteries of satyagraha;47 one could not argue with him about it—“I am confident that God has made me the instrument of showing the better way”;48 one could only march lock step—or elect not to—behind him.49 Gandhi eschewed all sectarian “isms,” including “Gandhism”—“I love to hear the words: ‘Down with Gandhism.’ An ‘ism’ deserves to be destroyed.”50 But the not altogether satisfying substitute he offered was a doctrine that often had the feel of autocratic whimsy. He had
an (as it were) party line not just on sexual abstinence but on “idle jokes” (opposed), “innocent pleasantries” (perhaps),51 and reading in the toilet (opposed). He sometimes sounds like Stalin pronouncing on linguistics, although deviationists might be banished from his Ashram but not deported to the Gulag.52
It further warrants notice that the better known aspects of Gandhi’s nonviolent doctrine such as civil disobedience and non-cooperation, which I will focus on in this lecture, were for him the least significant.53 He situated satyagraha in a matrix of practical, diurnal activities, what he called the “constructive program,”54 that formed the “foundation for civil disobedience.”55 Its constituents embraced ridding Hinduism of the “blot” of untouchability, fostering Hindu-Muslim unity, and promoting use on a mass scale of the spinning wheel (tcharka) and handspun cloth (khadi). On this (as it were) material basis, he believed, Indians could forge unbreakable bonds of unbounded love that transcended religious sect and class, thereby rendering political confrontation with Great Britain superfluous; complete independence (purna swaraj) would thence like a ripe fruit drop into India’s lap, and the nonviolent future of India would be safeguarded. “If we learn to love one another, if the gulf between Hindu and Muslim, caste and outcaste, and rich and poor is obliterated,” Gandhi predicted, “a handful of English would not dare to continue their rule over us.”56
All of which is to say, Gandhi would almost certainly fault my exercise in today’s lecture for denaturing his doctrine: a rational core of satyagraha cannot be extracted from the religious content coursing through it and the religious renaissance presupposing and ensuing from it. “It is impossible that a thing essentially of the soul,” he intoned, “can
be imparted through the intellect.”57 Nonetheless, speaking as a resolute nonbeliever and rationalist, I am convinced that he has something useful to say on the subject of nonviolent resistance. It will be for you to decide whether I am right.
What is satyagraha?
The “votary” of nonviolent civil resistance, according to Gandhi, “must not be violent in thought, word or deed,”58 in fact, must be “incapable of feeling or harboring anger.”59 The animating impulse of Gandhi’s doctrine is not however a negative “non”-principle but the affirmative or “active” principle of “unadulterated love—fellow-feeling,”60 which
in turn springs from “faith in the inherent goodness of human nature,”61 and the belief that “what holds good in respect of yourself holds good equally in respect of the whole universe. All mankind are alike.”62 Love, he professed, was the dominant factor in human existence—“Had violence, i.e., hate, ruled us, we should have become extinct
long ago”63—whereas the apparent omnipresence of violence is an optical illusion— “History is really a record of every interruption of the even working of the force of love or of the soul.”64 Just as “families and even clans” manage to resolve conflicts nonviolently due to the binding powers of love, so can “humankind” which is “one big family.”65 Gandhi’s faith in the essential goodness of humankind stretched credulity to its limits. During World War II he wrote a “Dear Friend” letter to Hitler in which he averred not “to believe that you are the monster described by your opponents,” albeit acknowledging that “many of your acts are monstrous and unbecoming of human dignity.”66
Because love informs it, satyagraha excludes violence. It also eschews inflicting indirect, non-physical forms of coercion such as fear and “embarrassment.”67 Rather it should rely exclusively on the “self-purification” that comes of self-suffering—“the more innocent and pure the suffering the more potent it will be in its effect”68—to arouse from
its slumber the conscience of wrongdoers in order “to convert, not to coerce”69 them. In another iteration, he invests in the transforming powers not of self-suffering per se but the “upwelling of love and pity towards the wrongdoer.”70
Gandhi deplored resort to violence on both personal/moral and political/pragmatic grounds. It corrupts the individual who is degraded to the level of a beast—“That which distinguishes man from all other animals is his capacity to be nonviolent”71—but it also corrupts the goal of enlightened political action. However just the cause, because means
and ends are ineluctably intertwined—“The means may be likened to a seed, the end to a tree”72—the use of violence as a political weapon cannot but bring forth a power configuration in which the “strong and mighty” dominate and the “blind, the halt and the maimed” remain disenfranchised:73 “violence may destroy one or more bad rulers, but…others will pop up in their places.”74 Even—or especially—in the face of Axis aggression, the use of armed force was to be opposed because the Allies could inflict a defeat on the Axis only by becoming “stronger than they are, and therefore worse and
more ruthless”;75 “that would mean no deliverance from Nazism,”76 but “superior Nazism.”77 Victor will have become vanquished, while “such a victory must mean another preparation for a war more inhuman than the present, as this one had proved more inhuman than the last.”78 On both practical and theoretical levels, Gandhi’s argument is wanting. While hardly ideal, the Allied states emerging from World War II did not exactly mirror let alone surpass in brutality Nazi Germany. In addition, Gandhi postulates that nonviolent resistance could not produce inferior results to violent
resistance: “either the enemy comes to terms with you, then you win without blood; or the enemy annihilates you. This last solution is not worse than what a violent war in any case brings about.”79 He willfully ignores the real possibility that nonviolence will have failed to stop the Nazis, whereas violence, however costly, will have succeeded short of the Allies’ total annihilation. It is more difficult to counter Gandhi’s assertion that, once having imitated Nazi methods, a cause “cannot be called just”80—except to eke out exiguous distinctions between Auschwitz and Hiroshima.
Gandhi did not, however, unqualifiedly repudiate violence. Until and unless he converted others to his beliefs, Gandhi accepted the validity of current norms. Thus, while personally unable to condone it, he did acknowledge the legitimacy of resorting to violence in a righteous cause; “self-defense is everybody’s birthright.”81 In the face of personal insult, and “if you feel humiliated, you will be justified in slapping the bully in the face or taking whatever action you might deem necessary to vindicate your self-respect.”82 And although “not defending the Arab excesses” during the 1936-39 Arab Revolt in Palestine, and although “wishing they had chosen the way of nonviolence in resisting what they rightly regarded as an unwarrantable encroachment upon their country,” Gandhi nonetheless maintained that “according to the accepted canons of right and wrong, nothing can be said against the Arab resistance in the face of overwhelming
However much he deplored violence, Gandhi did deem it much preferable to inaction in the face of injustice. Should one be incapable of nonviolently resisting an outrage, the only honorable option would be to resist violently, whereas flight would be wholly shameful. For, if there was one thing Gandhi detested more than violence, it was “mute
submissiveness”84—and what was yet worse, such submissiveness masquerading as nonviolent resistance. He regarded not violence but pusillanimity and effeminateness as the most contemptible of personal failings while he prized the virtues—which a true satyagrahi perforce nurtured—of courage and manliness: “The fundamental thing to be borne in mind is that people should, under no circumstances, be cowardly or impotent”; “it is unmanly to run away from danger.”85 Gandhi tersely defined the “aim of the satyagraha struggle” he led in South Africa as being “to infuse manliness in cowards.”86 In a scalding denunciation of ersatz nonviolence, and in a passage that might easily have been cribbed from Nietzsche, Gandhi lectured:
Nonviolence cannot be taught to a person who fears to die and has no power of
resistance. A helpless mouse is not nonviolent because he is always eaten by
pussy. He would gladly eat the murderess if he could, but he ever tries to flee
from her. We do not call him a coward, because he is made by nature to behave
no better than he does. But a man who, when faced by danger, behaves like a
mouse, is rightly called a coward. He harbors violence and hatred in his heart
and would kill his enemy if he could without being hurt himself. He is a stranger
to nonviolence. All sermonizing on it will be lost on him. Bravery is foreign to
his nature. Before he can understand nonviolence he has to be taught to stand
his ground and even suffer death in the attempt to defend himself against the
aggressor who bids fair to overwhelm him. To do otherwise would be to confirm
his cowardice and take him further away from nonviolence. Whilst I may not
actually help anyone to retaliate, I must not let a coward seek shelter behind
nonviolence so called. Not knowing the stuff of which nonviolence is made many
have honestly believed that running away from danger every time was a virtue
compared to offering resistance, especially when it is fraught with danger to one’s
life. As a teacher of nonviolence I must, so far as it is possible for me, guard
against such an unmanly belief….Self-defense…is the only honorable course
where there is unreadiness for self-immolation.87
And again, in another Nietzschean flourish:
Hence I ask you, is our nonviolence the nonviolence of the coward, the weak, the helpless, the timid? In that case, it is of no value. A weakling is a born saint. A weak person is obliged to become a saint. But we are soldiers of
nonviolence, who, if the occasion demands, will lay down their lives for it. Our nonviolence is not a mere policy of the coward. But I doubt this. I am afraid that the nonviolence we boast of might really be only a policy. It is true that, to some extent, nonviolence works even in the hands of the weak. And, in this manner, this weapon has been useful to us. But, if one makes use of nonviolence in order to disguise one’s weakness…, it makes a coward of one. Such a person is defeated on both fronts. Such a one cannot live like a man and the Devil he surely cannot become. It is a thousand times better that we die trying to acquire the strength of arm[s]. Using physical force with courage is far superior to cowardice. At least we would have attempted to act like men.88
For I cannot in any case stand cowardice. Let no one say when I am gone that I taught the people to be cowards. If you think my ahimsa [nonviolence] amounts to that, or leads you to that, you should reject it without hesitation. I would far rather that you died bravely dealing a blow and receiving a blow than died in abject terror.…Fleeing from battle…is cowardice, and unworthy of a warrior. An armed fighter is known to have sought fresh arms as soon as he loses those in
his possession or they lose their efficacy. He leaves the battle to get them. A nonviolent warrior knows no leaving the battle. He rushes into the mouth of himsa [violence], never even once harboring an evil thought. If this ahimsa seems to you to be impossible, let us be honest with ourselves and say so, and give it up….Cowardice is worse than violence because cowards can never be nonviolent. So such people should learn to defend themselves….A person who has full faith in nonviolence should be a thousand times more fearless than an armed man….It is the duty of every believer in ahimsa to see that cowardice is not propagated in the name of nonviolence.
My nonviolence does not admit of running away from danger and leaving dear ones unprotected. Between violence and cowardly flight, I can only prefer violence to cowardice. I can no more preach nonviolence to a coward than I can tempt a blind man to enjoy healthy scenes. Nonviolence is the summit of bravery. And in my own experience, I have had no difficulty in demonstrating to men trained in the school of violence the superiority of nonviolence. As a coward, which I was for years, I harbored violence. I began to prize nonviolence only when I began to shed cowardice. Those Hindus who ran away from the post of duty when it was attended with danger did so not because they were nonviolent, or because they were afraid to strike, but because they were unwilling to die or even suffer any injury. A rabbit that runs away
from the bull terrier is not particularly nonviolent. The poor thing trembles at the sight of the terrier and runs for very life. Those Hindus who ran away to save their lives would have been truly nonviolent and would have covered themselves with glory and added luster to their faith and won the friendship of their Mussalman assailants, if they had stood bare breast with smiles on their lips, and died at their post. They would have done less well, though still well, if they had stood at these posts and returned blow for blow. If the Hindus wish to convert the Mussalman bully into a respecting friend, they have to learn to die in the face of the heaviest odds.
I do believe that where there is only a choice between cowardice and violence I would advise
violence. Thus when my eldest son asked me what he should have done, had he been present
when I was almost fatally assaulted in 1908, whether he should have run away and seen me
killed or whether he should have used his physical force, which he could and wanted to use, and
defended me, I told him that it was his duty to defend me even by using violence….Hence…do
I advocate training in arms for those who believe in the method of violence. I would rather
have India resort to arms in order to defend her honor than that she should in a cowardly manner
become or remain a helpless witness to her own dishonor. But I believe that nonviolence is
infinitely superior to violence, forgiveness is more manly than punishment….But abstinence is
forgiveness only when there is the power to punish; it is meaningless where it pretends to proceed
from a helpless creature. A mouse hardly forgives a cat when it allows itself to be torn to pieces
Gandhi heaped praise on the “reckless courage” that soldiers displayed in battle and wanted “to learn…the art of throwing away my life for a noble cause”89; on the “example of Sparta,” because “though they were an armed people and also few, they laid down their lives but would not leave their places”;90 and on the typical “Pathan [Pashtun] boy”
because he is “fearless. If there is bloodshed he does not hide himself in his house. He finds pleasure in fighting. He does not stop to think that he might be injured or even killed. He is never afraid of being hurt. I have seen one standing unmoved in the midst of blood gushing from his many wounds.”91 On the other hand, Gandhi (mistakenly)
criticized the German Jews for pretending to nonviolence yet nourishing violent revenge on the Nazis (“There is no nonviolence in their hearts. Their nonviolence, if it may be so called, is of the helpless and the weak”),92 and the cowardice of his disciples who elected milder to evade severer sanctions (“The nonviolence of the person who went to jail to avoid a worse fate harmed him and disgraced the cause which he used as a shelter to escape death”).93 But he also freely conceded in poignant detail his own failure to rise to the heroic standard he set.94
In addition, Gandhi rejected nonviolence borne of weakness as being politically ineffectual. If the votaries of nonviolence abjure force only from dread of violent retaliation, then the wrongdoer has every right to dread what might ensue should they attain power and acquire its instruments. In order to convince the wrongdoer that one’s nonviolence was not born of weakness, one needed manifest a willingness to forego violence even when no prospect of violent retaliation impended, say, where the votaries of nonviolence outnumbered and outgunned the wrongdoer. The nonviolence
of “India as a nation…is that of the weak,” Gandhi lamented. “If she were nonviolent in the consciousness of her strength, Englishmen would lose their role of distrustful conquerors….If we, as Indians, could but for a moment visualize ourselves as a strong people disdaining to strike, we should cease to fear Englishmen whether as
soldiers, traders or administrators, and they to distrust us.”95 And again: “The moment Englishmen feel that although they are in India in a hopeless minority, their lives are protected against harm not because of the matchless weapons of destruction which are at their disposal, but because Indians refuse to take the lives even of those whom they may
consider to be utterly in the wrong, that moment will see a transformation in the English nation in its relation to India.”96 Yet, it would appear that practical realities—think of inmates in a concentration camp—would often preclude such a demonstration of strength. It will also be noticed Gandhi’s naïve premise that the fundamental barrier dividing
British and Indians was psychological (“fear”) and not a material clash of interests.
In any event, on both personal/moral and political/pragmatic grounds, Gandhi insisted that true nonviolent resistance had to be yet more brave and strong than violent resistance: only such nonviolence could redeem its votary and convert the wrongdoer. “An army of nonviolence exposes itself to all the risks that an army of violence does,” he declared. “Only the latter expects to retaliate even when it is not the aggressor. An army of nonviolence runs risks without the wish to retaliate”;97 “I believe that a man is the strongest soldier for daring to die unarmed with his breast bare before the enemy.”98 Such an “army” had to accept—indeed embrace—the prospect of mutely subjecting itself to mass slaughter.99 Into the valley of death it must headlong march, unarmed yet “smilingly”100 and “cheerfully”;101 “if we are to train ourselves to receive the bullet wounds or bayonet charges in our bare chests, we must accustom ourselves to standing unmoved in the face of cavalry or baton charges.”102 “Wherein is courage required,” he rhetorically asked, “in blowing others to pieces from behind a cannon or with a smiling face to approach a cannon and to be blown to pieces? Who is the true warrior—he who keeps death always as a bosom-friend or he who controls the death of others?”103 “What I shall expect of you,” he lectured the “officers” of his army, “is that even if someone subjects you to the most inhuman tortures, you will joyfully face the ordeal and make the supreme sacrifice with God’s name on your lips and without a trace of fear or anger or thoughts of revenge in your hearts.”104 And in a macabre peroration, he avowed, “That nation is great which rests its head upon death as its pillow.”105 It might be said of Gandhi that he created a cult of the dead. “Whilst therefore I tender my sympathy to the parents of the two brave lads who lost their lives,” he said following the murder of these disciples,
my inmost desire is to congratulate them for the finished sacrifices of their sons, if they would accept my congratulations. A warrior’s death is never a matter of sorrow, still less that of a satyagrahi warrior. One of the lessons that a nation yearning for freedom needs to learn is to shed several fears of losing title, wealth, position, fear of imprisonment, of bodily injury and lastly of death.106
How satyagraha works
Although he asserted that satyagraha was not just nonviolent but also non-coercive, the means Gandhi deployed in his civil resistance campaigns actually ranged on a continuum alloying coercion and abnegation.107 At one pole was what he called “non-cooperation” that rendered society ungovernable for political elites108 and enterprises insolvent for economic elites. Insofar as the satyagrahi faced the loss of a paycheck, punitive sanctions, even internment and death, non-cooperation also entailed varying degrees of self-suffering.109 At the opposite extreme was a tactic such as fasting which plainly contained a large component of self-suffering but which was also coercive, however vehemently Gandhi might deny this.110 Occupying the middle ground between these poles were various forms of civil disobedience, which contained equal parts coerciveness (breaking the law) and self-suffering (going to jail, paying fines). In the
ensuing remarks I put to one side a very powerful if latent form of violence lurking in all of Gandhi’s activities, which he was fully aware of and which he fully exploited: if the British didn’t acquiesce in his nonviolence, they would have to cope with wholesale violent resistance: “I have claimed in private correspondence with English friends that it is because of my incessant preaching of the gospel of nonviolence and my having successfully demonstrated its practical utility that so far the forces of violence, which are undoubtedly in existence…, have remained under complete control.”111
The coercive potency of non-cooperation such as a general strike for getting the lords of the land to see the light requires little elucidation.112 Gandhi stressed that even non-cooperation “must have its roots in love. Its object should not be to punish the opponent or to inflict injury upon him….we must make him feel that in us he has a friend and we should try to reach his heart.”113 And again: “We do want to paralyze the Government considered as a system—not, however, by intimidation, but by the irresistible pressure of our innocence.”114 He did allow that as a “practical” matter even if non-cooperation sprang from the “nonviolence of the weak”—i.e., not from love but from fear of violent retribution—it could still be efficacious “if a sufficient number of people practice it.”115 But Gandhi adamantly refused to concede that, however much “love” and “innocence” might assuage the abrasiveness of a conflict,116 it remains that the operative factor at play in non-cooperation is coercive.117
The focus of Gandhi’s creed, however, was the transformative power of pristine self-suffering, and here yet more problems arise. He believed that such suffering would put on public display the “human dignity”118 of the victim and thereby “quicken the conscience,” 119 strike a “sympathetic chord,”120 and “evoke by his truth and love expressed through his suffering” the “inherent goodness of human nature”;121 “the world is touched by sacrifice,”122 “it can tame the wildest beast, certainly the wildest man.”123 The satyagrahi will then be well-placed to “mobilize public opinion against the evil which he is out to eradicate, by means of a wide and intensive agitation”;124 “success is the certain result of suffering of the extremist character, voluntarily undergone.”125
It is not clear however why suffering in and of itself—or, for that matter, allied with “love”—would convert the alleged wrongdoer. Were the “pro-life” half of the American population to engage in civil disobedience or even a fast unto the death, the “pro-choice” half would hardly be converted by such a spectacle. For, it is not suffering alone that touches but suffering in the pursuit of a legitimate goal. The recognition of the legitimacy of such a goal presumes however a preexisting consensus according to which what the victim seeks he justly deserves. Gandhi accordingly referred to the victim’s “innocence.”126 It is innocence in a double sense: of means—the victim’s suffering results from unilateral violence inflicted by others—and of ends—the victim seeks a right that cannot in good conscience be denied because it jibes with the “normal moral sense of the world”;127 the more incontrovertible the ends, the more self-suffering as a means will resonate with “enlightened public opinion.”128 In this light it is to be doubted the efficacy of self-suffering before wrongdoers who are convinced, either due to an inimical interest or inimical ideology or—what’s often the case—both, that the demands of the victim lack justice. Gandhi himself acknowledges that his adversary might be as convinced in the rightness of his opinions as Gandhi is of his own (“I realize what may appear to me prejudice may be enlightenment to others”);129 that he must be open to the possibility that his interlocutor might be right and he wrong (“The royal road of nonviolence consists of…willingness to understand another’s point of view with an unprejudiced mind”);130 and that in any event a sincerely-held opinion cannot easily be dislodged (“It is difficult to combat an honest belief, however erroneous it may be”).131 But then why should one suppose that the alleged wrongdoer will be converted by the suffering of those in pursuit of an admittedly doubtful goal? On its own, self-suffering might induce some degree of pity but it surely won’t induce fundamental concessions. Gandhi makes the commendable point that if the goal turns out to be mistaken, one’s suffering will have done no harm to the alleged wrongdoer: “He does not make others suffer for his mistakes.”132 But it does not alter the fact that hardened self-interest or ideology will almost certainly stifle the voice, inner or outer, of justice. The point I want to make here finds vivid illustration in this passage from Gandhi: “Our triumph consists in thousands being led to the prisons like lambs to the slaughter-house. If the lambs of the world had been willingly led, they would have long ago saved themselves from the butcher’s knife. Our triumph consists again in being imprisoned for no wrong whatsoever. The greater our innocence, the greater our strength and the swifter our victory.”133 If the injustice is morally assimilable, then innocence can, and likely will, prick the conscience. But did millions of innocent Jews being led to the crematoria “like lambs to the slaughter-house” prick the Nazi conscience? It might be said that they did not go voluntarily—theirs was “nonviolence of the weak” (under the circumstances how could it be otherwise?)—but if the Nazis could morally rationalize the extermination of one million Jewish children—whose innocence of means and ends could be purer?—it is probable that they would also have rationalized self-immolation.
I will now illustrate these propositions on consensus, interest and ideology with Gandhi’s key political interventions during the period I have concentrated on for this lecture:
Discrimination and immorality. Gandhi expressly launched his satyagraha campaigns for social reform in the knowledge that a majority—however latent—supported his agenda. The point of the campaign was not to create ex nihilo a constituency, but through self-suffering to “quicken the conscience” of an already existent broad consensus, “cultivating and ascertaining the opinion” of this natural constituency, and thereby bringing to bear the “force of public opinion.”134 Thus, in undertaking to remove the “blot” of untouchability by opening the doors of Hindu temples to the Harijans (“children of God”),135 Gandhi presumed that a majority of Hindus supported such a reform but needed the stimulus of satyagraha—fasting, picketing, prayers—to act finally on their consciences: “The whole idea of my fast is based on the belief that a large section of the people favor temple-entry, but they do not voice it.”136 (To be sure, the campaign against untouchability turned brutal and bloody, Gandhi meanwhile declaring, “Loss even of a few hundred lives will not be too great a price to pay for the freedom of the ‘untouchables.’ Only the martyrs must die clean.”)137 Likewise, in his campaign to rid India of the scourge of alcoholic consumption, Gandhi banked on the
belief that “public opinion” could be consolidated around such a reform.138 When challenged why he did not also wage campaigns to rid India of other morally debasing indulgences such as gambling and the cinema, Gandhi candidly responded, “The drink evil has been recognized as such by the people of this land. But the other evils are more or less fashionable.”139 And again: “These vices were fashionable and therefore were not capable of being dealt with like prohibition. I claim to be a practical reformer. I know almost instinctively what vices are ripe for being publicly dealt with.”140 Put otherwise, absent a prior consensus no amount of self-suffering would move public opinion to do the right thing. Gandhi did also profess that self-suffering would “finally break the wall of prejudice”141 of those violently opposed to his social reforms—“the hardest heart and the grossest ignorance,” “the stoniest heart of the stoniest fanatic”142—and “melt the hearts” of those profiting from vice.143 Yet, the thrust of his campaigns was clearly to energize a latently sympathetic public via self-suffering, and utilize this “force of public opprobrium”144 in order to democratically overrule or socially isolate or force the capitulation of or reach a principled compromise with145 the diehards.
Economic inequality. Gandhi cast himself as the voice of India’s impoverished “dumb millions”:146 “I unhesitatingly say that I am a people’s man. Every moment of my life I feel for the starving millions. I live and am prepared to lay down my life to relieve their sufferings and mitigate their miseries.”147 He conceived swaraj as not just political independence (“mere transfer of power”), but “complete deliverance of the toiling yet starving millions from the dreadful evil of economic serfdom” and “independence of the poorest and the lowliest in the land”; “unless poverty and unemployment are wiped out from India, I would not agree that we have attained freedom.”148 He also adopted a stringent, austere code of what constituted just deserts in a well-ordered society: “A thing not originally stolen must nevertheless be classified as stolen property if we possess it without needing it”; “each man shall have the wherewithal to supply all his natural needs and no more”; “all amassing or hoarding of wealth, above and beyond one’s legitimate requirements, was theft.”149 Eliminating “the cruel inequality that obtains today” 150 constituted a prerequisite for eliminating societal violence: “A nonviolent system of government is clearly an impossibility so long as the wide gulf between the rich and the hungry millions persists.”151
However, as against the demand of Indian socialists and communists to expropriate large property-holders and nationalize the means of production, Gandhi championed the “theory of trusteeship,” according to which large property holders would be persuaded through nonviolent civil resistance to use their “excess”152 wealth for the betterment of society; “I do not believe that the capitalists and landlords are all exploiters by an inherent necessity or that there is a basic or irreconcilable antagonism between their interests and those of the masses.”153 I will not here argue the merits of Gandhi’s alternative,154 but rather the practicability of the means he proposes for realizing it. Occasionally Gandhi invests in the power of the laborers’ self-abnegation to convert property-owners from ruthless exploiters to enlightened guardians. The property-owners will come to realize after “kind”155 gestures that they should not “squander [their] gains in luxurious or extravagant living, but must use them” for the poor:156 “If we treat these rich people with decency, they would fulfill the expectations we have of them”; “If we win their confidence and put them at their ease we will find that they are not averse to progressively sharing their riches with the masses”; “We should struggle against them in the same way and for the same reason, as lovingly and reluctantly and with as much
respect and politeness as we do against our blood-relations.”157 Moreover, he makes out that the irrational “fear and distrust” of the rich are the sole barriers to reconciliation with the poor.158 But when pressed hard Gandhi conceded that no precedent exists for his trusteeship proposal and that it was based on a giant leap of faith.159 Indeed, aren’t
capitalists convinced—and, for all anyone knows, rightly—that the system is fair, rewarding the enterprising few and penalizing the slothful many? However, Gandhi also instructs workers to organize and mobilize—that is, to realize their latent power—in order to get property-owners to equitably distribute their ill-gotten gains: “What is necessary is that laborers or workers should know their rights and should also know how to assert them”; “When the workers are better organized and more self-sacrificing, their power would grow. You are not conscious of your strength and therefore you are oppressed”; “As soon as laborers are properly educated and organized and they realize their strength, no amount of capital can subdue them. Organized and enlightened labor can dictate its own terms.”160 If the “rich” cannot be persuaded “to become guardians of the poor in the true sense of the term and the latter are more and more crushed and die of hunger,” then Gandhi advocated “nonviolent non-cooperation and civil disobedience as the right and infallible means”: “The rich cannot accumulate wealth without the cooperation of the poor in society.”161 What Gandhi refused to acknowledge, however, is that although he abjured “so-called class-conflict,” counseling instead that “landlords and
capitalists” be “persuaded and converted,”162 his practical prescription ultimately relied not on the beneficence of self-suffering but on the coercion of raw (if nonviolent) power.
Aggression and occupation. In order to combat Axis aggression during World War II Gandhi advised conquered nations to lay down their arms and simply refuse to cooperate with the occupiers. Once the Axis powers realized that they could not make profitable use of the annexed territories without the enslaved population’s acquiescence they would withdraw: in the face of “quiet, dignified and nonviolent defiance,” the “tyrant will not find it worth his while to go on with his terrorism,” and “he would certainly have been obliged to retire.” Here was a tactic that made ultimate appeal not to the consciences or hearts of the occupiers163 but their balance-sheets, i.e., rational self-interest.164 Where achievement of Axis goals required not the cooperation but removal of the occupied
populations, or their outright extermination,165 Gandhi alternatively professed that self-suffering could “melt”166 even Hitler’s heart, because “human nature in its essence is one and therefore unfailingly responds to the advances of love.”167 Yet, if Hitler was genuinely persuaded of the necessity of lebensraum and the lethal iniquity of the Jews,
why should suffering allied to love convert him? Gandhi himself was apparently less than fully convinced of the efficacy of his tactic—at any rate in the here and now— for he also counseled Jews to go if need be mutely to their deaths, and believed that such a dignified demise would be their ultimate salvation: “If the Jewish mind could
be prepared for voluntary suffering, even the massacre [of Jews by Hitler]…could be turned into a day of thanksgiving and joy that Jehovah had wrought deliverance of the race even at the hands of the tyrant. For the God-fearing, death has no terror. It is a joyful sleep to be followed by a waking that would be all the more refreshing for the long
sleep.”168 Perhaps so, but if the goal was to melt Hitler’s heart in the promise of earthly deliverance, then self-suffering must be reckoned a colossal failure.169 Of course, it might be argued that whatever recourse European Jewry made its fate was sealed while nonviolent resistance would have been most redemptive.170 But that is a matter apart
from whether self-suffering is a viable tactic against ideological fanatics.
In this context it merits recalling that Gandhi’s nemesis in the epic struggle for Indian independence, Winston Churchill, was hardly persuaded by Indian suffering to dismantle the British Empire. Between interest-cum-ideology on the one side, and the suffering of the Indian masses on the other, the former proved decisive.171 “The English Ministers are pursuing what they believe to be an honest policy,” Gandhi acknowledged. “It is their honest belief that British rule in India has been, on the whole, for her good. They honestly believe that under it India has advanced.”172 Should it then surprise that— contrary to Gandhi’s expectations—the self-suffering of Indians manifestly failed to
touch British imperialists or that it failed to get “British commerce with India…purified of greed” and put on “terms of mutual help and…equally suited to both”?173 To be sure, although Gandhi spoke of wanting to “convert the administrators of the system,” he nonetheless qualified, “the conversion may or may not be willing.”174 And again: “to
convert them or, if you will, even to drive them out of the country.”175 In fact, he conceived the struggle against British imperialism in terms of making India ungovernable through a combination of nonviolence, which neutralized British bayonets by rendering use of them an embarrassment, and non-cooperation, which nullified British authority by
flouting it: “Whether we convert them or not, we are determined to make their rule impossible by nonviolent non-cooperation”;176 “If, notwithstanding their desire to the contrary, they saw that their guns and everything they had created for the consolidation of their authority were useless because of our non-use of them, they could not do
otherwise than bow to the inevitable and either retire from the scene, or remain on our terms, i.e., as friends to co-operate with us, not as rulers to impose their will upon us.”177 However much he professed otherwise,178 Gandhi did not endeavor to “quicken the conscience” of British imperialists but rather to coerce them, albeit nonviolently, into submission through “force of will.”179 But it is also true that he held out the hope of the “conversion” of the British “nation”—i.e., “public opinion”—through self-suffering: “I have deliberately used the word conversion. For my ambition is no less than to convert the British people through nonviolence, and thus make them see the wrong they have done to India” (emphasis in original).180 The imperialists might have to be driven out, but the conscience of the people might yet be pricked. Indeed, British public opinion could serve as a critical weapon for coercing dyed-in-the-wool British
imperialists to leave India.
Before answering this question, a few preliminary remarks are in order. Neither I nor anyone else has the right to tell Palestinians that they must renounce violent means to end the occupation. As already noted, during the Arab Revolt in the 1930s Gandhi asserted that “according to the accepted canons of right and wrong, nothing can be said against
the Arab resistance in the face of overwhelming odds.” I cannot see grounds for revising this judgment, except to note that the “accepted canons” today would mean the current laws of war (e.g., the inadmissibility of targeting civilians). In fact, if they cannot find the moral reserves to practice nonviolence, according to Gandhi, then it is not only the
right but the duty of Palestinians to hit back, and hit back hard, those who have wrecked their lives and violated their persons. Palestinians are not obliged to acquiesce in assaults on their human dignity; quite the contrary, they have a responsibility to defend their dignity against such assaults, nonviolently if they can, violently if they must. It might also be recalled that for Gandhi “no greater evil can befall a country than that it should lose its independence.”181 If I propose that Palestinians adopt Gandhi’s doctrine of nonviolent civil resistance, it is not because they should be held—or hold themselves— accountable to a higher ethical standard, but rather because of a compelling pragmatic insight of his. There is nothing violence can accomplish, Gandhi maintained, that nonviolence cannot accomplish—and with lesser loss of life. As a general proposition, it is obviously impossible to prove. Could the Allies have defeated Hitler had they resorted to nonviolent civil resistance, and with fewer than 60 million dead? We will never know. On the other hand, Palestinians suffered some 5,000 dead (1,000 minors) during the second intifada, and the Israelis 1,000 dead (160 minors). Apart from the dubious blessing of Israel’s redeployment in Gaza, Palestinians have little to show for the violent resistance; indeed, nearly all the reckonings after eight years of bloodletting fall squarely in the debit column. It is at least arguable that the balance-sheet would have been better
had Palestinians en masse adopted nonviolent civil resistance.
But didn’t Palestinians embrace this strategy during the first intifada, and didn’t it fail? True, the first intifada was overwhelmingly nonviolent,182 although Israel hardly responded in kind.183 However, it is fundamentally mistaken to reckon the uprising a failure. The surpassing courage, integrity, humanity, solidarity and sheer cleverness of the Palestinian people during those years—which I had the unforgettable honor of personally witnessing—threw the Israeli occupation army into professional, morale and moral disarray from which it has never fully recovered,184 while Israel’s brutal methods of repression caused it to suffer a public relations disaster of the first magnitude.185 If the Palestinian leadership under Yasir Arafat had not subverted the first intifada, stifling its élan and subordinating it to a dead-end diplomatic game, the outcome might have been different. As it was, Israel entered into negotiations with the PLO and subsequently signed the Oslo Accord because the intifada had rendered the occupation untenable except through the conscription of Palestinian collaborators.186
We have already seen that a crucial prerequisite for the successful prosecution of nonviolent resistance is a preexisting public consensus on the legitimacy of its goals. We have also seen that such a consensus has crystallized in the case of the Israel-Palestine conflict. The international community has enjoined Israel’s full withdrawal from the territories it occupied in June 1967 and a resolution of the refugee question based on the right of return and compensation. The challenge now—in Gandhi’s words—is to “cultivate” and “quicken” the conscience of this public. In practical terms, Palestinians in the Occupied Territories would have to rivet international public opinion on the brutality of the occupation by resorting to nonviolent civil resistance; in the meantime their supporters abroad must publicize the factual record showing that international opinion—whether registered in its most representative bodies such as the United Nations General Assembly, or its most enlightened bodies such as the International Court of Justice and respected human rights organizations—agrees on how to resolve the conflict, and that the only obstacles to its settlement are Israel and the United States.
It must be said here that significant lessons can be learned from the history of Zionism. The Zionist movement made sure that each of the documents that conferred—or appeared to confer—international legitimacy became a veritable household reference. Its leaders grasped how critical such legitimacy was in winning over public opinion and thereby achieving their goal. Were it not for the concerted and sustained campaign of Zionist publicists, it is inconceivable that a one-sentence declaration uttered 90 years ago by a nondescript British foreign minister named Arthur Balfour, or a United Nations General Assembly resolution passed 60 years ago recommending the partition of Palestine, would still command near-universal recognition. Israeli foreign minister Abba Eban famously said of the Partition Resolution that it was Israel’s “birth certificate.” He did not exaggerate. It ascertained that the State of Israel was not a bastard child of the international system but rather its legitimate and—at any rate, morally—irrevocable offspring. It might also be noticed that the Zionist movement never rested on its laurels. Just as it required discipline and organization to extract each of its certificates of legitimacy, so it also required tenacity to preserve these gains. Neither the Balfour Declaration nor the Partition Resolution came easy, and renewed battles ensued after both victories against powerful forces that wanted to rescind them.187 The contrast with the Palestinian independence struggle could not be starker. Each year the United Nations General Assembly issues the Palestinian people yet another birth certificate. The General Assembly is far more representative of humankind today than it was in 1947, and the vote favoring a Palestinian state is consistently lopsided whereas the Partition Resolution just barely passed. In addition, on nearly all the critical issues—borders, East Jerusalem, settlements—the Palestinians won a resounding victory and Israel suffered a resounding defeat in the 2004 Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice. Considered as a certificate of legitimacy the near-unanimous ICJ opinion manifestly carried far greater weight than the unilateral declaration of a British government. Yet—and herein lies the great tragedy—how many people even know of the annual General Assembly votes and the ICJ opinion? These landmark victories, achieved largely due to the inhuman suffering and superhuman steadfastness of the Palestinian people, have been criminally squandered one after another.
A massive mobilization of Palestinians building on the non-cooperation tactics of the first intifada (commercial and tax strikes, popular committees) could again make the Israeli occupation ungovernable. Is it so far-fetched to imagine an “army” of Palestinian satyagrahis converging on the Wall, their sole “weapons” a pick in one hand and a copy of the ICJ opinion in the other? The ICJ stated that the Wall was illegal and must be dismantled. The Palestinians would only be doing what the world should already have done a long time ago. Who could fault them for enforcing the law? No doubt Israel would fire on Palestinians and many would be killed. But if their supporters in North America and Europe publicized the ICJ opinion, and if Palestinians found the inner wherewithal to persevere nonviolently, it seems probable that far, far fewer than 5,000 Palestinians would be killed before Israel were forced to desist. No one writing abroad from the comfort and safety of his study can in good conscience urge such a strategy that entails so much death. But Gandhi’s point nonetheless stands: if Palestinians have repeatedly shown a willingness to pay the ultimate price, doesn’t it make sense for them to pursue a strategy that has a better likelihood of success at a smaller human price?
A high profile publicity campaign in the West complementing nonviolent Palestinian civil resistance in the Occupied Territories would enhance the prospects of its success. If the campaign targeted Israeli intransigence as the sole obstacle to a settlement, it would pave the way for making of Israel a pariah state, and then the implementation
of sanctions against it. The tenability of such a sanctions campaign depends, however, on international public opinion being first (or simultaneously) primed with knowledge of both the consensus for resolving the conflict and Israel’s refusal to abide it. Such a campaign also cannot possibly succeed if Palestinian goals do not command international
legitimacy, such as the occasional calls for eliminating the “Zionist entity” and embracing a “one-state” solution, which enjoy exactly zero international support. Again, innocence of means does not suffice; innocence of ends is also requisite. One might want to counter that the consensus is not the solution but part of the problem, and must
be changed. Perhaps so, but then Palestinians suffering under occupation should be informed that they will have to endure it for many more generations to come. For, it is no small task to reconfigure enlightened public opinion where legitimacy is largely built on precedent. Every call for a Palestinian state (including the 1988 Palestinian declaration of independence) has referred back to the unfinished business of the Partition Resolution. Where is the legal or moral precedent for dismantling the “Zionist entity”—the birth certificate of which was signed by the United Nations—or a “one-state” solution— which the Partition Resolution superseded? It required 70 years of Zionist colonization and organizational will, the Balfour Declaration, the League of Nations mandate, the Nazi holocaust, and the decline of the British Empire to create a global mandate for the Partition Resolution. It would take a comparable summoning of human and material resources, and fortuitous constellation and alignment of historical circumstances, to undo it.
A nonviolent civil disobedience campaign in the Occupied Territories garnering visible international support will almost certainly open up fissures in Israeli society. To be sure, the Palestinians will perforce be practicing a “nonviolence of the weak.” If they (again) resort to nonviolence, it will not be because they “love” their Israeli oppressors, but because violent resistance failed. It must be conceded that herein lies a drawback of Palestinian nonviolence. For, Israelis will not be convinced that Palestinians, once acquiring the machinery of a state and the accouterments of power, won’t use them against Israel. From the outset they will know that Palestinian nonviolence is not an axiom but—to quote Gandhi—“mere policy.” Nonetheless, Gandhi acknowledged that, although Indians themselves had practiced a “nonviolence of the weak,” the tactic was still able to produce positive (if somewhat limited) results. Those sectors of Israeli society cultivating a liberal self-image will perforce be shamed by the “force of public opprobrium” in the West. Many other Israelis will simply calculate on grounds of self-interest: if anarchy reigns in the Occupied Territories, if the occupation army gets bogged down in an intractable war of nerves with peaceful demonstrators, if, like South Africa and South Africans during the Apartheid era, Israel and Israelis are reviled
abroad, then the occupation is no longer worth the price. No doubt the diehards in Israeli society won’t budge. The self-suffering of Palestinians will no more “melt” the hearts of the ideological settlers and the generals than the self-suffering of Indians melted Churchill’s heart or the self-suffering of Jews would have melted Hitler’s heart.
But a critical mass favoring a full Israeli withdrawal presumably would bring forth an Israeli leader ready and able to pull out, just as in France during the Algerian war.
Gandhi translated satyagraha as “hold on to the truth.” Herewith is our challenge: to hold on to the truth that what Israel has done to the Palestinians is wrong; to hold on to the truth that Israel’s refusal, backed by the U.S., to respect international law and the considered opinion of humankind is the sole obstacle to putting an end, finally, to their suffering. We can win if we hold on to the truth, and if, as the Negro spiritual put it with cognate wisdom, we “keep our eyes on the prize, and hold on.” That is, if we keep remembering what the struggle—the prize—is all about: not theoretical fad or intellectual provocation, not holier-than-thou radical posturing, but—however humdrum, however
prosaic, by comparison—freeing the Palestinian people from their bondage. And then to hold on, to be ready for sacrifice and for the long haul—do I dare mention the example of Hezbollah’s heroic resistance?—but also, and especially, to be humble in the knowledge that for those of us living in North America and Europe, the burdens pale next to those borne daily by the people of Palestine. Whenever I harbor doubts about holding on, whenever I contemplate moving on in life, I see in my mind’s eye a dear friend and comrade who lives in Hebron where he is the field representative for an Israeli-based human rights organization, and hear his words in my head. My friend Musa, who grew
up in a refugee camp, told me once, “The past 38 years should have been the best in my life. But I honestly cannot remember a single happy day.” To forsake those trapped in abject distress would be yet more wrong. Where was the world during the Nazi holocaust?, we still ask. Where is the world now? Has the Palestinian struggle gone on too long? Has it become boring and passé? Has the time come to move on? But the Palestinian people continue to be ground under, the merciless Israeli juggernaut keeps pressing on, confiscating yet more land, demolishing yet more homes, destroying yet
more lives. The time now is not to move on—but to hold on!
The Caribbean poet Aimé Césaire once wrote, “There’s room for everyone at the rendezvous of victory.” Late in life, when his political horizons broadened out, Edward Said would often quote this line. We should make it our credo as well. We want to nurture a movement, not hatch a cult. The victory to which we aspire is inclusive, not exclusive; it is not at anyone’s expense. It is to be victorious without vanquishing. No one is a loser, and we all are gainers if together we stand by truth and justice. “I am not anti-English; I am not anti-British; I am not anti-any government,” Gandhi insisted, “but I am anti-untruth—anti-humbug, and anti-injustice.”188 Shouldn’t we also say that we are not anti-Jewish, anti-Israel or, for that matter, anti-Zionist? The prize on which our eyes should be riveted is human rights, human dignity, human equality. What, really, is the point of ideological litmus tests such as, Are you now or have you ever been a Zionist? Indeed, it is Israel’s apologists who thrive on and cling to them, bogging down interlocutors in distracting and endless intellectual sideshows—What is a Jew? Are the Jews a nation? Don’t Jews have a right to national liberation? Shouldn’t we use a vocabulary that registers and resonates with the public conscience and the Jewish conscience, winning over the decent many while isolating the diehard few? Shouldn’t we instead be asking, Are you for or against ethnic cleansing, for or against torture, for or against house demolitions, for or against Jews-only roads and Jews-only settlements, for or against discriminatory laws? And if the answer comes, against, against and against, shouldn’t we then say, Keep your ideology, whatever it might be—there’s room for everyone at the rendezvous of victory?
May we all, seekers of truth, fighters for justice, yet live to join the people of Palestine at the rendezvous of victory.
Norman G. Finkelstein
New York City
For extensive documentation, see Norman G. Finkelstein, Beyond Chutzpah: On the misuse of anti-Semitism and the abuse of history, updated edition with a new preface (Berkeley: 2008), pp. 323-55, and Norman G. Finkelstein: A Farewell to Israel: The coming break-up of American Zionism (forthcoming). For the critical background, see esp. Noam Chomsky, The Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel and the Palestinians (Boston: 1983), chap. 3.